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Materials writers’ miscellanyElements of visual design for language learners      Authentic materials & copyright         ...
Elements of visual design  for language learners             Cameron Romney             Center for Foreign Language Educat...
Agenda• Introduction• Typography• Page Layout• Graphics: Illustrations/Photographs, etc.
ConnectTheory and Practice        with  ‘Best Practices’
Do you know anything about typography/         page layout/graphics? Do you think it (they) are important?          Why or...
“Unfortunately, most of the materials made athome, no matter how good in content, areatrocious in terms of layout. In my e...
Visual design effects                  on readers•   Motivation    Smiley (2004); Misanchuk (1992); Bell & Sullivan (1981)...
Visual design effects                  on readers•   Motivation    Smiley (2004); Misanchuk (1992); Bell & Sullivan (1981)...
“...more easily perceiving ... text on apage ... less attentional resources arerequired for the process of reading. Moreat...
Typeface i.e. font
“The font is the cookiecutter, and the typeface   is the cookie.” (p. 29)                      Felici (2003)
What fonts do you know?Which ones do you use? Why? How?    What’s your favorite font?        Why do you like?
Categories of Fonts    Style                     Purpose                   Historical•   Old-style             •   Text   ...
Serif and Sans-serifBowley (2009), Bringhurst (2004), Craig (1990), Felici (2003), Kirsanov (1998),Lupton (2004), Madison ...
EM EM
Legibility vs. Readability
EM EM
Common Problems      for  L2 Learners
LC l and UC I
Katakana   and
Katakana   and
LC d, b, q and p
Lowercase i and j
Lowercase c and o
Lowercase f and t
Double story minuscules      Images from Wikipedia
Best Practices
Best Practice #1Use the font students are FAMILIAR with
“people most easily read materialprinted in the typefaces withwhich they are most familiar.” (p. 32)                  Hoen...
Copyright page
Identifont & WhatTheFont www.identifont.com   http://new.myfonts.com/WhatTheFont                              (includes an...
Best Practice #2set the typeface at a    LARGER size
• Less skilled readers benefit from larger text                      Carter, Day & Meggs (2006); Petterson (1989)• 9-12 pt ...
Best Practice #3Use a font with good    LEGIBILITY
“...it has long been an article offaith that serifed typefaces areeasier to read than san serif”                          ...
Best Practice #4   Don’t forget thePRINTING & COPYNG
Best Practice #5Use fonts with PURPOSE
Example
Recommended                Typefaces    Serif                    Sans Serif•   Georgia              •   Verdana•   Lucida ...
GeorgiaImage from Identifont
Lucida Bright Image from Identifont
Bembo Schoolbook   Image from Identifont
VerdanaImage from Identifont
TahomaImage from Identifont
Helvetica Textbook   Image from Identifont
Page Layout
Best Practice #1Use MULTIPLE columns withSHORTER lines
Theory“When long lines are set...thereis a tendency of the reader toread the same line twice” (p. 86)                     ...
Line Length Guides• 50 - 60 characters (White 2002)• 2 times the alphabet (Craig 1990)• 27 characters minimum, 40 optimum,...
Best Practice #2Use INCREASED  line spacing
Theory“...the reader has an effortlessreturn path to the left edge ... forthe next line.” (p. 115)                        ...
Best Practice #3 Use lots ofWHITE SPACE
Theory“Space attracts readers bymaking the page look accessible,unthreatening, and manageable”                        Whit...
Best Practice #4Use lines & shapes toORGANIZE the page
Theory“...directing the readers eyearound the page, drawing attentionto specific parts... breaking copyinto sections” (p.86...
Before and After
Graphics
Do you use images in your materials?         Why or why not?  Do images help students? How?
Levin (1981)1.Decoration      5.Representation2.Remuneration    6.Organization3.Motivation      7.Interpretation4.Reiterat...
Three types of images1. Active learning images2. Passive learning images3. Decorative images
Levin’s (1981) Typology of images Decoration         Increase attractiveness Remuneration       Increase sales Motivation ...
Levin’s (1981) Typology of images Decoration         Increase attractiveness Remuneration       Increase sales Motivation ...
Best Practice #1Only use graphics with INSTRUCTIONAL       purpose
“If instructional facilitation is nothighly probable, then ... graphicsshould not be used in instructionalmaterial.” (p. 2...
TheoryGraphics can be a distraction       Evans, Watson and Willows (1987); Peeck (1987)          Clark & Lyons (2011); Ro...
Best Practice #2Use as FEW graphics     as possible
Theory“The fear of ‘wasted space’ drivesdesign novices to fill in any emptyspace with unnecessary clipart.” (p. 37)        ...
Best Practice #3 Place the graphicNEXT TO the text
Theory“Split visuals and words have beenshown to depress learning” (p. 77)                  Clark and Lyons (2011)
Best Practices   Typography            Page Layout          Graphics     Familiar           Shorter lines       Instructio...
Thank Youromney.cameron@gmail.com   LinkedIn & Google+   @CameronRomney  CameronRomney.com
Elements of visual design for language learners
Elements of visual design for language learners
Elements of visual design for language learners
Elements of visual design for language learners
Elements of visual design for language learners
Elements of visual design for language learners
Elements of visual design for language learners
Elements of visual design for language learners
Elements of visual design for language learners
Elements of visual design for language learners
Elements of visual design for language learners
Elements of visual design for language learners
Elements of visual design for language learners
Elements of visual design for language learners
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  • Transcript of "Elements of visual design for language learners"

    1. 1. Materials writers’ miscellanyElements of visual design for language learners Authentic materials & copyright Cameron Romney Center for Foreign Language Education Momoyama Gakuin University (St. Andrew’s University) January 29, 2012
    2. 2. Elements of visual design for language learners Cameron Romney Center for Foreign Language Education Momoyama Gakuin University (St. Andrew’s University) January 29, 2012
    3. 3. Agenda• Introduction• Typography• Page Layout• Graphics: Illustrations/Photographs, etc.
    4. 4. ConnectTheory and Practice with ‘Best Practices’
    5. 5. Do you know anything about typography/ page layout/graphics? Do you think it (they) are important? Why or why not?
    6. 6. “Unfortunately, most of the materials made athome, no matter how good in content, areatrocious in terms of layout. In my experienceswith both publishers and students, I have cometo the conclusion that layout is just as important as...no, even more important than...content” Curtis Kelly, 1998
    7. 7. Visual design effects on readers• Motivation Smiley (2004); Misanchuk (1992); Bell & Sullivan (1981)• Comprehension Gasser, Boeke, Haffernan, & Tan (2005); Romney (2004); Smiley (2004); Walker (2001), Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997); Garofalo (1988), Lewis & Walker (1989)• Recall Gasser, Boeke, Haffernan, & Tan (2005); Smiley (2004); Lewis & Walker (1989)• Efficiency/Speed Smiley (2004); Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997)
    8. 8. Visual design effects on readers• Motivation Smiley (2004); Misanchuk (1992); Bell & Sullivan (1981)• Comprehension Gasser, Boeke, Haffernan, & Tan (2005); Romney (2004); Smiley (2004); Walker (2001), Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997); Garofalo (1988), Lewis & Walker (1989)• Recall Gasser, Boeke, Haffernan, & Tan (2005); Smiley (2004); Lewis & Walker (1989)• Efficiency/Speed Smiley (2004); Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997)
    9. 9. “...more easily perceiving ... text on apage ... less attentional resources arerequired for the process of reading. Moreattentional resources can then bedevoted to attending to the message inthe text, which results in deeperprocessing and an easier recall of theinformation presented.” (p. 185) Gasser, Boek, Haffernan & Tan (2005)
    10. 10. Typeface i.e. font
    11. 11. “The font is the cookiecutter, and the typeface is the cookie.” (p. 29) Felici (2003)
    12. 12. What fonts do you know?Which ones do you use? Why? How? What’s your favorite font? Why do you like?
    13. 13. Categories of Fonts Style Purpose Historical• Old-style • Text • Renaissance• Modern • Display • Baroque• Slab serif • Decorative • Neoclassical• Sans serif • Romantic• Script • Realist• Decorative Williams (2008) Felici (2003) • Modernist Bringhurst (2004)
    14. 14. Serif and Sans-serifBowley (2009), Bringhurst (2004), Craig (1990), Felici (2003), Kirsanov (1998),Lupton (2004), Madison (2003), Miller (2002), Misanchuk (1992), Romney (2004),Walker & Reynolds (2003),White (2002), Williams (2008), etc.
    15. 15. EM EM
    16. 16. Legibility vs. Readability
    17. 17. EM EM
    18. 18. Common Problems for L2 Learners
    19. 19. LC l and UC I
    20. 20. Katakana and
    21. 21. Katakana and
    22. 22. LC d, b, q and p
    23. 23. Lowercase i and j
    24. 24. Lowercase c and o
    25. 25. Lowercase f and t
    26. 26. Double story minuscules Images from Wikipedia
    27. 27. Best Practices
    28. 28. Best Practice #1Use the font students are FAMILIAR with
    29. 29. “people most easily read materialprinted in the typefaces withwhich they are most familiar.” (p. 32) Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997)
    30. 30. Copyright page
    31. 31. Identifont & WhatTheFont www.identifont.com http://new.myfonts.com/WhatTheFont (includes an iPhone app)
    32. 32. Best Practice #2set the typeface at a LARGER size
    33. 33. • Less skilled readers benefit from larger text Carter, Day & Meggs (2006); Petterson (1989)• 9-12 pt is standard for adults Carter, Day & Meggs (2006)• 18 pt for 1st grade, 14 pt for 3rd grade, 11 pt for 6th grade Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997)
    34. 34. Best Practice #3Use a font with good LEGIBILITY
    35. 35. “...it has long been an article offaith that serifed typefaces areeasier to read than san serif” Felici (2003)
    36. 36. Best Practice #4 Don’t forget thePRINTING & COPYNG
    37. 37. Best Practice #5Use fonts with PURPOSE
    38. 38. Example
    39. 39. Recommended Typefaces Serif Sans Serif• Georgia • Verdana• Lucida Bright • Tahoma• (Bembo) Schoolbook • Helvetica Textbook
    40. 40. GeorgiaImage from Identifont
    41. 41. Lucida Bright Image from Identifont
    42. 42. Bembo Schoolbook Image from Identifont
    43. 43. VerdanaImage from Identifont
    44. 44. TahomaImage from Identifont
    45. 45. Helvetica Textbook Image from Identifont
    46. 46. Page Layout
    47. 47. Best Practice #1Use MULTIPLE columns withSHORTER lines
    48. 48. Theory“When long lines are set...thereis a tendency of the reader toread the same line twice” (p. 86) Craig (1990)
    49. 49. Line Length Guides• 50 - 60 characters (White 2002)• 2 times the alphabet (Craig 1990)• 27 characters minimum, 40 optimum, 70 maximum (Felici 2003)
    50. 50. Best Practice #2Use INCREASED line spacing
    51. 51. Theory“...the reader has an effortlessreturn path to the left edge ... forthe next line.” (p. 115) White (2002)
    52. 52. Best Practice #3 Use lots ofWHITE SPACE
    53. 53. Theory“Space attracts readers bymaking the page look accessible,unthreatening, and manageable” White (2002)
    54. 54. Best Practice #4Use lines & shapes toORGANIZE the page
    55. 55. Theory“...directing the readers eyearound the page, drawing attentionto specific parts... breaking copyinto sections” (p.86) Dabner (2004)
    56. 56. Before and After
    57. 57. Graphics
    58. 58. Do you use images in your materials? Why or why not? Do images help students? How?
    59. 59. Levin (1981)1.Decoration 5.Representation2.Remuneration 6.Organization3.Motivation 7.Interpretation4.Reiteration 8.Transformation
    60. 60. Three types of images1. Active learning images2. Passive learning images3. Decorative images
    61. 61. Levin’s (1981) Typology of images Decoration Increase attractiveness Remuneration Increase sales Motivation Increase interest Reiteration Additional exposures Representational Make more concrete Organization Make more integrated Interpretation Make more comprehensible Transformation Make more memorable
    62. 62. Levin’s (1981) Typology of images Decoration Increase attractiveness Remuneration Increase sales Motivation Increase interest Reiteration Additional exposures Representational Make more concrete Organization Make more integrated Interpretation Make more comprehensible Transformation Make more memorable
    63. 63. Best Practice #1Only use graphics with INSTRUCTIONAL purpose
    64. 64. “If instructional facilitation is nothighly probable, then ... graphicsshould not be used in instructionalmaterial.” (p. 239) Misanchuk (1992)
    65. 65. TheoryGraphics can be a distraction Evans, Watson and Willows (1987); Peeck (1987) Clark & Lyons (2011); Romney & Bell (2011)
    66. 66. Best Practice #2Use as FEW graphics as possible
    67. 67. Theory“The fear of ‘wasted space’ drivesdesign novices to fill in any emptyspace with unnecessary clipart.” (p. 37) White (2002)
    68. 68. Best Practice #3 Place the graphicNEXT TO the text
    69. 69. Theory“Split visuals and words have beenshown to depress learning” (p. 77) Clark and Lyons (2011)
    70. 70. Best Practices Typography Page Layout Graphics Familiar Shorter lines Instructional Larger Increased line space Few is better Legibility White Space Next toPrinting & Copying Organize Purpose
    71. 71. Thank Youromney.cameron@gmail.com LinkedIn & Google+ @CameronRomney CameronRomney.com

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