Language testing and the use of the Common European Framework of  Reference for Languages (CEFR)           J Charles Alder...
Universal Principles of Language             Testing             Validity           Reliability           Washback        ...
Test Principles and Grammatical Tense:            The Simple Past?In many countries in Europe:• Teacher knew best• Having ...
Past (?) European tradition• Quality of important examinations not monitored• No obligation to show that exams are fair, u...
Past (?) European tradition       Teacher-centred       Teacher develops the questions       Teachers opinion the on...
Psychometric tradition: Perfect? Tests externally developed and administered National or regional agencies responsible f...
Validity• My parents think the test looks good.• The test measures what I have been taught.• My teachers tell me that the ...
ValidityNote: a test that is not reliable cannot, by definition, be valid• All tests should be piloted, and the results  a...
Reliability• If I take the test again tomorrow, will I get the same  result?• If I take a different version of the test, w...
Practicality•   Number of tests to be produced•   Length of test in time•   Cost of test•   Cost of training•   Cost of mo...
Washback• Test can have positive or negative effects• Test can affect content of teaching• Test can affect method of teach...
WASHBACK  Testing is too important to be left to the  teacher   Testing is too important to be left to the  tester   B...
Present Perfect?
Present Tense / Tension:           Practice vs. Principles   Teacher-based assessment vs central development   Internal ...
Exam Reform in Europe         (mainly school-leaving exams)•   Slovenia•   The Baltic States•   Hungary•   Russia•   Slova...
Hungarian English Exams Reform Teacher             Support Project• Project philosophy:  “The  ultimate  goal  of  examina...
Achievements of English Exam Reform      Teacher Support Project– Trained item writers, including class  teachers– Trained...
Achievements of English Exam Reform         Teacher Support Project• In-service courses for teachers in modern test  philo...
Achievements of English Exam Reform      Teacher Support Project– Developed sets of rating scales and trained  markers– De...
Achievements of English Exam Reform        Teacher Support Project• Into Europe series: textbook series for test  preparat...
Into Europe         Reading + Use of English           Writing Handbook             Listening + CDs        Speaking Handbo...
Post test         Item Writer                 analysis            Training       Marking       support                    ...
Good tests and assessment,following professional practice, cost          money and timeBut   Bad tests and assessment, ign...
Use and abuse of      the CommonEuropean Framework ofReference for Languages: Learning, teaching and   assessment (CEFR)
Hands up!• Who owns a copy of the CEFR – the Blue  Book?• Who has read it?• Who is familiar with its contents?• Who has al...
Outline•   Background•   Uses in various contexts•   Advantages•   Limitations•   Misuse•   Improvement and development
Background• 1970s work encouraged by the Council of  Europe• Notional-functional syllabus (Wilkins, Morrow)  – Threshold  ...
CEFR: comprehensive, non-prescriptive, reflection tool Common reference points + Common metalanguage Relevant to objective...
CEFR: comprehensive, non-prescriptive, reflection tool • Guides for users • Compendium of case studies • CEFR Tool kit    ...
Descriptive  scheme:  ‘action-oriented’Users as social agents: «members of society who  have tasks to accomplish in a give...
Descriptive  scheme:  ‘action-oriented’• Dimensions of communicative language  competence:   – general linguistic range, v...
Uses in various contexts• Case studies 2002 and 2004• Intergovernmental Language Policy Forum,  2007:  – “The  clear  succ...
Uses in various contexts• The usefulness of the CEFR rated at 2,44 on a  0-3 scale• The CEFR most useful in the domains of...
Uses in various contexts• Curriculum development  – Varying impact• Teacher education/training  – Wide spectrum of use  – ...
EALTA’s  Guidelines  for  Good  Practice1. What evidence is there of the quality of the   process followed to link tests a...
Example use of CEFR:     DIALANG      A European System              for             On-lineDiagnostic Language Assessment
What is DIALANG?• Computer-based diagnostic language testing  system• 14 European languages• Delivers tests across the Int...
COUNCIL OF EUROPE• DIALANG is an application of the Common  European Framework of reference• DIALANG uses  – Common Europe...
PURPOSE• to provide language users and learners with  diagnostic information about their strengths  and weaknesses and to ...
INNOVATIVE ASPECTS• first large-scale system for diagnosis /  feedback rather than certification• on-line, Internet-delive...
ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE     1                        3               2          Selection   Client                          o...
ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE   4         5        6      7                      F                      e Self-     Respond-   e   ...
SECTIONS•   Reading Comprehension (CEFR)•   Listening Comprehension (CEFR)•   Writing (CEFR)•   Structures•   Vocabulary• ...
LANGUAGES•   Danish        •   Icelandic•   Dutch         •   Irish•   English       •   Italian•   Finnish       •   Norw...
Feedback• VSPT  – score band and description• results (and self-assessment)  – CEFR scales and report on self assessment• ...
Example use of CEFR:      Standardisierte ReifeprüfungThe current Austrian Matura:  – Only one examiner: the class teacher...
The Reform• Began in 2007, obligatory use by law in 2014/15• Parallel reforms, coordinated by University of  Innsbruck, in...
The Reform• Rolling reform, first with 59 schools in 2008,  gradually spreading as schools or teachers  volunteer for the ...
Advantages of the CEFR• European: not American, Australian or British• Relevant to much more than testing and  assessment•...
Advantages of the CEFR• The CEFR claims to be comprehensive;• “...it should attempt to specify as full a range  of languag...
Advantages of the CEFR• Research-based:  teachers’  perceptions  of    levels and progression, Rasch-scaled• Descriptive S...
Advantages of the CEFR• Point of reference, not an instrument of  coercion, nor for accountability• Nevertheless, a force ...
Limitations of the CEFR• Not enough information for test development  – DIALANG experience• Lack of specificity as to how ...
Limitations• Limited empirical research to underpin• Based  on  teachers’  opinions  /  perceptions    about the level of ...
Limitations• All too frequently couched in language that is not  easy to understand, often vague, undefined and  imprecise...
USE and MISUSE• CEF   R• Yet politicians legislate levels for school-leaving (A2,  B1, B2), for University graduation (C2!...
‘Destination  B2 is the ideal   grammar and vocabulary   practice book for all   students preparing to   take a B2 level e...
Claims about links with the CEFR and                reality• Importance of CEFR in testing, training,  publishing and curr...
Results of 2006 SurveyCurriculum development    Need for further dissemination, guidance and training    Need to develop a...
Dutch CEFR Construct Project Web-based Grid for content analysiswww.ling.lancs.ac.uk/cefgrid
Problems with the CEFR•   Terminology problems: synonymy or not?•   Inconsistency?•   Lack of definition•   Gaps
Terminology problems: synonymy ?Operations at A2    Operations at B2•   Understand      •   Understand•   Take            ...
Inconsistency?• I can understand familiar names, words and  very simple sentences, for example on notices  and posters or ...
Lack of definitions• Simple, the most common, everyday, familiar,  concrete, predictable, straightforward, factual,  compl...
Gaps in the CEFR• The Task: what is it that candidates have to do  with text?• Test methods and the processing demands  th...
Gaps: Processes of comprehension• Focus on and retrieve explicitly stated  information• Make straightforward inferences• I...
Intergovernmental Forum• Language of CEFR needs simplifying• Training essential to avoid oversimplifications• Need to ensu...
Improvement and developmentMore research needed into the development of  language proficiency as learners progress through...
Some issues• How does L2 proficiency develop?• What are the linguistic features that  characterise CEFR levels?• How are t...
Some issuesThe design of tasks to measure development of   language proficiency  1. How can we ensure that we elicit targe...
Will the future be perfect?There will probably always be misuse of the    CEFRPoliticians will probably always lack assess...
Thank you for your attention! c.alderson@lancaster.ac.uk
Language testing and the use of the common european framework of reference for languages
Language testing and the use of the common european framework of reference for languages
Language testing and the use of the common european framework of reference for languages
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This talk was given by Professor Charles Alderson on 18th October 2012 at the English Teachers' Day conference in Luxembourg.

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Language testing and the use of the common european framework of reference for languages

  1. 1. Language testing and the use of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) J Charles Alderson, Department of Linguistics and English Language, Lancaster University
  2. 2. Universal Principles of Language Testing Validity Reliability Washback Practicality
  3. 3. Test Principles and Grammatical Tense: The Simple Past?In many countries in Europe:• Teacher knew best• Having a degree in a language meant you were  an  ‘Expert’• Experience was all• But 20 years experience may be one year repeated twenty times and is never checked
  4. 4. Past (?) European tradition• Quality of important examinations not monitored• No obligation to show that exams are fair, unbiased, reliable, and measure relevant skills• University degree in a foreign language qualifies one to examine language competence, despite lack of training in language testing• In many circumstances merely being a native speaker qualifies one to assess language competence.• Teachers  assess  students’  ability    without  having  been   trained in assessment.
  5. 5. Past (?) European tradition  Teacher-centred  Teacher develops the questions  Teachers opinion the only one that counts  Teacher-examiners are not standardised  Assumption that the teacher-examiner makes reliable and valid judgements  Authority, professionalism, reliability and validity of teacher rarely questioned  Rare for students to fail
  6. 6. Psychometric tradition: Perfect? Tests externally developed and administered National or regional agencies responsible for development, following accepted standards Tests centrally constructed, piloted and revised Difficulty levels empirically determined External, trained assessors Empirical equating to known standards or levels of proficiency
  7. 7. Validity• My parents think the test looks good.• The test measures what I have been taught.• My teachers tell me that the test is communicative and authentic.• If I take the X test instead of the Cambridge FCE, I will get the same result.• I got a good English test result, and I had no difficulty studying in English at university.
  8. 8. ValidityNote: a test that is not reliable cannot, by definition, be valid• All tests should be piloted, and the results analysed to see if the test performed as predicted• A  test’s  items  should  work  well:  they  should   be of suitable difficulty, and good students should get them right, whilst weak students are expected to get them wrong.
  9. 9. Reliability• If I take the test again tomorrow, will I get the same result?• If I take a different version of the test, will I get the same result?• If the test had had different items, would I have got the same result?• Do all markers agree on the mark I got?• If the same marker marks my test paper again tomorrow, will I get the same result?
  10. 10. Practicality• Number of tests to be produced• Length of test in time• Cost of test• Cost of training• Cost of monitoring• Difficulty in piloting/ pre-testing• Time to report results
  11. 11. Washback• Test can have positive or negative effects• Test can affect content of teaching• Test can affect method of teaching• Test can affect attitudes and motivation• Test can affect all teachers and students in same way, or individuals differently• Importance of test will affect washback
  12. 12. WASHBACK  Testing is too important to be left to the teacher  Testing is too important to be left to the tester  Both are needed, to reflect and influence teaching, validly and reliably.
  13. 13. Present Perfect?
  14. 14. Present Tense / Tension: Practice vs. Principles Teacher-based assessment vs central development Internal vs external assessment Quality control of exams vs. no quality control Piloting or not Test analysis and the role of the expert The existence of test specifications – or not Guidance and training for test developers and markers – or not
  15. 15. Exam Reform in Europe (mainly school-leaving exams)• Slovenia• The Baltic States• Hungary• Russia• Slovakia• Czech Republic• Poland• Germany• Austria
  16. 16. Hungarian English Exams Reform Teacher Support Project• Project philosophy: “The  ultimate  goal  of  examination  reform  is  to   encourage, to foster and to bring about change in the way language is taught and learned  in  Hungary.”  
  17. 17. Achievements of English Exam Reform Teacher Support Project– Trained item writers, including class teachers– Trained teacher trainers and disseminators– Developed, refined and published Item Writer Guidelines and Test Specifications– Developed a sophisticated item production system
  18. 18. Achievements of English Exam Reform Teacher Support Project• In-service courses for teachers in modern test philosophy and exam preparation – Modern Examinations Teacher Training (60 hrs) – Assessing Speaking at A2/B1 (30 hrs) – Assessing Speaking at B2 (30 hrs) – Assessing Writing at A2/B1 (30 hrs) – Assessing Writing at B2 (30 hrs) – Assessing Receptive Skills (30hrs)
  19. 19. Achievements of English Exam Reform Teacher Support Project– Developed sets of rating scales and trained markers– Developed Interlocutor Frame for speaking tests and trained interlocutors– Items / tasks piloted, IRT-calibrated and standard set to CEFR using DIALANG procedures
  20. 20. Achievements of English Exam Reform Teacher Support Project• Into Europe series: textbook series for test preparation: – many calibrated tasks – explanations of rationale for task design – explanations of correct answers – CDs of listening tasks – DVDs of speaking performances
  21. 21. Into Europe Reading + Use of English Writing Handbook Listening + CDs Speaking Handbook + DVD All downloadable for free fromhttp://www.lancs.ac.uk/fass/projects/examreform
  22. 22. Post test Item Writer analysis Training Marking support Test specification Live Textadministration mapping Standard Task setting Testing developmentBanking - cycle Peer reviewRejectionStatistical Expert Analysis review Central Correction Trial 1 Central Trial 2 Correction Revision - Statistical 22 Rejection Analysis
  23. 23. Good tests and assessment,following professional practice, cost money and timeBut Bad tests and assessment, ignoring professional practice, waste money, time and LIVES
  24. 24. Use and abuse of the CommonEuropean Framework ofReference for Languages: Learning, teaching and assessment (CEFR)
  25. 25. Hands up!• Who owns a copy of the CEFR – the Blue Book?• Who has read it?• Who is familiar with its contents?• Who has already heard of the CEFR?
  26. 26. Outline• Background• Uses in various contexts• Advantages• Limitations• Misuse• Improvement and development
  27. 27. Background• 1970s work encouraged by the Council of Europe• Notional-functional syllabus (Wilkins, Morrow) – Threshold – Waystage – Vantage – Learning target specifications• 1996• 2001
  28. 28. CEFR: comprehensive, non-prescriptive, reflection tool Common reference points + Common metalanguage Relevant to objectives + progress + outcomes Descriptive scheme / chapters + Common reference levels / scales Tool for reflection
  29. 29. CEFR: comprehensive, non-prescriptive, reflection tool • Guides for users • Compendium of case studies • CEFR Tool kit • CDs for Reading and Listening • DVDs for Speaking • Dutch Grid for Reading and Listening • Grids for Writing and Speaking • Manual for relating exams to the CEFR 2003, 2009 (standard-setting)
  30. 30. Descriptive  scheme:  ‘action-oriented’Users as social agents: «members of society who have tasks to accomplish in a given set of circumstances in a specific environment and within a particular field of action»General competences (knowledge, skills, existential competence; ability to learn)Communicative language competences (linguistic, pragmatic, sociolinguistic and sociocultural)
  31. 31. Descriptive  scheme:  ‘action-oriented’• Dimensions of communicative language competence: – general linguistic range, vocabulary range, vocabulary control, grammatical accuracy, phonological control, sociolinguistic appropriateness, flexibility, turn-taking, thematic development, coherence and cohesion, spoken fluency, propositional precision
  32. 32. Uses in various contexts• Case studies 2002 and 2004• Intergovernmental Language Policy Forum, 2007: – “The  clear  success  of  the  CEFR  has  significantly   changed the context in which language teaching and assessment of language learning outcomes now  take  place  in  Europe”• Martyniuk and Noijons Survey, 2006
  33. 33. Uses in various contexts• The usefulness of the CEFR rated at 2,44 on a 0-3 scale• The CEFR most useful in the domains of testing /assessment /certification (2,70 on a 0-3 scale) and curriculum/ syllabus development (2,66 on a 0-3 scale)• Institutionally, the CEFR most useful for examination providers (2,88 on a 0-3 scale)
  34. 34. Uses in various contexts• Curriculum development – Varying impact• Teacher education/training – Wide spectrum of use – Useful for defining proficiency of teachers• Testing and assessment – Support for a common reference – CEFR-based examinations attempted in most countries
  35. 35. EALTA’s  Guidelines  for  Good  Practice1. What evidence is there of the quality of the process followed to link tests and examinations to the Common European Framework?2. Have the procedures recommended in the Manual and the Reference Supplement been applied appropriately?3. Is there a publicly available report on the linking process?
  36. 36. Example use of CEFR: DIALANG A European System for On-lineDiagnostic Language Assessment
  37. 37. What is DIALANG?• Computer-based diagnostic language testing system• 14 European languages• Delivers tests across the Internet• Supports language learners• Institutional or private use, free of charge• Still widely used throughout Europe and beyond, 8 years after launch
  38. 38. COUNCIL OF EUROPE• DIALANG is an application of the Common European Framework of reference• DIALANG uses – Common European Framework – scales – self-assessment statements (modified)• DIALANG provides some evidence of their validity
  39. 39. PURPOSE• to provide language users and learners with diagnostic information about their strengths and weaknesses and to help them to find ways of improving their proficiency
  40. 40. INNOVATIVE ASPECTS• first large-scale system for diagnosis / feedback rather than certification• on-line, Internet-delivered, universally available, not restricted to a particular place or time• first implementation of CEFR in tests• first attempt at standard-setting – empirically relating test items and sections to the CEFR
  41. 41. ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE 1 3 2 Selection Client of section: enters D I Vocabulary reading A Size writing Placement listening L Test structures A vocabulary N G
  42. 42. ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE 4 5 6 7 F e Self- Respond- e EXIT assess- ing to d Selection Goodbye! ment tasks b a c k Another section/ language
  43. 43. SECTIONS• Reading Comprehension (CEFR)• Listening Comprehension (CEFR)• Writing (CEFR)• Structures• Vocabulary• no overall section (nor grade & feedback)• from beginners to advanced
  44. 44. LANGUAGES• Danish • Icelandic• Dutch • Irish• English • Italian• Finnish • Norwegian• French • Portuguese• German • Spanish• Greek • Swedish
  45. 45. Feedback• VSPT – score band and description• results (and self-assessment) – CEFR scales and report on self assessment• explanatory feedback – Why self-assessment may not match test result• advisory feedback – What you can do and how to progress, based on CEFR• item review
  46. 46. Example use of CEFR: Standardisierte ReifeprüfungThe current Austrian Matura: – Only one examiner: the class teacher – Teachers set tasks for their own students – Teachers mark the essays with whatever criteria they wish – No central training, no central monitoring – No piloting – No post-test analysis
  47. 47. The Reform• Began in 2007, obligatory use by law in 2014/15• Parallel reforms, coordinated by University of Innsbruck, in English, French, Spanish, Italian, Latin and Greek.• First foreign language (English) aims at CEFR B2 in Listening, Reading and Language Use (The Written Examination)• Second foreign languages (French, Italian, Spanish) 6-year and 4-year courses, targeted next (for 6-year courses, B2 except for Listening and Writing = B1. For 4-year courses, target is B1).
  48. 48. The Reform• Rolling reform, first with 59 schools in 2008, gradually spreading as schools or teachers volunteer for the new standardised Written Exam tasks.• Spring 2011, 300+ gymnasia volunteered for tests in Reading, Listening and Language in Use in English, French, Italian or Spanish• Standardised Written Exam obligatory for all gymnasia in 2014 and for all vocational schools in 2015• See http://uibk.ac.at/srp/
  49. 49. Advantages of the CEFR• European: not American, Australian or British• Relevant to much more than testing and assessment• Widely accepted• Levels frequently cited: A common currency
  50. 50. Advantages of the CEFR• The CEFR claims to be comprehensive;• “...it should attempt to specify as full a range of language knowledge, skills and use as possible…and all users should be able to describe their objectives, etc., by reference to it”. (Council of Europe, 2001: 7).
  51. 51. Advantages of the CEFR• Research-based:  teachers’  perceptions  of   levels and progression, Rasch-scaled• Descriptive Scheme and Illustrative Scales• Intended to enhance transparency in language education, mutual understanding and thus to encourage mobility
  52. 52. Advantages of the CEFR• Point of reference, not an instrument of coercion, nor for accountability• Nevertheless, a force for change and innovation, especially in testing and assessment• e.g. European Language Portfolio, DIALANG, school-leaving exam reforms
  53. 53. Limitations of the CEFR• Not enough information for test development – DIALANG experience• Lack of specificity as to how language proficiency develops• No reference to specific languages - but see reference level descriptions: www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/DNR_EN.asp
  54. 54. Limitations• Limited empirical research to underpin• Based  on  teachers’  opinions  /  perceptions   about the level of the descriptors and on that of some of their learners• No theoretical basis• Draws on Waystage, Threshold, Vantage, etc but these documents are barely different from each other
  55. 55. Limitations• All too frequently couched in language that is not easy to understand, often vague, undefined and imprecise• Has needed a plethora of accompanying documents to help users: The Manual, now in revised form; The Reference Supplement; Guidance on conducting case studies, the Tool Kit CDs and DVDs, and still users request more teacher training, simpler versions, more illustrative performances, etc, etc
  56. 56. USE and MISUSE• CEF R• Yet politicians legislate levels for school-leaving (A2, B1, B2), for University graduation (C2!), for migration (A1 minus to B1), for citizenship (A1 to B2)• How to establish the appropriacy of a level?• How  to  engage  politicians  in  a  debate  about  “levels”?
  57. 57. ‘Destination  B2 is the ideal grammar and vocabulary practice book for all students preparing to take a B2 level exam, for example the Cambridge FCE examination.Key Features: A well researched grammatical and lexical syllabus based on the B2 (Vantage) level of the Council  of  Europe’s   Common European Framework’
  58. 58. Claims about links with the CEFR and reality• Importance of CEFR in testing, training, publishing and curricula• Many claims of links to CEFR• How many claims are empirically based?• Who monitors the quality of the claims? – Council of Europe? – ALTE? – Self-monitoring?
  59. 59. Results of 2006 SurveyCurriculum development Need for further dissemination, guidance and training Need to develop additional level specifications, descriptors and scales Need for plans to relate curricula and/or textbooks to the CEFR empiricallyTeacher education/training Need for more dissemination, guidance and training Need for co-operation at international levelTesting and assessment Complexity of relating tests to the CEFR levels Need for more guidance and training
  60. 60. Dutch CEFR Construct Project Web-based Grid for content analysiswww.ling.lancs.ac.uk/cefgrid
  61. 61. Problems with the CEFR• Terminology problems: synonymy or not?• Inconsistency?• Lack of definition• Gaps
  62. 62. Terminology problems: synonymy ?Operations at A2 Operations at B2• Understand • Understand• Take • Scan• Get • Monitor• Follow • Obtain• Identify • Select• Infer • Evaluate • Locate • Identify
  63. 63. Inconsistency?• I can understand familiar names, words and very simple sentences, for example on notices and posters or in catalogues”  (page  26)• “Can recognise familiar names, words and very basic phrases on simple notices in the most common everyday situations”  (page  70)
  64. 64. Lack of definitions• Simple, the most common, everyday, familiar, concrete, predictable, straightforward, factual, complex, specialised, highly colloquial, short, long• Is  a  short  text  necessarily  “easier”  than  a   longer text?
  65. 65. Gaps in the CEFR• The Task: what is it that candidates have to do with text?• Test methods and the processing demands they create• CEFR is NOT a test specification
  66. 66. Gaps: Processes of comprehension• Focus on and retrieve explicitly stated information• Make straightforward inferences• Interpret and integrate ideas and information• Examine and evaluate content, language and textual elements
  67. 67. Intergovernmental Forum• Language of CEFR needs simplifying• Training essential to avoid oversimplifications• Need to ensure the quality of the implementation of the CEFR• How to avoid prescriptive use of CEFR and the scales?• Need for international networks and training to ensure proper application in assessment and curricula• Importance of national, regional and local contexts and their needs when applying the CEFR
  68. 68. Improvement and developmentMore research needed into the development of language proficiency as learners progress through the levels of the CEFRDesign and construction of learner language corpora linked to the CEFR, based on standardised tasksInvestigation of instruction aimed at the different CEFR levelsDiagnosis of learner strengths and weaknesses at the different CEFR levelsRevision and (further) supplementation of the CEFR
  69. 69. Some issues• How does L2 proficiency develop?• What are the linguistic features that characterise CEFR levels?• How are the abstract constructs in the CEFR to be operationalised?• What and how do teachers teach at the various CEFR levels?
  70. 70. Some issuesThe design of tasks to measure development of language proficiency 1. How can we ensure that we elicit target language features? 2. How can we check both what the learners are able to do and also what they freely choose to do? 3. How can we ensure that tasks at a given CEFR level are parallel? Is my B1 your B1? 4. We need banks of validated reading and listening tasks to illustrate CEFR levels
  71. 71. Will the future be perfect?There will probably always be misuse of the CEFRPoliticians will probably always lack assessment literacyGovernments will always want simple (simplistic) solutions to complex problemsBut relevant research is ongoingThe CEFR can be improvedThe Council of Europe might publish a revised second edition of the CEFR
  72. 72. Thank you for your attention! c.alderson@lancaster.ac.uk
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