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John 14:23 - Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words : and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him. Jude 1:3 - ye should earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints.
Siloam Inscription : Six lines carved in stone in the wall of the Siloam tunnel south of the Temple area of Jerusalem. Dates from Hezekiah (715–687 B.C. confirming the accounts of 2 Kngs 20:20 and 2 Chron 32:30).
The Location of the Siloam Inscription “ [...when] (the tunnel) was driven through. And this was the way in which it was cut through: While [...] (were) still [...] axe(s), each man toward his fellow, and while there were still three cubits to be cut through, [there was heard] the voice of a man calling to his fellows, for there was an overlap in the rock on the right [and on the left]. And when the tunnel was driven through, the quarrymen hewed (the rock), each man toward his fellow, axe against axe; and the water flowed from the spring toward the reservoir for 1200 cubits, and the height of the rock above the head(s) of the quarrymen was 100 cubits.”
Dead Sea Scrolls
The large Isaiah scroll from cave 1 of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Isa 34:1–36:2). Col XXVII
The Faithful Scribe
An example of the many fragmentary scrolls. This one is a Jeremiah text from cave 4 in Qumran, 4QJerc. Col. XXI (Jer 30:17–31:4).
This is a copy of the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Herver (8HevXiigr). Notice that the script for Yahweh is in an archaic alphabet.
Even the Habakkuk commentary maintained the old Hebrew script over the newer box Hebrew script for YHWH.
The New Testament
The earliest extant copy of the New Testament. P52 ca A.D. 100–150. It covers John 18:31–33 (obverse) and John 18:36–38 (reverse).
Discovered in the 1920’s and believed to date from AD 125
The Chester Beatty Papyri, found in Egypt before 1931: Here is a Pauline Epistle
P66 (Bodmer II, ca 200), the Prologue of the Gospel of John. Here is the Gospel of John preserved in a codex (book) with only some minor damages around the edges. It has 52 leaves preserved in their entirety with the remainder of the book in fragments.
Luke with Codex and Scrolls This 9th century manuscript shows Luke with a codex in his hand and scrolls at his feet.
The Codex: an Opistograph. Eze 2:10 And he spread it before me; and it [was] written within and without : and [there was] written therein lamentations, and mourning, and woe. Rev 5:1 And I saw in the right hand of him that sat on the throne a book written within and on the backside , sealed with seven seals
The “Big Three.” Codex Sinaiticus (Aleph) is named after the monastery of St. Catherine Codex Vaticanus takes its name from the Vatican Library in Rome, where it has been since at least 1481. Codex Alexandrinus was presented in 1624 to the English royal library by Cyril Lucar, patriarch of Constantinople, who obtained it in Alexandria.
Lord’s Prayer in Luke
The Gospel of John
And there are also many other things which Jesus did, the which, if they should be written every one, I suppose that even the world itself could not contain the books that should be written.
P72 (Bodmer VII, VIII, third/fourth century) with the ending of 2 Peter with the scribe’s concluding prayer for himself and the reader.
Codex Gigas (A.D. 1204–30). This is sometimes called the ‘Djävulsbibeln’ because of this picture on folio 290. This “Giant Codex” measures about 40 inches across the two pages and 36 inches high. The hides of 160 asses were required for its production.
Codex Guelferbytanus Pe a palimpsest with a Gospel subscript written in the sixth century (Luke 24:31–37) and written over with a Latin text from Isidore of Seville.
Greek Gospel MS 274: Tenth century containing the ‘intermediate ending of Mark’
An early commentary! A minuscule ms., Cod. 747, written in 1164 containing a catena of various Fathers (Luke 2:1–7).
Gospel of John in minuscule font
Fragment of Acts found in Oxyrrhynchus
Earliest Latin Manuscript from the “Old Latin” about the 4 th century. Codex Vercellensis, attributed to Eusebius, bishop of Bercelli. The order of the Gospels are Matt, John, Luke, and Mark.
Syriac: This famous Codex Syrus Cruetonianus is the first text to bring the existence of the Old Syriac version to the attention of scholarship. John follows Mark on the same page. It is likely a fifth-century manuscript.
An Armenian manuscript containing double parchment folios. The script is the “Mesropian uncial” and thus considered to be tenth century.
A Georgian Manuscript: From the Monestery of St. Catherine at Mount Sinai. A colophon claims that the codex was written in 974. The text is Acts 14:4–10.
A Georgian minuscule. Its palaeographical indications place it in the eleventh century.
The earliest texts which circulated among the Arabic-speaking Monophysites in Egypt were made from Coptic, more exactly from the Boharic version.
The Gospel of John in Coptic. Written on papyrus, this shows the text of John 2:12–20. The handwriting suggests that the codex is from the end of the fourth or the beginning of the fifth century. It is written in a dialect between Sahidic and Akhmimic.
Fragment of Acts in the Sahidic dialect of Coptic: Egyptian 5 th century.
Ethiopic: This is a vellum manuscript of the 13 th century. It contains Matthew 3:11–4:3.
Ethiopic copy of the ancient apocryphal book of Enoch (c. 1500).
Coptic section of the last quire of Enoch from the Nag Hammadi library.
Eighth-ninth Century Arabic vellum codex. The text is of Matthew 2:2–22.
Arabic copy of Tatian’s Diatessaron.
Ghothic: Fifth or sixth century. The Gauls were of the Danube and Black Sea area.
The Nag Hammadi books were discovered in Egypt since the Second World War east of the town of Nag Hammadi. When GosTom was discovered it validated a previous fragment of so-called Sayings of Jesus, excavated at Oxrhynchus in 1897.
The Nag Hammadi Library, a collection of thirteen ancient codices containing over fifty texts, was discovered in upper Egypt in 1945. This immensely important discovery includes a large number of primary Gnostic scriptures -- texts once thought to have been entirely destroyed during the early Christian struggle to define "orthodoxy"
49) Jesus said, "Blessed are the solitary and elect, for you will find the Kingdom. For you are from it, and to it you will return."
Manuscripts in England:
Lindisfarne Gospel c. A.D. 700. Anglo-Saxon interlinear (added about A.D. 950).
(the 9th century Codex Sangallensis contains a Greek text with a Latin interlinear (Luke 2:51–3.7)
Here is Archbishop Aelfric’s Anglo-Saxon Bible containing a curious miniature of the Creation of Eve.
A copy of the John Wycliffe (c. 1330–84) Bible translated from the Vulgate into Germanic English: the text of Acts 1 and the “field of blood.” Note the textual correction where “be” is inserted before the “MOUP OF DAVID.”
Alle ye that traueilen & ben chargid come to me & I schal fulfille you. Take ye my yok on you & learne ye of me for I am mylde and meke in herte: and ye schulen finde rest to youre soulis/ for my yok is softe & my charge liyt.
Beautiful Manuscripts of Medieval Europe
Codex Brixianus: An old Latin ms. From the sixth century.
In medieval monasteries, all 150 Psalms were meant to be recited every week, and so the PSALTER, a manuscript of the Book of Psalms, became a standard part of monastic life. The “B” is for “Beatus vir,” “Happy is the Man,” the first words of the first psalm.
Illustrations to Psalm 51
John 1:1 from the Book of Kells, one of the most splended Western manuscripts of the early Middle Ages. Origin: Scotland, Ireland, northern England?
Canon Tables: consist of parallel lists of numbers of Eusebian sections where the same episode of the life of Christ is related in several of the Gospels.
The Golden Gospels of Ephternach: Codex Aureus Epternacensis, contemporary to Otto the Great as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
The Armenian people of Western Asia were the earliest nation converted to Christianity. Their Gospel books, often decorated in gold and blaze of vivid colors, were cherished possessions of the Church and the community.
A Gospel Lectionary gives the readings for use in Church services. This is the opening of an eleventh-century Synaxarion, or Lectionary for the movable feasts from Easter onwards. The illustration shows the Resurrection.
The Manerius bible was made in France, perhaps in Troyes, c. 1180, by a scribe who identifies himself as coming from Canterbury in England. The initial for opening of Exodus shows the finding of the baby Moses in the bulrushes.
Gutenberg Bible A reconstruction of Gutenberg’s printing press reconstructed in the printing museum in Mainz.
Possibly the most outstanding contribution to civilization in the second millennium was Johann Gutenberg (c. 1400–68). He discovered and perfected the art of printing in the Western alphabet.
The Complutensian Polyglot: printed in 1514–17. Here the text is of Gen 24:50–62 with the Greek LXX version in the left, the Latin Vulgate in the center, the Hebrew text in the right and the Aramaic version with Latin translation below. The column on the far right shows the roots of the compound Hebrew words.
When the Polyglot was being printed (But not yet published thanks to Leo X) in Spain, the brilliant humanist, Desiderius Erasmus, was working with his own edition of the Greek Gospels around 1511.
The Johannine Comma 1 John 5:7--9
1John 5:7-AV For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.
1534 - From the New Testament published by Marten Emperowr of Antwerp "I defy the Pope and all his laws: and if God spare me I will one day make the boy that drives the plough in England to know more of Scripture than the Pope does." - William Tyndale
Tyndale’s New Testament Tyndale for the first time went back to the original Hebrew and Greek
After Tyndale's, a number of other versions were produced. Among them were the Coverdale Bible, the Matthews Bible, the Great Bible, the Geneva Bible, and the Bishops' Bible. In 1611 the King James Version was published to provide a Bible which could be used by both Anglicans and Puritans. Marginal notes reflecting any particular theological bias were removed, and the language used was that of the people.
The Authorized or “King James” version, published in 1611 was based upon the Byzantine “majority text,” and more specifically the Textus Receptus derived from Erasmus’s work.
Italics added in 1612
Streeter’s Stemma. Note the Byzantine text in this theory, arose during the fourth century through the recensional activity of Lucian of Antioch.
The 14 th century minuscule codex 109. Example of a huge boo-boo. (Luke 3:23–38)
So… this scribe produced a manuscript where the geneology no longer ends with “Adam the Son of God,” for God is now stuck in the middle, appearing as the son of Aram. The Source of the entire race is not God, but Phares.