Types of Protection• Physical Barriers• Software Barriers
Physical Access Controls• These refer to the procedures and physicalbarriers which prevent unwanted users fromaccessing a database stored on a server.• The most simplest of these strategies might beto lock a server room or a room with computerswhich have access to the server.• Some organisations employ full time security
Biometrics• Biometrics is the use of physical humancharacteristics, like fingerprints or facialfeatures. It can also include voice patternsor handwriting.• This form of security appeals to managersbecause it is nearly impossible to copy orsteal a persons biometric characteristics.
Swipe Cards• The most commonly used form of data protection.• Mostly used to authorise bank transactions, theynormally contain a magnetic strip which contains detailsabout the user and needs to authenticated by a PINnumber.• These are also used in organisations as a internalsecurity.• A door can be connected to a computer which allowsaccess to a user entering it if they have securityclearance.• Limitations are that they can be damaged easily andwhen stolen saved information can be easily extractedfrom it.
Anti-virus Software• One of the most vital strategies tosecuring a network is to ensure that thecomputers and servers have anti-virusloaded on their machine and regularlyupdate.• Anti-virus software reads incoming files,including emails and attachments for thepresence of virus signatures. Scansshould also be completed on computerswithin the network.
Firewall• A firewall is a device/software which islocated between a network and theinternet.• Its used to monitor the traffic trying toaccess the network, it will block or ask forauthorisation of any unfamiliar trafficentering the network.
Encryption• Protects data when it is being sent. It isthe process of scrambling data so that itbecomes unreadable. Decryptions thenreverses the encryption and changes thescrabbled data back to readableinformation.
Username and Password• This allows access into the network and ismost important form of protection.• This protection is only as strong as theusers passwords however. Users shoulduse capitals, lower case, numbers andnon-dictionary words to protect theirpasswords.
Access Restriction• This is where areas of servers arerestricted to only authorised users.• For example students at BSHS arerestricted to only accessing their own MyDocuments and a couple of other drives.• This is normally controlled through theNetwork Operating System on the mainserver.
Intrusion Detection Software• This software is used to monitor and makeaware any evidence of hackers using thenetwork.• Hackers use techniques common to the ITindustry and this software detects the useof these.
Anti Spam Software• This software prevents spam fromreaching the inbox of its employees.• Spam is not only annoying but it can alsocontain malicious software or containphishing scams.
Power Protection• A server can be damaged by a power surge.Over voltage occurs when a sudden surge ofpower is sent to a power outlet.• A surge protector protects against this overvoltage by standardising the voltage to device atall times.• A better form of protection is a UPS or auninterruptible power supply. It protects againstovervoltage but also provides 30 minutes ofpower if a power failure occurs. This allows forsomeone to shutdown the server properly andavoid any corruption of data.
Avoiding system failure• This can occur to to faults in powersupply, CPU, hard disk or RAM. In manyorganisations it is important that there isno disruption to operations at any time.• There are two ways to overcome this;1. Utilise a mirrored server.2. Save data across multiple servers.
Storage across hard drives• RAID Array - In a RAID protected system,fragments of data are stored acrossseveral hard drives, so that if one harddrive fails the other hard drives can piecetogether the missing data and rebuild thefiles using error checking codes.
Mirrored Servers• This is a more expensive option. Itinvolves having two servers which mirroreach other.• When data is modified and saved a copyof the data is sent to both servers. Whenone fails the data is simply retrieved fromthe other server.
Surveillance Technology• Packet Sniffers are diagnostic tools that monitor thecontents of packets of data being sent across networks.Packet sniffers are mainly used in workplaces to monitoremail and internet usage.• Desktop Monitoring Software sends an real time desktopimage to an administration computer. (Synchronise)• Closed circuit television can be used to protect the theftof equipment but can also be used to detect theunauthorised us of computer equipment.• Log Files - these are files stored on the compter whichrecord the activity of the user. The Operating systemstores internet cookies and internet history which can belater checked.
Environmental Concerns• This refers to issues arising from the area in which theserver is stored.• It could include• Heat issues which are resolved by installing an airconditioner in the server room.• Sand and dust. In some circumstances these are majorfactor that can effect the performance of the servers.Particularly in the industrial sector.• Fire and flooding may also need to be consideredprotecting from. Fire proofing and or providing fireprotection equipment.