What are the Principles of Design?Design is the organized arrangement of oneor more elements and principles (eg. linecolour or texture) for a purpose.Principles of Design are the basic rules orstandards that determine a good design,such as form, function, and aesthetics.
1. BalanceThere are three types of balance we need to discuss;• Symmetrical balance, or formal balance, occurs when the elements of a composition are the same on either side of an axis line.
Asymetrical BalanceRather than having mirror images on either side of the layout,asymmetrical balance involves objects of differing size, shape,tone, or placement. These objects are arranged so that,despite their differences, they equalize the weight of the page.
Why?• If a page looks unbalanced it looks unprofessional.• Then in your explanation discuss whether you used Symmetrical or Asymmetrical Balance and what elements on the page make up the weightings.
Unity• Unity as a Principle of Design, refers to the way similar elements are used within a webpage or several webpages that make up a website.• Each page of a website should have similar colours, shapes, typefaces etc
Why Unity?• A person who clicks on a link shouldn’t be left with the feeling that maybe he/she has left the website.• Similarly the same when a person scrolls down a page. Buttons, Headings, sub- headings, colours should be the same or similar.
HarmonyThis means that the colours and graphicsused on the webpage work well together.Graphics and colours work together well andthe page is visually appealing
Dominance and Proportion• Dominance is created through an element on the page standing out because of its colour, size, shape or the amount of negative space around it. Circles are often used to create dominance on the web which is predominantly rectangle.• Proportion can also be used to simply assign importance to elements on the page. The bigger the size the more importance is given to it. It might be a button or a column of text.
• Rhythm on the web is something that primarily resides in data. It is created through repetition of shapes and hierarchy of information. A webpage should flow from the top left hand corner to the bottom right This is helped by using proportion and dominance. Your eyes should be able to easily scan the page down for important information or images.
• Movement is created on a web page by using shape, tone and line to direct the users eyes to certain parts of a page.• Contrast - The most basic method of creating contrast is through color. But you can also have contrast with style (this is especially common in typography), texture, shape, and other elements. Contrast should be used to reinforce the priority of elements on a page.
Elements of Design• Positive and negative space• Alignment/position• Line• Texture• Colour• Shape/Form• Value
Colour• Colour can be used for different aspects of design. It can be used to help create a emotion, promote brand recognition, contribute to unity and help to create dominance and contrast.• When discussing colour in your tasks and exams, its important to discuss the colour in reference to how it improves the users experience. Ask yourself “Why did the web designer choose that colour on the page”.
Positive and Negative Space• The balance of these two creates an easy to read page with less clutter.• Negative space can also be used to create dominance or emphasis around an important section of a website.• Negative space is important when discussing a medium with a smaller screen size. A smart phone app would need large areas of negative space to allow the user to view content on the screen.
Alignment• Alignment of text and pictures helps to create proximity and rhythm of a web page. • Western eyes look for text to start on the top left so if paragraphs are left aligned it helps to create this. It also seperates content and can create a pattern of geometric square shapes which helps to provide rhythm on the page.
Line• Lines are used abundantly to divide sections of content or to join sections that are related to each other. On websites and in magazines we see lines used to frame photographs, separate sidebars and join articles together.
Form and ShapeForm refers to three-dimensional objectswithin a design, like a rounded edge or ashadow. On a webpage this might becreated using shadow and different shadesof colour.Shapes are two-dimensional. They shouldhelp to direct the eye to the content on thepage. Wrong placement of shapes cancause the users eyes to not easily focus onimportant content.
TextureTexture is a great way of establishing amood for a design. Whether you usethem subtly, or more pronounced, texturecan establish a feeling or conjure upmemories to the user. The most commonlyseen textures, apart from flat or smooth, arethings like paper, stone, concrete, brick,fabric, and natural elements.
ValueHow light or dark a particular element is canbe referred to its value. Value can be usedfor emphasis. Variations in value are used tocreate a focal point for the design of apicture. A light element on a darkbackground will be immediately recognizedas the center of attention, similarly for a darkelement on a mostly white background