Cell Organelles By: Jamie Kaplan And Terry Zhou
Nucleus <ul><li>The central membrane-bound organelle that manages or controls cellular functions </li></ul><ul><li>Contains most of the cell’s genetic material </li></ul>
Nucleolus <ul><li>It’s inside the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by a layer of chromatin </li></ul><ul><li>Main function is to produce ribosomes </li></ul>
Ribosomes <ul><li>The sites where the cell produces proteins according to the directions of DNA. </li></ul>
Cytoplasm <ul><li>The clear, gelatinous fluid inside a cell </li></ul><ul><li>Makes up almost 70% of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>All the functions for cell expansion, growth and replication are carried out in the cytoplasm </li></ul>
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>The surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded with protein-manufacturing ribosomes giving it a "rough" appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Its function is protein translating, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane </li></ul>
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Does not have ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>functions in several metabolic processes, including synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrates and calcium concentration, drug detoxification, and attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins </li></ul>
Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>The primary function of the Golgi apparatus is to process and package macromolecules such as proteins and lipids made by the cell. </li></ul>
Plasma Membrane <ul><li>Selectively permeable </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of mostly phospholipids </li></ul><ul><li>Found in all cells </li></ul><ul><li>Physically separates the intracellular components from the extracellular environment </li></ul><ul><li>Functions as the “skin” </li></ul>
Vacuoles <ul><li>Membrane-bound compartments within some eukaryotic cells that can serve a variety of secretory, excretory, and storage functions </li></ul><ul><li>Is found in large sizes in plant cells </li></ul>In a plant cell In an animal cell
Lysosomes Lysosomes are organelles containing digestive enzymes. They use these enzymes to get rid of unneeded food, engulfed viruses, and old, unneeded organelles, etc. They are membrane-bound, to prevent them from accidentally digesting the cell itself.
Chloroplasts Chloroplasts are plastids that supply a plant’s energy. They do this by combining absorbed sunlight with carbon dioxide and water, creating sugar. They are organelles unique to plants and eukaryotic organisms such as algae and certain bacteria.
Mitochondria Mitochondria are very vital organelles that transform energy within a cell. They are the source of most of the cell’s energy, and while from the outside seem rather simple, their insides are a mass of folds. Here we see a simplified model. Mitochondria in cells can vary in number from one to thousands. They are also unique in the fact that they have their own DNA, which resembles that of a bacteria.
Cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton is a network of microtubules and microfilaments, made of protein, and found in eukaryotic cells, as well as some prokaryotic ones. While not pointed out that often, it is vital to the cell for all the functions it performs. Not only does it support the cell and protect it to a certain extent, it facilitates cell movement both inside and outside the cell, utilizing cilia and flagella for outward movement and transporting materials throughout the cell.
Microtubules Microtubules are hollow protein tubes that are part of the structure of the cytoskeleton. They assist in many forms of cell movement and replication.
Microfilaments Microfilaments are thinner than microtubules, but serve much the same purposes. Like microtubules, they are sometimes made of keratin (the material that makes up your fingernails), and they serve purposes in various aforementioned cell functions. They are found just below the cell membrane, and are the main shock absorbers.
Centrioles Centrioles are barrelish organelles found in pairs, which duplicate when the cell splits. The older centriole, or the mother centriole, creates flagella and cilia.
Cilia Cilia have two main purpose. Some cilia are used for locomotion, while others are used as sensory organs, like bug antennae.
Flagella Flagella are longer and much less numerous than cilia, but serve much the same purpose. Most eukaryotic cells have only one or two, while prokaryotes and bacteria can have many more, and use them to move about.
Plastids Plastids are very variable organelles found in plant cells. Their main purposes are to store and create substance, and to initiate photosynthesis. They range from… … chloroplasts, found in many plants as a green pigment… … to statoliths, which detect gravity.