Dr. Kwame Emmanuel Build Better Jamaica Presentation at Caribbean School of Architecture, April 25, 2013


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Build Better Jamaica spokesperson Dr. Kwame Emmanuel presents an overview of Build Better Jamaica project, "Developing Design Concepts for Climate Change Resilient Buildings" at the Caribbean School of Architecture, University of Technology, Kingston, Jamaica.

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Dr. Kwame Emmanuel Build Better Jamaica Presentation at Caribbean School of Architecture, April 25, 2013

  1. 1. Build Better Jamaica:A TechnicalAssessmentKwame Emmanuel, PhDTechnical ConsultantInstitute for SustainableDevelopmentUWI
  2. 2. Climate ChangeHazard Impact Infrastructure ImplicationsSea level rise Coastal flooding anderosion, land lost, seawaterintrusionDamage to coastal infrastructureand pollution of undergroundwater resourcesCategory 4 and 5 hurricanes Storm surge, inlandflooding, wind relateddamageDamage to infrastructureincluding electricity and waterTorrential rainfall events Inland flooding Damage to infrastructureincluding electricity and waterProlonged drought Limited water resources Water supply restrictionsIncreased temperatures Heat stressCoral bleachingIncreased emergence ofvector borne diseasesIncreased energy and water use.Damage to coastal infrastructureby coastal erosion.Vector habitats
  3. 3. Climate Change Resilience• “Simply, it is the ability to survive, recover from, and even thrive inchanging climatic conditions…even unpredictable conditions” (The AsianCities Climate Change Resilience Network)• IPCC definition: social and ecological resilience.• Capacity of the natural environment to provide regulatory serviceseffectively.• Wetlands: flood control, storm and surge protection, groundwaterreplenishment, shoreline stabilization, carbon sequestration, and limits theimpacts of sea level rise and droughts.• Degradation = vulnerability• Protection = resilience
  4. 4. Physical Planning• “Planning is like preventativemedicine, whereas we have spent thelast generation focusing on curativemedicine. So, we have had socialupheaval, the diseconomies ofretrofitting infrastructure, and theavoidable costs of rehabilitatingsettlements after natural disasters,when instead we should have beenplanning for new sustainable urbansettlement and hazard mitigation”(Platt 2007, 6) .
  5. 5. PoliciesPhysical Planning• The National Physical Plan 1978-1998which includes the National Settlementstrategy• Development Plans and Orders• Development and Investment Manual• Vision 2030• National Land Policy of Jamaica• National Housing Policy andImplementation Plan (Draft) 2009Climate Related• Caribbean Risk Management Guidelinesfor Climate Change Adaptation DecisionMaking (2003)• Climate Change and the Caribbean: ARegional Framework for AchievingDevelopment Resilient to ClimateChange (2009-2015)• Draft Implementation Plan for ARegional Framework for AchievingDevelopment Resilient to ClimateChange (2011)• The Caribbean Catastrophe RiskInsurance Facility (CCRIF)• Vision 2030• Medium Term Socio-Economic PolicyFramework 2009-2012• Draft National Climate Change Policyand Action Plan (2012)• Draft National Hazard-Risk ReductionPolicy for Jamaica (2005)
  6. 6. Policies (Cont’d)Ecological Resilience:• National Forest Policy and Plan• National Policy on Ocean andCoastal Zone Management andAction Plan• Policy for Jamaica’s System ofProtected Areas• Towards A Watershed Policy forJamaicaThese policies seek to maintain theregulatory/ecological services ofthe natural environment.
  7. 7. Development and Investment Manual: Hazard Mitigation
  8. 8. AssessmentThreats• Development control encouragesillegal developments by enforcing acumbersome and time-consumingprocess for formal developments.• Housing policy and vulnerable areas• Economic policy and vulnerable areas:Mega-hotel construction, N-S Highway• Budgetary constraints and policysupportIssues• Disconnect between political agendasand climate change time-lines• Deficiency in the capacity at the locallevel to incorporate scientific data intodecision making• UDC and Ministry of Housing autonomy• Lack of identification, quantification andcoordination of future land userequirements and enforcement ofplanning regulations.• Inadequate datasets and data sharing• Impact uncertainty• Development Orders• Outdated climate risk consideration• Limited human capacity assessincreasing numbers of more complexdevelopment applications as well as formonitoring and enforcement
  9. 9. RecommendationsResilience Planning Principles:• Sustainability• Environmental conservation• Systems approach• Combination of top down and bottomup approaches• Integration through technology use• Decentralization• Dynamic and flexible• Support mixed land use (residential,commercial and recreational) withappropriate infrastructure.• Enforce the construction of highquality design buildings, sustainableuse of natural resources and thetransition to low carbon developmentin a changing climate.• Evidence basedStrategies:• Political sensitization• Public sensitization• Funding and incentives• Mainstreaming resilience into all sectors• Integrated planning• Sustainable community planning (SMARTCode)• Building guidelines revision• Rating system development• Squatter management• Research and data sharing• Course development and training• Pilot projects• Enforcement• Institutional rationalization• Capacity building
  10. 10. Integrated Planning• National Spatial Plan (NSP): an integrated planning tool with overall vision, goals,guidelines, development priorities, future land use requirements• Dynamic, flexible and web-based Geographical Information System (GIS), whichlinks spatial data with attribute data relevant to planning.• Overlaying of spatial datasets, which are managed by various entities with theresponsibility for environmental protection, infrastructural development etc• Land use zones:1.“areas zoned for development”2.“no build zones” (for example, extremely vulnerable areas andenvironmentally sensitive sites)3.“areas zoned for development with conditions” (for example, moderatelyvulnerable areas)• Parish or local development plans can then be developed and included in the NSP.
  11. 11. Rating SystemExamples:– The Pearl Rating System for Estidama (Sustainability)– Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)– BREEAM– Code for Sustainable Homes• Mandatory minimum rating linked to level of vulnerabilityin different locations / zones• Tax incentive to encourage maximum rating• Building conditions attached to mortgage agreements
  12. 12. The Pearl Rating System
  13. 13. Institutional and Procedural FrameworkReferralagencies,includingOPDEMNational Spatial PlanUniversityConsortiumPrivate sectorplannersInsurance Ministry ofFinanceNEPAUDCMinistry of HousingPIOJJIA, JIELocal GovernmentLocal/ParishDevelopment PlansDEVELOPERBank
  14. 14. “the next iceberg that we hit…isgoing to be climate change. Wecan see that iceberg ahead of usright now, but we can’t turn”(James Cameron, Director of theTitanic).