Child care from a global perspective ukPresentation Transcript
Child Care from a Global Perspective UK Brittney Papist, Jenani Arulpiragasam,Yanique Lewis, Janelle Heslop,
Developmentalist Sigmund Freud:
Lived and worked in Vienna
Began in the late 19th century till death in 1939
Worked as a physician
Interests in examining his patients minds while figuring out their physical symptoms using hypnosis, dream analysis and free association
Known as ‘father of psychoanalysis’
Famous for recognising influence of the unconscious mind on human behaviour
Child care fame: recognising the personality in later life with early childhood experiences, and the child’s relationship with their parents and caregivers significance and influence
Developmentalist Susan Isaacs:
Influenced by Freud’s work
She researched at the Malting House School in the 1920s and 1930s, observations were based on the children she worked with, in which she analysed the contribution of what play can provide for intellectual development.
This provided a theoretical foundation for nursery education
Recognised differences in children’s needs and abilities, identified importance of stimulating play, needing first-hand experience, and promoting all aspects of development.
Importance of the social world in children’s learning (social interaction and communication)
Examined how children’s writing develops from drawing objects to drawing speech
Developmentalist Jerome Brunner:
Studied how adults can scaffold children’s learning
Developmentalist Noam Chomsky:
Linguistic development research published in the 1960s and 1970s
Concluded that humans are born with physical and intellectual requirements our being needs for language which starts when the child matures.
Developmentalist Jean Piaget:
Observed his own children and others
Theory of cognitive development that identified that children go through stages in their development of understanding and certain experiences and age appropriate
The environment in learning is crucial
Developmentalist Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky:
Studies in 1920s and 1930s
Behaviourist Ivan Pavlov:
Famous for experiments with dogs
Became familiar with the bell before food was set and they would salivate at the sound before the food appeared, showing anticipation
This response is called classical conditioning
Behaviourist B.F. Skinner:
Basis of theories: work with rats who learned to press levers to get food, then food
This response is called operant conditioning
Underlying Philosophy (Canada)
John Locke (1632-1704)
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712- 1778)
John Pestal Lozza (1746- 1827)
Freidrich Froebel ( 1782 – 1852)
John B. Watson
Availability and Accessibility
Child Tax Credit
Free early years education
Cost may vary
Private schools, nurseries, nannies, daycare centers, preschool play groups, childminders
Affordable parents fees
History/Evolution of Service
History on Childcare In England
Early childhood care and education for young children began to emerge in England in the late 18 th century.
In (1816), the first nursery school in the United Kingdom was established.
In (1880), elementary education became compulsory for all children between the ages of 5 and 13.
In (1905), five women inspectors from the Board of Education investigated the admission of infants to elementary schools as well as the curriculum used to instruct them.
In (1911), Margaret McMillan (1860-1931) and her sister Rachel established an open-air nursery for poor children in Deptford.
By the (1960s), the decline in family size and the closure of day nurseries after the Second World War had reduced the opportunities for children to play with other children. At the same time, awareness of the educational value of play may have become more widespread.
In (1972), Margaret Thatcher, as Secretary of State for Education, presented a White Paper.
Throughout the (1970s and 1980s) , nonstatutory preschool provision was neglected and undeveloped. We do not know why?
(1994) Rum bold Report Starting with Quality and the Royal Society of Arts Report Start Right both stressed the importance of quality in early years education.
In (1996) the Conservative government introduced the first stage of a Nursery Voucher scheme.
(1997) , The incoming Labour Government abolished the voucher scheme and made its own plans for the development of early years services. The new government tried to raise standards and significantly increased public funding of early years education. The government provided direct funding to preschool institutions for part-time places for 4-year-old children and an increasing number of part-time places for 3-year-old children. However, the receipt of this funding for 3- and 4-year-old children is dependent on each preschool provision meeting government requirements for the regular inspection of preschool settings, in terms of the framework of Desirable Outcomes, now revised as Early Learning Goals.
History of Child Care in Canada
(1970), The Royal Commitions on the Status of Women Issued that we take “immediate action” on childcare.
More Childcare Centers that are safe and provide a curriculum that will inhans the learning in Early development.
In the past, Early Childhood Education in the United Kingdom has been traditionally child centred , as opposed to other programs which are subject centered and teacher directed, emphasizing individual children's interests, free play, firsthand experience, and integrated learning. [i] Recently, the government changed this approach, introducing a framework for early childhood education curriculum. Early childhood educators are required to follow a structure of learning, development and care for children from infantry to the toddler age. This facilitates many different learning opportunities and outcomes for the child and is called the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS). Sure Start Centres are there for the parent from pregnancy, through pre-school years, to primary school and offers many services.
Children aged 3 and 4 are ensured part-time free child care for up to 12.5 hours per week before entering primary school.
We know that in order to learn and develop effectively, young children require:
Safe, protected, healthy, stimulating environments with sufficient adult supervision;
Opportunities to explore their surroundings, both inside and outside the playroom
Chances to explore their interests and curiosities
Appropriate time for learning through play
Understanding adults to help the child develop healthy relationships, who are sensitive and participate actively in their play
Given these needs, children require a curriculum which:
meets their physical, social, emotional and cognitive needs at their particular stage of development
motivates and stimulates them, providing challenges at the same time
provides many choices, allowing children to make decisions
play and experiences this enhances these areas:
Personal, Social and Emotional Development;
Creative/ Aesthetic Development
Early Mathematical Development
Early Experiences in Science and Technology
Knowledge and Appreciation of the Environment
Some less commonly found principles in the United Kingdom focus on equality of opportunity, and respect for diversity.
Personal, social and emotional development
Children develop confidence and self esteem, explore their curiosity, recognize their own needs, and establish a [ i] difference between right and wrong. They also learn skills like dressing and undressing themselves.
Communication, language and literacy
Children learn speech development learning to talk clearly with confidence. They enjoy stories, songs and poems.
Children will develop math skills through stories, songs, games and imaginative play. They will become comfortable with numbers, making connections with ideas such as 'bigger' or 'heavier' and will be aware of shapes and space.
Knowledge and understanding of the world
Children explore their curiosity about the world around them through exploring and asking questions. They use different materials to build, and learn about everyday technology and their uses. They will find out their own backgrounds and cultures as well as about different cultures and beliefs.
Children develop gross motor and fine motor skills learning to move confidently, controlling their body and handling materials safely.
Children explore colours and shapes, by dancing, building and creating, story telling and making music.
Roles and Training of the Early Childhood Educator
Education in the UK
level 2 in Early Years
Care and Education
Foundation Award in Caring for Children (CACHE)
Level 2 Certificate in Child Care and Education(CACHE)
Level 2 Certificate in Pre-school Practice(CACHE)
Level 2 Progression Award in Early Years Care and Education (C&G)
Intermediate Certificate in Developing Skills Working with Children and
Young People (NCFE)
Level 2 Certificate in Contributing to the Early Years Setting (C&G)
Intermediate Certificate in Developing Skills for Early Years Practice
Education in Canada
Level 2 Certificate in Early Years Practice (CACHE)
Level 2 BTEC First Diploma in Early Years (EDEXCEL)
Parent/toddler group assistant
Toy library worker
Baby sitter/au pair
University or College (2 years)
Early Childhood Education Diploma
The (ECE) has many parts he or she has as being an Early Childhood Educator
Knowing the Health and Safety policies
Meeting a child's individual needs
Creating a good program and curriculum framework that is based on the children interests
Encouraging Development in all domains.
Know a little bit of the background and history that has to do with the family
Being able to communicate effectively with the Parents, and also being able to work with them
To continue to effectively learn and help develop the children so they get help in the domains that they are having a weak time in and being able to focus on what they need to develop and become better on.
Roles and Training of the Early Childhood Educator (Canada)