Bed bugs are “true bugs” in the order Hemiptera e.g. aphids, scales, cicadas.
Hemiptera is from the Greek hemi ("half") and pteron ("wing"), referring to the forewings of many hemipterans which are hardened near the base, but membranous at the ends.
Hemipteran mouthparts have evolved into a proboscis, sheathed within a modified labium to form a "beak" or “rostrum” that is capable of piercing tissues and sucking out liquids. Most hemipterans feed on plants, but some feed on animals.
Iron or brass bedsteads are better for controlling bed bugs than wood
Kerosene oil, gasoline, or benzene will kill bedbugs if forced into cracks and crevices with a feather or with a hand syringe. Sometimes legs of bed were placed into cans of oil or kerosene to prevent bugs from climbing into the bed.
A mixture of corrosive sublimate (one ounce), alcohol (one pint) and spirits of turpentine (one-fourth pint) painted into the cracks of a bedstead with a feather
Boiling water poured over the parts of a bedstead that have been carried where they may be liberally treated.
Sulfur candles for fumigating
Hydrocyanic acid gas –chemical reaction between potassium cyanide, water, and sulfuric acid, a deadly poison to human beings and other animals
Resistance documented to DDT, malathion, carbamates and pyrethroids
“ Bedbugs hide in cracks and crevices during the day and come out at night to suck blood. Hence, DDT spray must be directed toward their daytime hiding places. Apply the DDT spray to the bedsteads, paying particular attention to cracks in the wood and joins. Spray the springs and mattresses. Strip the mattress and spray all sides and the edges, especially any crevices in which bedbugs might hide and behind any loose paper where they might congregate ”.
Depending on bite intensity and frequency, there are typically five post-bite effect stages: no reaction (no or too few antibodies developed), delayed reaction, delayed plus immediate reaction, immediate reaction only, and no visible reaction (due to excess circulating IgG antibodies).
Typical symptoms include a raised, inflamed, reddish wheal at each bite site, which may itch intensely for several days. “Immediate” immune reactions may appear from one to 24 hours after a given bite and may last 1-2 days.
"Delayed ” immune reactions usually first appear one to three (up to 14) days after a bite and may last 2-5 days.
Humans who are frequently bitten by bed bugs may develop a sensitivity “syndrome” that can include nervousness, almost constant agitation (“jumpiness”), and sleeplessness.
If the inspection site is a hotel, it is important that the housekeeping staff be interviewed .
Efforts should be concentrated on dark, isolated and protected areas. Bed bugs prefer wood, paper and fabric surfaces and so these materials should receive special attention during the inspection process.
The mattress should be the first site inspected and the seams, beading, under buttons, labels, and corner protectors (if not previously removed) should be examined closely.
If headboards are attached to the wall, they should be removed. Removing headboards from the wall is important, as this may be the first place bed bugs will be found when the infestation is light.
Bed bugs can be found hiding in crevices along the mattress and box springs such as ticking, tags, buttons, and rips. The gap between mattress and box spring is a very good inspection site. Check crevices and openings along the bed frame.
Dark spots on mattress and other surfaces results from blood that has been digested and defecated.
As infestation grows, bugs may be found hiding further from the bed - behind pictures, baseboards nightstands, under carpet or wallpaper. Adjoining rooms may become infested.
Where to Look - Most Everywhere It can take 1-2 hours to thoroughly check a space for bed bugs. Be thorough! Light infestations are extremely difficult to detect.
Ability of Bed Bug-Detecting Canines to Locate Live Bed Bugs and Viable Bed Bug Eggs MARGIE PFIESTER, PHILIP G. KOEHLER, AND ROBERTO M. PEREIRA J. Econ. Entomol. 101(4): 1389-1396 (2008) http://sleeptightllc.biz/184846.pdf A well-trained dog and handler are 98% likely to find bed bugs where there is an infestation.
It ’s just bed bugs, big deal (in some areas of the world bed bugs are so numerous that babies become anemic from being fed on)
That isn ’t a bed bug!
You brought that in here!
I will call my pest control company right now.
Get it off! Get it off! Get it off!
I ’m suing!
Taking Precautions Don ’t bring bed bugs home with you.
Place service kit and equipment in an open area away from walls and furniture
Assume beds, furniture, and other items you are about to inspect or treat are infested and act accordingly.
Avoid laying across, leaning against, or sitting on potentially infested beds or furniture and minimize direct contact with any potentially infested materials such as drapes, rugs, piles of dirty clothes.
Bring a minimum of equipment into the room. If you carry an inspection kit or service kit, place it in an open area away from walls and furniture.
Remove your clothes over a non-carpeted floor and be ready to immediately capture and destroy any bug you see.
If you are concerned that your clothes might contain bed bugs, launder them in hot water as soon as possible. Take off your clothes as soon as you get home.
If you have been in a severely infested building or feel that you may have interacted with bed bugs, you may want to change and bag your clothes before leaving the site and have the clothes in question laundered (this assumes that you have an extra set of clothes available).
If bed bugs are found, the hotel management needs to consult a licensed pest control professional .
A written integrated pest management (IPM) plan should be requested from the pest control operator. This plan should detail the methods and insecticides to be used by the pest control operator and describe the efforts expected by the building manager.
Generally, pesticides will need to be applied in conjunction with any non-chemical means of control; non-chemical options should be considered as management tools only.
Good housekeeping practices and a reduction in possible harborages such as clutter, cracks, and crevices will discourage repeat infestations.
As bed bugs are good at concealing their location, complete control is often difficult to achieve with the first treatment. This is especially so with a heavy infestations; a post control treatment evaluation is always advisable.
For heat treatment to be effective, it is critical that high temperature and low relative humidity be attained for a minimum length of time (49-52 o C [120-125 o F] and 20-30% relative humidity for 20-30 minutes).
Heat treatment provides no residual effect, and bed bugs can re-occupy any site so treated immediately after temperatures return to suitable levels.
Laundering infested linens or cloth items in hot water with detergent, followed by at least 20 minutes in a clothes dryer on high heat, should kill all life stages of bed bugs but would not prevent their reinfestation.
Exposure to low temperatures can kill bed bugs if they are kept cold enough long enough.
Bed bugs can tolerate -15 o C (5 o F) for short periods and, if acclimated, they can survive at or below 0 o C (32 o F) continuously for several days.
Freezing furniture or other items within containers or chambers [e.g., below 0 o F (-19 o C) for at least four days] may be a practical alternative for limited infestations or to augment other control measures.
A new commercial technology uses CO 2 from cylinders deposited as a “snow” to kill bed bugs and a variety of pests by rapid freezing.
Pesticides - THE LABEL IS THE LAW Currently, non-chemical products and techniques are incapable of efficiently or quickly controlling or eliminating established bed bug populations. Precise placement of a suitably labeled, registered and formulated chemical insecticide is still the most effective bed bug control. The choice of chemical products and specific application techniques can depend on many factors, including the physical location and structural details of the bugs ’ harborages, the product’s labels (which can vary by political jurisdiction), the immediate environment, and local or national laws.
Many times the first application does not seem to give complete or immediate control. Additional treatments may be necessary in 7 to 14 days.
At least one follow-up inspection of infested sites should be conducted at a suitable interval (e.g., 1 week) after each control effort or treatment in order to detect any of the typical signs of continued infestation, such as live bugs, cast skins (after those present earlier had been removed), fecal spots on bed linens or harborages, and unhatched eggs.
What about bed bugs in schools? http://web.pccs.k12.mi.us/schoolhealth/pdf/bed-bug-school-response-flowchart.pdf