Pres Standards Codes


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Pres Standards Codes

  1. 1. Cast Stone Codes and Standards “ Let’s Begin”
  2. 2. Cast Stone Codes and Standards <ul><li>Cast Stone Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cast Stone History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose of Cast Stone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits of Cast Stone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producing Cast Stone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Code History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose of Codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complying with Codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liability Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cast Stone Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closing </li></ul>Table of Contents
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>What would the world be without standards and codes. I would say we would all be doing at least 100 mph on the highway but who's to say there would even be a highway. Maybe the highway would be so congested you wouldn’t even be able to move. </li></ul>As you all know standards and codes are in place for a reason. Throughout this presentation we will teach you about Cast Stone, the many uses for it, it’s Specifications and much more. Cast Stone Introduction
  4. 4. Cast Stone Introduction Cast Stone History What is Cast Stone? Dry Tamp Cast Stone is a mix of fine aggregates, water & cement that is compacted into a form, finished & cured to create a man-made limestone. It is cost effective and an aesthetic building material.
  5. 5. Cast Stone History <ul><li>How long does it last? </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the oldest monuments still in around were built with cast stone as many as 2,500 years ago. </li></ul>Cast Stone Introduction
  6. 6. Cast Stone History <ul><li>There are two different ways to make cast stone, dry tamp and wet poured. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between dry tamped and wet poured cast stone? Structural Concrete? Calcium Silicate? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Dry tamped cast stone is the only one that truly does look just like limestone </li></ul><ul><li>and will last in all weather conditions. Hi volume fast and less money. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Wet pour sometimes called architectural pre-cast stone has visible seams and </li></ul><ul><li>bug holes. Can be made structural. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Structural pre-cast concrete is colored concrete, not stone. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Calcium silicate has a very high water absorption value and cannot be used at </li></ul><ul><li>grade or in freeze-thaw climates. </li></ul>Cast Stone Introduction
  7. 7. Purpose of Cast Stone Cast Stone Introduction Cast Stone will add style to any area of a home, sense the product is fairly new to the market it gives the user the ability to have a very unique house that will stand out amongst any other houses close to it. Cast Stone is mainly used as intricate columns, veneers, balustrades, fireplaces, window and door surrounds and more.
  8. 8. Purpose of Cast Stone Cast Stone Introduction Cast Stone is a great building product that can be Molded and cast into any shape
  9. 9. Purpose of Cast Stone Cast Stone Introduction Cast Stone can be used anywhere from coast to coast
  10. 10. Benefits of Cast Stone Cast Stone Benefits the User For the Mason - Cast Stone is a great reliable product that is easy to install and fits together like a puzzle. For the Builder - Cast Stone is a quality product that will help your job site run smoothly. For the Architect - Cast Stone is a great way to turn those detailed ideas into reality. By using cast stone your possibilities are close to endless. Cast Stone Introduction
  11. 11. Producing Cast Stone Cast Stone Introduction Cast Stone is produced at a 6,500 psi, dry tamped stone that very closely resembles natural cut limestone that lasts for generations. In fact, unless you work in this industry, you’ll be hard pressed to tell the difference. It tests less than 6% water absorption, which means you, can use it at grade and it has excellent freeze/thaw capabilities.
  12. 12. Cast Stone Introduction We have established that Cast Stone is a great building product. When it comes to building period it is extremely important to pay attention to Codes involved when using Cast Stone. CODES
  13. 13. Codes What are Codes? defines a code as any set of standards set forth and enforced by a local government agency for the protection of public safety, health, etc., as in the structural safety of buildings (building code), health requirements for plumbing, ventilation, etc. (sanitary or health code), and the specifications for fire escapes or exits (fire code).
  14. 14. Codes <ul><li>Building codes have a long history. What is generally accepted as the first building code was in the Code of Hammurabi (c.1760 BC) which specified: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>229. If a builder builds a house for someone, and does not construct it properly, and the house which he built falls in and kills its owner, then that builder shall be put to death. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>230. If it kills the son of the owner, the son of that builder shall be put to death. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>231. If it kills a slave of the owner, then he shall pay, slave for slave, to the owner of the house. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>232. If it ruins goods, he shall make compensation for all that has been ruined, and inasmuch as he did not construct properly this house which he built and it fell, he shall re-erect the house from his own means. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>233. If a builder builds a house for someone, even though he has not yet completed it; if then the walls seem toppling, the builder must make the walls solid from his own means. </li></ul></ul>Code History
  15. 15. Codes Purpose of Codes <ul><li>Building codes have always had one basic purpose, to minimize the possibility of danger and injury to people who own or otherwise use buildings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stone is very heavy, if it is not installed properly it could fall and hurt or kill someone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(A single 4” x 4” x 3ft flat piece of cast stone is 42 lbs..) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improperly installed stairs could lead to tripping and dangerous falls. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Badly installed stone could require costly repairs or significantly reduce property values </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Codes <ul><li>Most local governments enact their own set of codes, but will follow a standard Model Building Code, such as the the 1997 Uniform Building Code or the 2000 International Building Code. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These Model Codes are the result of efforts to standardize building codes first began in the early 1900’s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique municipal building codes increase costs, and complexity of installation this means that while most building codes will be very similar, but there will also be differences unique to each jurisdiction. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Check with your local city hall to see who has jurisdiction over your project) </li></ul>Purpose of Codes
  17. 17. Codes Common Codes <ul><li>Building codes will specify many construction details, such as... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods and hardware used to attach stone to a structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stair Dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The distance between balusters </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Common Codes Codes Here is an example of a common code balconies and stairs that are over 48 inches above ground (this may vary according to district) must comply with the “Ball Code” . The ball code refers to the maximum diameter of a hypothetical ball that measures the maximum allowable gap between balusters. The ball mimics a small child’s head. The idea goes that if a child’s head can pass between balusters, a chance exists that the child’s body can also pass through. Check local building codes for Ball Code requirements pertaining to your specific installation.
  19. 19. Common Codes Codes Note that in historically correct architecture balustrade spacing may not meet ball code and a variance to be esthetically correct will not be granted. One solution is the insertion of small bronze spindles between balusters . This can be done during installation. Holes drilled between balusters allows the metal spindles to be inserted during the assembly allowing greater spacing between balusters and still meet the required ball code. The spindles are hardly noticeable from a distance and add an interesting detail to the overall effect. In the end we have an esthetically appealing alternative to help maintain a classical spacing and still meet the legal requirements.
  20. 20. Codes Common Codes While making your plans draw them to your code. Better yet, know the codes before you start to draw plans.
  21. 21. Codes Complying with Codes Typical install methods Typical anchors/mechanical fasteners
  22. 22. Liability Issues Builder mason arch liability issues Codes Just like in Hammurabi’s time, a builder or installer that installs cast stone, or any building material, that is not up to code, could quite easily have to remove and reinstall the offending product, out of their own pocket. Should anyone be hurt or killed by the improperly installed stone, the offender will be held liable for the injuries. The penalties are severe fines at the very least, and could include considerable prison time.
  23. 23. Liability Issues Codes Sutyagin House, Arkhangelsk, Russia: Standing tall., Wednesday 07 Mar 2007 This is an extreme case of code violations. This home in Archangel, Russia was supposedly the tallest all-wooden home in the world. It was built without plans or any concern for local codes. It was seen as unsafe for use, and was demolished.
  24. 24. Codes You have your industry standards and your specified standards It is important when choosing a cast stone manufacture that they comply with the standards set by the industry These codes are the governments, and therefor society’s way of preventing unsafe construction practices, whether through incompetence or intentional reasons. The building industry has it’s own set of specifications. These standards do not have the force of law behind them, but the industry does have sanctions that keep manufacturers from ignoring the rules.
  25. 25. Standards What are Standards? defines of a Standard as something considered by an authority or by general consent as a basis of comparison; an approved model. Standards are nothing more, and nothing less, than doing things a consistent way. They are all around us. For instance, a GE light bulb will fit in a Sylvania socket, and vice versa, because the thread size for light bulbs in this country is standard. Automobiles are full of standards too. Imagine flying into Chicago and having the lady at the Hertz counter tell you &quot;Good Evening, Mr. McCorkle. Your car is ready. Oh, by the way, here in Illinois the brake is on the right and the accelerator is on the left. Be careful - it's starting to snow.”
  26. 26. Standards Cast Stone Standards Standards Cast Stone Standards can be found through the American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM. ASTM International is one of the largest voluntary standards development organizations in the world-a trusted source for technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services. Known for their high technical quality and market relevancy, ASTM International standards have an important role in the information infrastructure that guides design, manufacturing and trade in the global economy.
  27. 27. Standards Cast Stone Standards Quality Assurance Manufacturer Qualifications: Manufacturer shall have sufficient plant facilities to produce the shapes, quantities and size of Cast Stone required in accordance with the project schedule. Manufacturer shall submit a written list of projects similar in scope and at least three (3) years of age, along with owner, architect and contractor references.
  28. 28. Standards Cast Stone Standards Submittal Procedures Comply with Section 01 33 00 – Submittal Procedures. Samples: Submit pieces of the Cast Stone that are representative of the general range of finish and color proposed to be furnished for the project. Test results: Submit manufacturers test results of Cast Stone previously made by the manufacturer. Shop Drawings: Submit manufacturers shop drawings including profiles, cross-sections, reinforcement, exposed faces, arrangement of joints (optional for standard or semi-custom installations), anchoring methods, anchors (if required), annotation of stone types and their location.
  29. 29. Standards Cast Stone Standards Physical properties Provide the following: Compressive Strength - ASTM C 1194: 6,500 psi (45 Mpa) minimum for products at 28 days. Absorption - ASTM C 1195: 6% maximum by the cold water method, or 10% maximum by the boiling method for products at 28 days. Air Content – ASTM C173 or C 231, for wet cast product shall be 4-8% for units exposed to freeze-thaw environments. Air entrainment is not required for VDT products. Freeze-thaw – ASTM C 1364: The CPWL shall be less than 5% after 300 cycles of freezing and thawing. Linear Shrinkage – ASTM C 426: Shrinkage shall not exceed 0.065%.
  30. 30. Standards Cast Stone Standards Product Specifications Test compressive strength and absorption from specimens selected at random from plant production. Samples shall be taken and tested from every 500 (14 m3) cubic feet of product produced. Tests should be performed in accordance with ASTM C 1194 and C 1195. New and existing mix designs shall be tested for strength and absorption compliance prior to producing units.
  31. 31. Standards Cast Stone Standards Cast Stone Tolerances Typical dimensional tolerances for Cast Stone are the numerically greater of plus or minus 1/8&quot; and length/360. This applies to all sectional dimensions: length, twist, square and camber. Dowel hole and insert locations in the formed sides of pieces can be cast fairly accurately, within 1/8&quot;. Additional tolerance, totaling 3/8&quot;, must be allowed when the are located in the back or unformed side. When assessing individual stones for tolerance, the setting tolerances of plus or minus 1/8&quot; (allowable out of plane from adjacent unit) must also be taken into consideration as shown. This tolerance also applies to flashing grooves, false joints and similar reliefs.
  32. 32. Standards Cast Stone Standards Cast Stone Colors All surfaces intended to be exposed to view shall have a fine-grained texture similar to natural stone, with no air voids in excess of 1/32 in. (0.8 mm) and the density of such voids shall be less than 3 occurrences per any 1 in.2 (25 mm2) and not obvious under direct daylight illumination at a 5 ft (1.5m) distance. Units shall exhibit a texture approximately equal to the approved sample when viewed under direct daylight illumination at a 10 ft (3 m) distance. ASTM D 2244 permissible variation in color between units of comparable age subjected to similar weathering exposure. Total color difference – not greater than 6 units. Total hue difference – not greater than 2 units. Colors Three standard colors for cast stone are Tan, Buff and White. Tan and White stone is comparable to Indiana limestone, while Buff resembles the limestone indigenous to Texas.
  33. 33. Faux Finishes Faux finishing is the term used for decorative painting techniques. Stone washing , color washing , smooshing , and ragging off , are the most popular finishes we recommend to our clients. These techniques are so popular because they are simple and inexpensive, and give a truly customized look to your stone products. These ideas are simple to execute, and even easier to correct if mistakes are made; simply repaint, and start over. Standards Cast Stone Standards
  34. 34. Standards Cast Stone Standards Joint Issues Setting: 1. Drench cast stone components with clear, running water just prior to setting to enhance capillary action. 2. Do no use tools or other equipment in a manner that could damage cast stone pieces. 3. Fill dowel holes and anchor slots completely with mortar, non-shrink grout or epoxy grout. 4. Set cast stone components in a full bed of mortar, unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings. 5. Fill vertical joints with mortar. 6. Make joints 3/8 inch, unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings. 7. Leave head joints in copings and similar components open for sealant. 8. Rake mortar joints 3/4 inch for pointing. 9. Sponge the face of each stone to remove excess mortar. 10. Tuck point joints to a slight concave profile unless noted otherwise. 11. Protect stone while on the ground (and after setting) from splashing, mortar smear, and damage from other trades.
  35. 35. Standards Cast Stone Standards Cast Stone Anchors Standard masonry anchors are preferred over embedded hardware for use with Cast Stone. They are reliable, time-tested, commercially available, need not be specially fabricated and afford great flexibility in meeting jobsite conditions. Non-corrosive type anchors should be used for all anchoring. Stainless steel Type 302 or 304 are the standard type used in this class of work. Typical sizes shown are 1/8&quot; x 1&quot; straps, 1/4&quot; rods and 1/2&quot; dowels. Dowel holes for 1/2&quot; or 3/4&quot; dowels are usually 1&quot; diameter filled completely with mortar during setting. Anchor slots are typically 3/4&quot; wide and similarly are filled with mortar. It is strongly recommended that designers consult with the project engineer in the early stages of design to determine the appropriate anchoring strategy.
  36. 36. Standards Cast Stone Standards Handling Specs Mark production units with the identification marks as shown on the shop drawings. Package units and protect them from staining or damage during shipping and storage. Provide an itemized list of product to support the bill of lading. Note: Minor chipping resulting from shipment and delivery shall not be grounds for rejection. Minor chips shall not be obvious under direct daylight illumination from a 20-ft (6 m) distance.
  37. 37. Standards Cast Stone Standards Protection and Maintenance Stand Off® is a Stone, Tile & Masonry Protector (STMP) is a clear, waterborne oil and stain repellent. This easy-to-use, low-VOC, low-odor protective treatment improves the stain resistance and simplifies maintenance cleaning of interior or exterior stone, quarry tile, concrete and masonry surfaces. Surfaces treated with STMP resist staining from oil, food and waterborne matter while retaining their natural color, texture, and breathability. STMP Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) content is less than 400 g/L. ADVANTAGES Easy soap and water clean up. Low odor suitable for interior application to occupied buildings. Fast drying -- reduces down time. High vapor transmission allows treated surfaces to breathe. Long-lasting, polymeric material suitable for interior and exterior applications. Nonfilm-forming, will not produce a slippery surface. Helps resist staining produced by:Prosoco/Sealing{A8A73797-0C71-4362-AC60-3C24327B538A}
  38. 38. Protection and Maintenance The same material that was used to make the stone should be used for patching. Experimental batches should not be used to obtain an instant color match. A properly made patch will not match right away. Dry cast stone products should look lighter where repaired. Patches that match within a week have a tendency to change their color after weathering. After additional curing, weathering and sunlight, the patched area will eventually blend to the original stone color. This could take 3 months to a year or longer, depending on the weather conditions & exposure to the sunlight. Standards Cast Stone Standards
  39. 39. Standard Test Methods All concrete products and many natural stones, under varying conditions of moisture and temperature, are frequently subject to crazing. A manufacturer careful in proportioning of designs and watchful of compaction techniques and curing methods will minimize the likelihood of crazing as a result of manufacturing causes. Note: The occurrence of crazing or efflorescence shall not constitute a cause for rejection. Standards Cast Stone Standards
  40. 40. Standard Test Methods ASTM C 67 - Standard Test Methods of Sampling and Testing Brick and Structural Clay Tile, includes a wick test for ascertaining whether a brick is liable to cause efflorescence. Small specimens or cubes either molded or saw cut from Cast Stone may be evaluated by this test. Common installation problems which can cause or enhance efflorescence include the improper use of through-wall flashing, lack of sufficient weep holes, use of Cast Stone without ventilated wythe, use of Cast Stone below grade or at planter type areas without proper moisture barrier, failure of joint materials which allow water entry and the use of hard mortar joints where sealant joints should be used. Soffit stones are particularly susceptible to efflorescence from masonry walls above and should be designed to prevent from become the &quot;gutter&quot; of the wall. Note: The occurrence of crazing or efflorescence shall not constitute a cause for rejection. Standards Cast Stone Standards
  41. 41. Standards Cast Stone Standards Unit Language
  42. 42. Standards Cast Stone Standards Unit Language Continued
  43. 43. Standards Cast Stone Standards Basic Part Nomenclature
  44. 44. Standards Cast Stone Standards Buyers should make sure their Stone provider produce to the industry standards Anyone who is intending on Selling Cast Stone should have acceptable standards
  45. 45. Standards Importance of Standards Standards will help prevent industry price gouging and maintain consistent pricing It is extremely important to have standards in effect when producing any product. If product malfunctions it can cause harm to anyone who uses it or anyone around it. For instance if stone breaks on a three story house and falls it could seriously injury or kill someone.
  46. 46. Standards Importance of Standards Any cast stone supplier should strive to comply with all standards so you can have product acceptance. Manufactures of Cast Stone should make sure their Quality Assurance is at a high level of expectation
  47. 47. Standards Importance of Standards Not only is it important to apply standards to the product it is also highly critical to apply it at the job site as well. Having a standard method site management plan will prevent people from becoming injured when moving around the job site. By following these standard guidelines you can produce high quality cast stone.
  48. 48. Closing <ul><li>It is Important to have good masons, proper drawings, specified budgets and the right manufacture. </li></ul><ul><li>The earlier you start the better because stone is heavy!!! </li></ul>Closing
  49. 49. Multiple-choice Test <ul><li>1. What is Cast Stone mainly used for? </li></ul><ul><li>A. Making brick molds </li></ul><ul><li>B. Architectural decorative Stone </li></ul><ul><li>C. Structural Attachments </li></ul><ul><li>D. Aligning Bricks </li></ul><ul><li>2. What is the standard PSI for Cast Stone? </li></ul><ul><li>A. 7,000-9,000 </li></ul><ul><li>B. 3,000-3,100 </li></ul><ul><li>C. 5,900 - 6,500 </li></ul><ul><li>D. 1,000-1,500 </li></ul><ul><li>3. It is acceptable to use mortar to attach Cast Stone to a wall. </li></ul><ul><li>A. True </li></ul><ul><li>B. False </li></ul><ul><li>4. What is the building code called for balconies and stairs that are over 48 inches tall? </li></ul><ul><li>A. Ball Code </li></ul><ul><li>B. Space Codes </li></ul><ul><li>C. Fall Codes </li></ul><ul><li>D. Gap Codes </li></ul><ul><li>5. Where can Cast Stone Standards be found? </li></ul><ul><li>A. CSI (Cast Stone Information) </li></ul><ul><li>B. CSS (Cast Stone Standards) </li></ul><ul><li>C. ASC (American Stone Culture) </li></ul><ul><li>D. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) </li></ul>Closing
  50. 50. Multiple-choice Test 6. Non-Corrosive type anchors should be used for all anchoring. A. True B. False 7 . What is a common cause of efflorescence? A. Lack of Sufficient weep holes B. Use of Cast Stone below grade or at planter type areas without proper moisture barrier C. Failure of joint materials which allow water entry and the use of hard mortar joints where sealant joints should be used. D. All of the above 8. The standard mortar joint thickness on exterior applications is . 9. Why are standards important? A. They prevent the industry from price gouging B. When followed you are less likely to produce malfunctioned products C. So you can have product Acceptance D. All of the above 10. American Society for Testing and Materials is the only qualified tester of Materials A. True B. False Closing