Bryan Mills The beginning of the Enlightenment (modern era) Scientific Method Phenomenology Feminism Positivism Natural Science Social Theological Key interpretations of the natural and social world < 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 Post-modernism Aristotle maintained that women have fewer teeth than men although he was twice married, it never occurred to him to verify this statement by examining his wives' mouths. -Bertrand Russell
A hypothesis is a "statement that can be falsified"
Coates (1996) gives us 5 'virtues' that make up a hypothesis:
It is possible to see from this list why hypotheses are used by positivists, or, inversely, why phenomenologists have no use for them.
Hypotheses H1 Team working improves productivity in medium sized, labour intensive, manufacturing companies. H0 Null - Team working has no measurable effect on productivity in medium sized, labour intensive, manufacturing companies.
If you hit a tuning fork twice as hard it will ring twice as loud but still at the same frequency. That's a linear response. If you hit a person twice as hard they're unlikely just to shout twice as loud. That property lets you learn more about the person than the tuning fork.
The research must lead to the collection of valid data. How valid will depend on the method used and the type of information elicited. Research is valid if it is what it claims to be - truly representative
Replicability and measurability are of prime importance. It is this requirement of replicability that encourages positivists to use quantitative methods. The 'rule' is - you must be confident that another researcher would match your findings.
Problem or lack of understanding Methodology Choice Positivist or Scientific Hypothesis deductive Mostly quantitative phenomenological inductive qualitative Post Modern Discourse analysis ?