Willamette digital humanities seminar 2009, part 2

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Willamette digital humanities seminar 2009, part 2

  1. 1. Emergent cyberculture Contexts for the digital humanities
  2. 2. Wireless and mobile devices Pedagogies of ubiquitous computing
  3. 3. What it means, top-level “A device ecology” -Petra Wentzel, "Wireless All the Way: Users’ Feedback on Education through Online PDAs" (presentation at the EDUCAUSE annual conferenceAnaheim, Calif., November 7, 2003).
  4. 4. 2. What it means, top-level Information and media use: • content capture • content access (downloaded or copied)news or information • social connection (different speeds, synch and asynch)
  5. 5. Another way of looking at it All of Web 2.0, just more so • Social media • Microcontent • Accelerando!
  6. 6. new interfaces • tiny but beloved keyboard • stylus • touchscreen • mouse might wane (http://let.blog.nitle.org/2008/07/21/the_mou se_soon_to_decline_gartner/)
  7. 7. netbooks • Replace the laptop?
  8. 8. ebook readers • The Kindle and others
  9. 9. phones • iPhone’s triumph • Media • Networked • Apps • Touch • Other platforms?
  10. 10. Phones plus
  11. 11. tablets • Tablet and tablets
  12. 12. GPS-enabled devices • Gaming: geocaching • Devices vs functions • Ultimately: AR
  13. 13. Clickers • Er, Personal Response Units • The unsung campus success
  14. 14. implementing clickers • Classroom pilot • Faculty/admin meeting demo • Owning units: students or institution? • Combine with ppt
  15. 15. implementing clickers Pedagogical themes • Interaction • Polling • Anonymity yet universality • Aimed at large size class, often
  16. 16. implementing clickers Using results • Hide, reveal, or share? • Snap poll • Discussion generating Clickers for questions • Binary or multiple • Student-generated • Assessment vs constructivist
  17. 17. implementing clickers Other devices • Smartphone apps • Web polls accessible through multiple devices
  18. 18. “Pens” • OCR • Audio • One classroom use: http://mediatedcultures.net/ksudigg/?p=206
  19. 19. mobile game players • PSP • Others?
  20. 20. • Mobile, but not wireless • -cables • -USB drives • -flash cards • -batteries and outlets (for now!)
  21. 21. 4. Campus strategies • Nearly a decade of practice to access • Diverse locations of support • Multiple engagements with device ecology
  22. 22. 5. Pedagogies Emergent pedagogies • Information on demand • Time usage changes • Class/world barrier reduction • Personal intimacy with units • Spatial mapping • Mobile, multimedia, social research
  23. 23. Learning spaces In the classroom • one leading pilot space for wireless • mode: lecture/lab Campus • other sites: library, residence hall • new learning spaces • chunks of campus
  24. 24. Realtime search and news Volokh Conspiracy, April 2007
  25. 25. Realtime search and news “Students who have superb search skills have introduced useful material or questions into discussion. In a few cases, I’ve had students find pertinent archival video in response to the drift of the conversation which I’ve then put up on the classroom projector.” -professor Tim Burke, Swarthmore College http://weblogs.swarthmore.edu/burke/2009/05/06/ the-laptop-in-the-classroom/
  26. 26. • Backchannel • Smartmobs • CPA • Laminated social layer • Privacy? Social practices unfolding (dotguy_az)
  27. 27. Some practices – Assignment to class: quick finding of facts (Randy Stakeman, Emerging Technology workshop, 2009, Colby College) – Assignment: more extensive Web research (search, assess, discuss, present) – Scribes: one per small group, more than 1 per class III. Pedagogies
  28. 28. Multitasking • threats: distraction, wandering index/stimulus • generational issue • practice: shells down, machines open
  29. 29. Multitasking professor Tim Burke, Swarthmore College: “I am sure there are students in my classes who have multitasked during a lecture or discussion. I’ll be honest with you. I’ve done the same on my laptop when I’ve been in the audience during conferences or lectures, usually email. I’ve done that in response to being bored, but I’ve also done it as a kind of thoughtful doodling while feeling quite engaged and interested in what the speaker is saying and taking copious notes…”
  30. 30. Multitasking “…So it doesn’t worry or offend me that a student might be doing the same. If it’s because they’re bored, that’s an issue with my presentation. (Though I’m not going to take responsibility for getting universal engagement: you can’t get blood from a stone, and some students are stones.) If the audience is still being thoughtful, taking good notes, and retaining information while multitasking, why should I care?” http://weblogs.swarthmore.edu/burke/2009/05/06/the- laptop-in-the-classroom/
  31. 31. III. Pedagogies Campus life • Informal learning • Social organization • Emergency alerts (voluntary) • That privacy issue
  32. 32. IV. Examples Mobile study journaling John Schott, Carleton College, 2006
  33. 33. “The mobile phone is the primary connection tool for most people in the world. In 2020, while "one laptop per child" and other initiatives to bring networked digital communications to everyone are successful on many levels, the mobile phone—now with significant computing power—is the primary Internet connection and the only one for a majority of the people across the world, providing information in a portable, well-connected form at a relatively low price.”
  34. 34. NITLE http://nitle.org Liberal Education Today http://let.blog.nitle.org
  35. 35. Gaming Long history of gaming • Predigital – Chess, go, Senet, mancala, backgammon, dice, cards – Kriegspiel – Cold War games Digital • Spacewar • Zork to IF boom (1980s) • 1990s rebirth
  36. 36. Gaming in 2008 Physical platforms • Console • Cell phone • PSP • Extended forms (DDR) • New forms: Wii PC • CD, DVD • Browser • Downloadable …And these can be combined
  37. 37. Size: huge – (WoW: 10 million subscribers, January 2008) Player range: genders, classes, nations Interface, device driver Eve Online, from site
  38. 38. Growing content diversity • Current events (Kumawar) • Political argument (September 12th, FoodForce) • Religious gaming (Left Behind: Eternal Forces, 2006) • Literary gaming (Kafkamesto, 2006) (BBC Climate Challenge; Ayiti: both 2007-present)
  39. 39. Genres • First-person shooter • Puzzle • Platform jumper • Strategy • “Adventure” • Sports • Minigame (Koster fractals) New forms • Katamari • Portal • Augmented reality games
  40. 40. Economics of games Who creates games? • Businesses • Governments • Nonprofits • Amateurs Scales • Large games – $millions – EA, Microsoft • Modding – Back to Doom, hacking, View Source – Neverwinter Nights • Casual games Other economics • Gambling • Gold farming • Currency trading
  41. 41. Offshoot: machinima • Tools – Counterstrike, Halo – Second Life – The Movies • Art movement – Machinima Academy of Arts and Sciences ( http://www.machinima.org/) (Koulamata, “The French Democracy”, 2006)
  42. 42. Virtual worlds Antecedents, early digital: science fiction 1984: William Gibson, Neuromancer 1992: Neal Stephenson, Snow Crash “’Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts. A graphic representation of data abstracted from the banks of every computer in the human system…” -Neuromancer
  43. 43. Antecedents, digital: the MUD, Adventure (1970s-present) (LambdaMOO, 1990-present)
  44. 44. Antecedents, predigital: Theater of Memory (from Philippe Codognet, http://webia.lip6.fr/~codognet/)
  45. 45. Avatar spaces -Activeworlds -Atmospheres -There (Activeworlds, 1995-present; image via www.virtualworldlets.net)
  46. 46. -Habbo Hotel -Cyworld (Club Penguin, 2005-present) 2d-3d worlds -Runescape -VMK
  47. 47. Google Earth -Keyhole DB -2d: KML -3d: Sketchup -reach -Geotagging photos: videos Mirror worlds
  48. 48. Augmented Reality “Human Pacman,” Adrian David Cheok, circa 2005 -mobile devices game players general use tools -science fiction explores (Vernor Vinge, Rainbows End)
  49. 49. Interactive Fiction Speaking of text adventures: • 1980s boom: Infocom • Ongoing art form • Nick Montfort, Twisty Little Passages (“Dead Cities”, from Lovecraft Commonplace Book project 2007 http://www.illuminatedlantern.com/if/games/lovecraft/)
  50. 50. Interactive Fiction Speaking of text adventures: • Inform 7, free IF editor (Richard Liston, Ursinus College, classroom example 2008)
  51. 51. Narrative Where is storytelling in a game? • Sequence of activities • Cut-scene or cinematic • Writerly player • Encyclopedia world (Murray, Manovich) • Ludology vs. narratology Linearity? • Game on rails • Branching outcomes • Multilinear • Open-ended
  52. 52. Alternate reality games • Permeability of game boundary (space and time) • Focus on distributed, collaborative cognition • Increased ephemerality (Perplex City, 2003-2006)
  53. 53. Political ARGs (ex: World Without Oil, May 2007) ()
  54. 54. Gaming and education “Video games… situate meaning in a multimodal space through embodied experiences to solve problems and reflect on the intricacies of the design of imagined worlds and the design of both real and imagined social relationships and identities in the modern world.”
  55. 55. 21-century boom • James Paul Gee (author of preceding quote) • Marc Presnsky • Henry Jenkins • John Seely Brown • Mia Consalvo • Constance Steinkuehler • Kurt Squire
  56. 56. James Paul Gee’s argument • Semiotic domains; transference • Embodied action and feedback • Projective identity • Edging the regime of competence (Vygotsky) • Probe-reprobe cycle • Social learning (roles; consumption-production)
  57. 57. Gee on Rise of Nations More implicit pedagogies: • “Fish tank” tutorial • Strategic self-assessment
  58. 58. Multimedia literacies • Gee: multimodal principle • Selfe et al: multimodal literacy • Bogost: procedural rhetoric Dean for American game (2004) Archived at http://www.deanforamericagame.com/ play.html
  59. 59. Multimedia literacies “…within games, there are in fact multitudes of literacy practices – games are full of text, she asserted, to say nothing of the entirely text-based fandom communities online that take place in forums, blogs and social networks.” Constance Steinkuehler, FuturePlay 2007, Toronto Quoted in http://www.gamasutra.com/php- bin/news_index.php?story=16264
  60. 60. Pedagogical functions Summary by Jason Mittell, Middlebury College: • Skills • Simulations • Politics (criticism, activism) • Media studies (psych, cultural studies, media) – NITLE brownbag, January 2008
  61. 61. Which educational theory? • Ian Bogost: behaviorist versus constructivist Image from Scot Osterweil, presentation to Learning from Video Games: Designing Digital Curriculums (NERCOMP SIG , 2007) Issues summoned up: – Media effect (violence) – Transfer across domains, platforms – Subjectivity and assessment – selection
  62. 62. Which educational theory? Issues summoned up: – Media effect (violence) – Transfer across domains, platforms – Subjectivity and assessment – selection Responses: – Better media – Instructor facilitation, by various media – More research needed – Research and collaboration
  63. 63. So how is gaming used now? Classroom and courses • Curriculum content • Delivery mechanism • Creating games Peacemaker, Impact Games Revolution (via Jason Mittell)
  64. 64. So how is gaming used now? One assignment: compare with documentary records • Gap between game and reality • Spin or ideology [img credits]
  65. 65. Game studies • Serious Games • Conferences • Scholarly articles and books (MIT Press) • Games Learning Society conference, http://www.glsconference.org/2008/index.html
  66. 66. Scholarship •Harry J.Brown, Videogames and education (2008). •Pat Harrigan and Noah Wardrip-Fruin, eds. Third Person: Authoring and Exploring Vast Narratives (2009). Game studies
  67. 67. How is gaming used now? Libraries • Collections • Game night • Creating games Defense of Hidgeon, Games Archive: University of Michigan
  68. 68. Classroom uses
  69. 69. Pedagogy: virtual worlds Ancient Spaces project, University of British Columbia Machu Picchu, Arts Metaverse, Open Croquet
  70. 70. Pedagogy: virtual worlds Second Life, Bryan Zelmanov Pedagogy: social software “Emotional bandwidth” (Linden Labs) • Social presence • Self-expression
  71. 71. Game studies • Serious Games • Conferences • Scholarly articles and books (MIT Press) • Games Learning Society conference, http://www.glsconference.org/2008/index.html
  72. 72. Game studies Liberal arts instances • Aaron Delwiche, Trinity (image) • Christian Spielvogel, Hope • Harry Brown, Depauw
  73. 73. Liberal Education Today blog http://let.blogs.nitle.org Prediction Markets game http://markets.nitle.org/ NITLE http://nitle.org

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