Cyberculture, Academia, and the New Web A survey for summer 2008
Plan of the talk <ul><li>Pieces of Web 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Gaming the world </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul>(Vermon...
Thematics <ul><li>Emergence in </li></ul><ul><li>time and space </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Open determin...
Memes <ul><li>Shadow IT </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>Giants </li></ul>(Vermont bridge, January 2006)
One odd metaphor <ul><li>Web 2.0 and education is like gaming and education:  awareness is challenging </li></ul><ul><li>H...
Five responses <ul><li>Web 2.0 and education is like gaming and education:  intersections are happening </li></ul><ul><li>...
I. Web 2.0 <ul><li>(Web 2.0 Bullshit Generator,  http://emptybottle.org/bullshit/ )  </li></ul>
<ul><li>“ Technorati is now tracking over 70 million weblogs, and we're seeing about 120,000 new weblogs being created wor...
(Flickr blog, March 2008)
<ul><li>Will YouTube kill the podcasting star? </li></ul>(eMarketer, February 2008; Via Podcasting News)
(Le Monde, January 14 2008)
(March 2008 http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Press_releases/10M_articles )
<ul><li>The term’s history: Tim O’Reilly, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Expands “social software” </li></ul><ul><li>Draws on Web ...
<ul><li>Microcontent, rather than sites or large documents </li></ul>(NITLE blog Liberal Education Today,  http://b2e.nitl...
I. Web 2.0 <ul><li>Multiply authored microcontent </li></ul>
<ul><li>Open content and/or services and/or standards… </li></ul>(Pepysblog, 2003-)
<ul><li>… leading to networked conversations </li></ul>(Pepysblog, 2003-)
<ul><li>O’Reilly: Web 2.0 is a platform for development </li></ul><ul><li>Open APIs </li></ul><ul><li>Access to data </li>...
<ul><li>Web 2.0 components, movements </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative writing platforms: the  wiki  way  </li></ul>
-Viégas, Wattenberg, Dave (Historyflow, IBM, 2004) Wikis are (often) textually productive
<ul><li>Web 2.0 components, movements </li></ul><ul><li>collaborative writing platforms:  the blogosphere </li></ul>(Radio...
<ul><li>State of the blogosphere, more </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity: diaries, public intellectuals, carnivals, knitters, mo...
<ul><li>What’s happened since “podcasting” in 2004? Neologisms: </li></ul><ul><li>godcasting </li></ul><ul><li>nanocasting...
<ul><li>Web 2.0 influences rich media: video </li></ul>(Gootube? Suetube?)
<ul><li>Videoblogging </li></ul><ul><li>(vlog?  vog?) </li></ul>(Ask a Ninja; Rocketboom; Howard Rheingold)
<ul><li>Social object:  the person </li></ul><ul><li>FaceBook </li></ul><ul><li>MySpace </li></ul><ul><li>LinkedIn </li></...
<ul><li>Social objects of all sorts </li></ul>(Kenyan crisis-Google Maps mashup, Ushahidi  http://www.ushahidi.com/  2008)
<ul><li>Social organization of information, new forms:  folksonomy  </li></ul><ul><li>Search </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval <...
<ul><li>Community  surfacing </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts  </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative resear...
Keeping up <ul><li>NITLE workshop tag cloud, 2008 </li></ul>
<ul><li>Extrapolating principles: Ton Zylstra on the social object: </li></ul>“ In general you could say that both Flickr ...
<ul><li>“… In every triangle there always needs to be a person and  an object of sociality . The third point of the triang...
<ul><li>(“Online Communities”, XKCD, April 2007 )… </li></ul>For academia, this can seem a bit overwhelming
<ul><li>(“Online Communities”, XKCD, April 2007 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Already out of date </li></ul>For academia, this can s...
<ul><li>Flickr and storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>Tell a story in 5 frames  group </li></ul>“ Gender Miscommunication”,  N...
 
 
 
“ Gender Miscommunication” (Nightingai1e, 2006)
Social photo stories <ul><li>Or remix social media into narratives </li></ul><ul><li>Example: &quot;Farm to Food&quot;, El...
Social photo stories
Social photo stories
Social photo stories <ul><li>Flickr, Tell A Story in Five Frames group ( http://www.flickr.com/groups/visualstory/ ) </li>...
Social photo stories Example: &quot;Food to Farm&quot;, Eli the Bearded (2008)
Social photo stories <ul><li>Pedagogies: </li></ul><ul><li>Remix </li></ul><ul><li>Archive work </li></ul><ul><li>Social p...
<ul><li>Social workshopping </li></ul>In the Tell a story in 5 frames group, 'Alone With The Sand' ,  moliere1331 (2005)
Pedagogies and publications <ul><li>Teaching with Web 2.0: it’s not all new </li></ul><ul><li>- Web 1.0, internet pedagogi...
<ul><li>Teaching with Web 2.0: it’s not all new </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier pedagogies </li></ul><ul><li>Journaling </li></u...
<ul><li>Teaching with Web 2.0: principles </li></ul>http://smarthistory.blogspot.com/   Distributed conversation Collabora...
<ul><li>Social object pedagogies </li></ul><ul><li>Prompts </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion object </li></ul><ul><li>Compositi...
<ul><li>Teaching with Web 2.0: “ net.gen ”: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fully half of all teens and 57 percent of teens who use th...
<ul><li>“ [S]tudents… write words on paper, yes— but… also compose words and images and create audio files on Web logs (bl...
<ul><li>More social object pedagogies </li></ul><ul><li>Annotate details </li></ul><ul><li>Remix (“Make it mine”) </li></u...
<ul><li>Wiki pedagogies </li></ul><ul><li>Collective research </li></ul><ul><li>Group writing </li></ul><ul><li>Document e...
<ul><li>Podcasts and teaching:  profcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Bryn Mawr College: Michelle Francl, chemistry </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Student program podcasting on campus </li></ul><ul><li>War News Radio  </li></ul><ul><li>(Swarthmore College) </li...
<ul><li>Podcasts and research </li></ul><ul><li>Public intellectual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of the Past </li></ul></ul><...
<ul><li>Media to  enhance other media </li></ul><ul><li>Podcast + pdfs: Allegheny College, Gothcast </li></ul>
<ul><li>Academic open archives for social media </li></ul><ul><li>Freesound archive </li></ul><ul><li>DIY copyright </li><...
<ul><li>New forms of scholarly communication </li></ul>CommentPress implementation, Institute for the Future of the Books ...
<ul><li>Still more bookblogging </li></ul>Siva Vaidhyanathan, University of Virginia
<ul><li>Combining Web 2.0 forms </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Blogging </li></ul><ul><li>Digital storytel...
II. Gaming <ul><li>Long history of gaming </li></ul><ul><li>Predigital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chess, go, Senet, mancala, ba...
Gaming in 2008 <ul><li>Physical platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Console </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phone </li></ul><ul><li>PSP </l...
<ul><li>Size: huge  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(WoW: 10 million subscribers,  January 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Player range...
<ul><li>Growing content diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Current events (Kumawar) </li></ul><ul><li>Political argument (Septemb...
Genres <ul><li>First-person shooter </li></ul><ul><li>Puzzle  </li></ul><ul><li>Platform jumper </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy...
Economics of games <ul><li>Who creates games? </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Governments </li></ul><ul><li...
Offshoot: machinima <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterstrike, Halo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Life </li></...
Virtual worlds <ul><li>“’ Cyberspace.  A  consensual hallucination  experienced daily by  billions  of legitimate  operato...
<ul><li>Antecedents, digital: the MUD, Adventure (1970s-present)   </li></ul>(LambdaMOO, 1990-present)
<ul><li>Antecedents, predigital: Theater of Memory  </li></ul>(from Philippe Codognet,  http://webia.lip6.fr/~codognet/ )
<ul><li>Avatar spaces </li></ul><ul><li>-Activeworlds </li></ul><ul><li>-Atmospheres </li></ul><ul><li>-There </li></ul>(A...
<ul><li>-Habbo Hotel </li></ul><ul><li>-Cyworld </li></ul>(Club Penguin, 2005-present) 2d-3d worlds   -Runescape -VMK
Google Earth -Keyhole DB -2d: KML -3d: Sketchup -reach -Geotagging photos: videos Mirror worlds
Augmented Reality <ul><li>“ Human Pacman,” Adrian David Cheok, circa 2005 </li></ul>-mobile devices game players general u...
Interactive Fiction <ul><li>Speaking of text adventures: </li></ul><ul><li>1980s boom: Infocom </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing a...
Interactive Fiction <ul><li>Speaking of text adventures: </li></ul><ul><li>Inform 7, free IF editor </li></ul>(Richard Lis...
Narrative <ul><li>Where is storytelling in a game? </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence of activities </li></ul><ul><li>Cut-scene or...
Alternate reality games <ul><li>Permeability of game boundary (space and time) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on distributed, col...
<ul><li>Political ARGs (ex:  World Without Oil , May 2007) </li></ul>()
Gaming and education <ul><li>“Video games… situate meaning in a multimodal space through embodied experiences to solve pro...
21-century boom <ul><li>James Paul Gee (author of preceding quote) </li></ul><ul><li>Marc Presnsky </li></ul><ul><li>Henry...
James Paul Gee’s argument <ul><li>Semiotic domains; tranference </li></ul><ul><li>Embodied action and feedback </li></ul><...
Gee on  Rise of Nations <ul><li>“Fish tank” tutorial </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic self-assessment </li></ul>
Multimedia literacies <ul><li>Gee: multimodal principle </li></ul><ul><li>Selfe  et al : multimodal literacy </li></ul><ul...
Multimedia literacies <ul><li>“… within games, there are in fact multitudes of literacy practices – games are full of text...
Which educational theory? <ul><li>Ian Bogost: behaviorist versus constructivist </li></ul><ul><li>Issues summoned up: </li...
Pedagogical functions <ul><li>Jason Mittell, Middlebury college: </li></ul><ul><li>Skills  </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations <...
Pedagogy: virtual worlds <ul><li>Ancient Spaces project, University of British Columbia </li></ul>Machu Picchu, Arts Metav...
Pedagogy: virtual worlds <ul><li>Second Life,  </li></ul><ul><li>Bryan Zelmanov </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy: social softwar...
Game studies <ul><li>Serious Games </li></ul><ul><li>Conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Scholarly articles and books (MIT Press...
Game studies <ul><li>Liberal arts instances </li></ul><ul><li>Aaron Delwiche, Trinity  (image) </li></ul><ul><li>Christian...
III. Mobile  <ul><li>All of Web 2.0, just more so </li></ul><ul><li>Ambient </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerating  </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>(Found on BBC site, June 2005) </li></ul>The problem of the American situation
<ul><li>Pedagogical elements </li></ul><ul><li>Information on demand </li></ul><ul><li>Time usage changes </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Pedagogies: new forms </li></ul>John Schott, Carleton College, 2006; University of Umea, 2004
<ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Platform profusion </li></ul><ul><li>Walled gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Network limitat...
National Institute for Technology and Liberal Education (NITLE)  http://nitle.org Liberal Education Today blog  http://b2e...
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Emerging technologies for teaching and learning: into fall 2008

  1. 1. Cyberculture, Academia, and the New Web A survey for summer 2008
  2. 2. Plan of the talk <ul><li>Pieces of Web 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Gaming the world </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul>(Vermont trees and sky, winter 2008)
  3. 3. Thematics <ul><li>Emergence in </li></ul><ul><li>time and space </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Open determinism </li></ul>(“Sorpdragon,” Voicethread 2007)
  4. 4. Memes <ul><li>Shadow IT </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>Giants </li></ul>(Vermont bridge, January 2006)
  5. 5. One odd metaphor <ul><li>Web 2.0 and education is like gaming and education: awareness is challenging </li></ul><ul><li>Huge, financially and quantitatively successful worlds </li></ul><ul><li>Global and rapidly developing scope </li></ul><ul><li>Bad anxieties, policies, and media coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived lack of seriousness </li></ul>(Second Life screenshot, 2006)
  6. 6. Five responses <ul><li>Web 2.0 and education is like gaming and education: intersections are happening </li></ul><ul><li>Take advantage of preexisting projects and services </li></ul><ul><li>Mod/warp/hack </li></ul><ul><li>DIY </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: new media </li></ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul>(World of Warcraft)
  7. 7. I. Web 2.0 <ul><li>(Web 2.0 Bullshit Generator, http://emptybottle.org/bullshit/ ) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>“ Technorati is now tracking over 70 million weblogs, and we're seeing about 120,000 new weblogs being created worldwide each day. That's about 1.4 blogs created every second of every day.” </li></ul>(David Sifry, April 2007 )
  9. 9. (Flickr blog, March 2008)
  10. 10. <ul><li>Will YouTube kill the podcasting star? </li></ul>(eMarketer, February 2008; Via Podcasting News)
  11. 11. (Le Monde, January 14 2008)
  12. 12. (March 2008 http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Press_releases/10M_articles )
  13. 13. <ul><li>The term’s history: Tim O’Reilly, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Expands “social software” </li></ul><ul><li>Draws on Web history </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Microcontent, rather than sites or large documents </li></ul>(NITLE blog Liberal Education Today, http://b2e.nitle.org )
  15. 15. I. Web 2.0 <ul><li>Multiply authored microcontent </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Open content and/or services and/or standards… </li></ul>(Pepysblog, 2003-)
  17. 17. <ul><li>… leading to networked conversations </li></ul>(Pepysblog, 2003-)
  18. 18. <ul><li>O’Reilly: Web 2.0 is a platform for development </li></ul><ul><li>Open APIs </li></ul><ul><li>Access to data </li></ul><ul><li>Virtue of the lazyweb </li></ul>( http://www.hurricanearchive.org/ , Center for History and New Media,George Mason University) <ul><li>Programming staff </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived recognition </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Web 2.0 components, movements </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative writing platforms: the wiki way </li></ul>
  20. 20. -Viégas, Wattenberg, Dave (Historyflow, IBM, 2004) Wikis are (often) textually productive
  21. 21. <ul><li>Web 2.0 components, movements </li></ul><ul><li>collaborative writing platforms: the blogosphere </li></ul>(Radio Open Source blog/podcast)
  22. 22. <ul><li>State of the blogosphere, more </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity: diaries, public intellectuals, carnivals, knitters, moblogs, warblogs home and abroad… </li></ul><ul><li>12 people million using three platforms, including LiveJournal: majority women (Anil Dash, MeshForum 2006) </li></ul>NIH guidelines, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=citmed.section.61024
  23. 23. <ul><li>What’s happened since “podcasting” in 2004? Neologisms: </li></ul><ul><li>godcasting </li></ul><ul><li>nanocasting </li></ul><ul><li>podfading </li></ul><ul><li>podsafe </li></ul><ul><li>podspamming </li></ul><ul><li>podvertising </li></ul><ul><li>porncasting </li></ul>(Missing Link podcast, Southwestern University)
  24. 24. <ul><li>Web 2.0 influences rich media: video </li></ul>(Gootube? Suetube?)
  25. 25. <ul><li>Videoblogging </li></ul><ul><li>(vlog? vog?) </li></ul>(Ask a Ninja; Rocketboom; Howard Rheingold)
  26. 26. <ul><li>Social object: the person </li></ul><ul><li>FaceBook </li></ul><ul><li>MySpace </li></ul><ul><li>LinkedIn </li></ul><ul><li>ZoomInfo </li></ul><ul><li>CyWorld… </li></ul>“ Less than four years after its launch, 15 million people, or almost a third of the country's population, are members.” ( BusinessWeek , September 2005)
  27. 27. <ul><li>Social objects of all sorts </li></ul>(Kenyan crisis-Google Maps mashup, Ushahidi http://www.ushahidi.com/ 2008)
  28. 28. <ul><li>Social organization of information, new forms: folksonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Search </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Self-awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://del.icio.us/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for DoctorNemo </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Community surfacing </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative research </li></ul>
  30. 30. Keeping up <ul><li>NITLE workshop tag cloud, 2008 </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Extrapolating principles: Ton Zylstra on the social object: </li></ul>“ In general you could say that both Flickr and del.icio.us work in a triangle: person, picture/ bookmark, and tag(s). Or more abstract a person, an object of sociality , and some descriptor...” (Zylstra in Second Life, 2007)
  32. 32. <ul><li>“… In every triangle there always needs to be a person and an object of sociality . The third point of the triangle is free to define[,] as it were.” </li></ul><ul><li>- http://www.zylstra.org , 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>(emphases added) </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>(“Online Communities”, XKCD, April 2007 )… </li></ul>For academia, this can seem a bit overwhelming
  34. 34. <ul><li>(“Online Communities”, XKCD, April 2007 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Already out of date </li></ul>For academia, this can seem a bit overwhelming
  35. 35. <ul><li>Flickr and storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>Tell a story in 5 frames group </li></ul>“ Gender Miscommunication”, Nightingai1e, 2006
  36. 39. “ Gender Miscommunication” (Nightingai1e, 2006)
  37. 40. Social photo stories <ul><li>Or remix social media into narratives </li></ul><ul><li>Example: &quot;Farm to Food&quot;, Eli the Bearded (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Library of Congress collections </li></ul>
  38. 41. Social photo stories
  39. 42. Social photo stories
  40. 43. Social photo stories <ul><li>Flickr, Tell A Story in Five Frames group ( http://www.flickr.com/groups/visualstory/ ) </li></ul>Example: &quot;Food to Farm&quot;, Eli the Bearded (2008)
  41. 44. Social photo stories Example: &quot;Food to Farm&quot;, Eli the Bearded (2008)
  42. 45. Social photo stories <ul><li>Pedagogies: </li></ul><ul><li>Remix </li></ul><ul><li>Archive work </li></ul><ul><li>Social presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Visual literacy </li></ul>( http://www.flickr.com/groups/visualstory/discuss/72157603786255599/ ; http://www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress/ )
  43. 46. <ul><li>Social workshopping </li></ul>In the Tell a story in 5 frames group, 'Alone With The Sand' , moliere1331 (2005)
  44. 47. Pedagogies and publications <ul><li>Teaching with Web 2.0: it’s not all new </li></ul><ul><li>- Web 1.0, internet pedagogies </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertext </li></ul><ul><li>Web audience </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion fora </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative document authoring </li></ul><ul><li>Groupware </li></ul>
  45. 48. <ul><li>Teaching with Web 2.0: it’s not all new </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier pedagogies </li></ul><ul><li>Journaling </li></ul><ul><li>Media literacy </li></ul>
  46. 49. <ul><li>Teaching with Web 2.0: principles </li></ul>http://smarthistory.blogspot.com/ Distributed conversation Collaborative writing Object-oriented discussion Connectivism (G. Siemens, 2004)
  47. 50. <ul><li>Social object pedagogies </li></ul><ul><li>Prompts </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion object </li></ul><ul><li>Composition materials </li></ul>
  48. 51. <ul><li>Teaching with Web 2.0: “ net.gen ”: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fully half of all teens and 57 percent of teens who use the Internet could be considered Content Creators, according to a survey by the Pew Internet & American Life Project.” </li></ul>http://www.pewtrusts.com/pdf/PIP_Teens_1105.pdf
  49. 52. <ul><li>“ [S]tudents… write words on paper, yes— but… also compose words and images and create audio files on Web logs (blogs), in word processors, with video editors and Web editors and in e-mail and on presentation software and in instant messaging and on listservs and on bulletin boards—and no doubt in whatever genre will emerge in the next ten minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Note that no one is making anyone do any of this writing .” </li></ul>Kathleen Blake Yancey, &quot;Made Not Only in Words: Composition in a New Key.&quot; CCC 56.2 (2004):297-328. Emphasis added.
  50. 53. <ul><li>More social object pedagogies </li></ul><ul><li>Annotate details </li></ul><ul><li>Remix (“Make it mine”) </li></ul>Edugadget http://www.edugadget.com/2005/05/07/flickr-creative-commons
  51. 54. <ul><li>Wiki pedagogies </li></ul><ul><li>Collective research </li></ul><ul><li>Group writing </li></ul><ul><li>Document editing </li></ul><ul><li>Information literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge accretion </li></ul>(Romantic Audiences project Bowdoin College, 2005-present <ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge accretion </li></ul>
  52. 55. <ul><li>Podcasts and teaching: profcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Bryn Mawr College: Michelle Francl, chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Duke: “Classroom recording” </li></ul><ul><li>Learning objects: Gardner Campbell, University of Richmond </li></ul><ul><li>Duke: “Course content dissemination” </li></ul><ul><li>Information literacy </li></ul>
  53. 56. <ul><li>Student program podcasting on campus </li></ul><ul><li>War News Radio </li></ul><ul><li>(Swarthmore College) </li></ul><ul><li>PEPI courses (University of British Columbia, department of Land and Food Resources) </li></ul>
  54. 57. <ul><li>Podcasts and research </li></ul><ul><li>Public intellectual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of the Past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engines of Our Ingenuity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Our Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University Channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Missing Link </li></ul></ul>
  55. 58. <ul><li>Media to enhance other media </li></ul><ul><li>Podcast + pdfs: Allegheny College, Gothcast </li></ul>
  56. 59. <ul><li>Academic open archives for social media </li></ul><ul><li>Freesound archive </li></ul><ul><li>DIY copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking values </li></ul><ul><li>University of Pompeu Fabra (Barcelona) </li></ul>( http://freesound.iua.upf.edu/ )
  57. 60. <ul><li>New forms of scholarly communication </li></ul>CommentPress implementation, Institute for the Future of the Books McKenzie Wark, Eugene Lang College
  58. 61. <ul><li>Still more bookblogging </li></ul>Siva Vaidhyanathan, University of Virginia
  59. 62. <ul><li>Combining Web 2.0 forms </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Blogging </li></ul><ul><li>Digital storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>Web-based photography </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube </li></ul><ul><li>Video mashups </li></ul><ul><li>Middlebury College, Jason Mittell and Barbara Ganley </li></ul><ul><li>Blend teaching with research </li></ul><ul><li>BG now involved in rural community media </li></ul>
  60. 63. II. Gaming <ul><li>Long history of gaming </li></ul><ul><li>Predigital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chess, go, Senet, mancala, backgammon, dice, cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kriegspiel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold War games </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital </li></ul><ul><li>Spacewar </li></ul><ul><li>Zork to IF boom (1980s) </li></ul><ul><li>1990s rebirth </li></ul>
  61. 64. Gaming in 2008 <ul><li>Physical platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Console </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phone </li></ul><ul><li>PSP </li></ul><ul><li>Extended forms (DDR) </li></ul><ul><li>New forms: Wii </li></ul><ul><li>PC </li></ul><ul><li>CD, DVD </li></ul><ul><li>Browser </li></ul><ul><li>Downloadable </li></ul><ul><li>… And these can be combined </li></ul>
  62. 65. <ul><li>Size: huge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(WoW: 10 million subscribers, January 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Player range: genders, classes, nations </li></ul><ul><li>Interface, device driver </li></ul>Eve Online, from site
  63. 66. <ul><li>Growing content diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Current events (Kumawar) </li></ul><ul><li>Political argument (September 12th, FoodForce) </li></ul><ul><li>Religious gaming (Left Behind: Eternal Forces, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Literary gaming (Kafkamesto, 2006) </li></ul>(BBC Climate Challenge; Ayiti: both 2007-present)
  64. 67. Genres <ul><li>First-person shooter </li></ul><ul><li>Puzzle </li></ul><ul><li>Platform jumper </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>“ Adventure” </li></ul><ul><li>Sports </li></ul><ul><li>Minigame (Koster fractals) </li></ul><ul><li>New forms </li></ul><ul><li>Katamari </li></ul><ul><li>Portal </li></ul><ul><li>Augmented reality games </li></ul>
  65. 68. Economics of games <ul><li>Who creates games? </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Governments </li></ul><ul><li>Nonprofits </li></ul><ul><li>Amateurs </li></ul><ul><li>Scales </li></ul><ul><li>Large games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$millions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EA, Microsoft </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Back to Doom, hacking, View Source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neverwinter Nights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Casual games </li></ul><ul><li>Other economics </li></ul><ul><li>Gambling </li></ul><ul><li>Gold farming </li></ul><ul><li>Currency trading </li></ul>
  66. 69. Offshoot: machinima <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterstrike, Halo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Movies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Art movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machinima Academy of Arts and Sciences ( http://www.machinima.org/ ) </li></ul></ul>(Koulamata, “The French Democracy”, 2006)
  67. 70. Virtual worlds <ul><li>“’ Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts. A graphic representation of data abstracted from the banks of every computer in the human system…” </li></ul>Antecedents, early digital: science fiction 1984: William Gibson, Neuromancer 1992: Neal Stephenson, Snow Crash - Neuromancer
  68. 71. <ul><li>Antecedents, digital: the MUD, Adventure (1970s-present) </li></ul>(LambdaMOO, 1990-present)
  69. 72. <ul><li>Antecedents, predigital: Theater of Memory </li></ul>(from Philippe Codognet, http://webia.lip6.fr/~codognet/ )
  70. 73. <ul><li>Avatar spaces </li></ul><ul><li>-Activeworlds </li></ul><ul><li>-Atmospheres </li></ul><ul><li>-There </li></ul>(Activeworlds, 1995-present; image via www.virtualworldlets.net )
  71. 74. <ul><li>-Habbo Hotel </li></ul><ul><li>-Cyworld </li></ul>(Club Penguin, 2005-present) 2d-3d worlds -Runescape -VMK
  72. 75. Google Earth -Keyhole DB -2d: KML -3d: Sketchup -reach -Geotagging photos: videos Mirror worlds
  73. 76. Augmented Reality <ul><li>“ Human Pacman,” Adrian David Cheok, circa 2005 </li></ul>-mobile devices game players general use tools -science fiction explores (Vernor Vinge, Rainbows End )
  74. 77. Interactive Fiction <ul><li>Speaking of text adventures: </li></ul><ul><li>1980s boom: Infocom </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing art form </li></ul><ul><li>Nick Montfort, Twisty Little Passages </li></ul>(“Dead Cities”, from Lovecraft Commonplace Book project 2007 http:// www.illuminatedlantern.com/if/games/lovecraft / )
  75. 78. Interactive Fiction <ul><li>Speaking of text adventures: </li></ul><ul><li>Inform 7, free IF editor </li></ul>(Richard Liston, Ursinus College, classroom example 2008)
  76. 79. Narrative <ul><li>Where is storytelling in a game? </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence of activities </li></ul><ul><li>Cut-scene or cinematic </li></ul><ul><li>Writerly player </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia world (Murray, Manovich) </li></ul><ul><li>Ludology vs. narratology </li></ul><ul><li>Linearity? </li></ul><ul><li>Game on rails </li></ul><ul><li>Branching outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Multilinear </li></ul><ul><li>Open-ended </li></ul>
  77. 80. Alternate reality games <ul><li>Permeability of game boundary (space and time) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on distributed, collaborative cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Increased ephemerality </li></ul>(Perplex City, 2003-2006)
  78. 81. <ul><li>Political ARGs (ex: World Without Oil , May 2007) </li></ul>()
  79. 82. Gaming and education <ul><li>“Video games… situate meaning in a multimodal space through embodied experiences to solve problems and reflect on the intricacies of the design of imagined worlds and the design of both real and imagined social relationships and identities in the modern world.” </li></ul>
  80. 83. 21-century boom <ul><li>James Paul Gee (author of preceding quote) </li></ul><ul><li>Marc Presnsky </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Jenkins </li></ul><ul><li>John Seely Brown </li></ul><ul><li>Mia Consalvo </li></ul><ul><li>Constance Steinkuehler </li></ul><ul><li>Kurt Squire </li></ul>
  81. 84. James Paul Gee’s argument <ul><li>Semiotic domains; tranference </li></ul><ul><li>Embodied action and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Projective identity </li></ul><ul><li>Edging the regime of competence (Vygotsky) </li></ul><ul><li>Probe-reprobe cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning (roles; consumption-production) </li></ul>
  82. 85. Gee on Rise of Nations <ul><li>“Fish tank” tutorial </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic self-assessment </li></ul>
  83. 86. Multimedia literacies <ul><li>Gee: multimodal principle </li></ul><ul><li>Selfe et al : multimodal literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Bogost: procedural rhetoric </li></ul>Dean for American game (2004) Archived at http://www.deanforamericagame.com/play.html
  84. 87. Multimedia literacies <ul><li>“… within games, there are in fact multitudes of literacy practices – games are full of text, she asserted, to say nothing of the entirely text-based fandom communities online that take place in forums, blogs and social networks.” </li></ul><ul><li>Constance Steinkuehler, </li></ul><ul><li>FuturePlay 2007, Toronto </li></ul><ul><li>Quoted in http://www.gamasutra.com/php-bin/news_index.php?story =16264 </li></ul>
  85. 88. Which educational theory? <ul><li>Ian Bogost: behaviorist versus constructivist </li></ul><ul><li>Issues summoned up: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media effect (violence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer across domains, platforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Simulation gap” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjectivity and assessment </li></ul></ul>Image from Scot Osterweil, presentation to Learning from Video Games: Designing Digital Curriculums (NERCOMP SIG , 2007)
  86. 89. Pedagogical functions <ul><li>Jason Mittell, Middlebury college: </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Politics (criticism, activism) </li></ul><ul><li>Media studies (psych, cultural studies, media) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NITLE brownbag, January 2008 </li></ul></ul>
  87. 90. Pedagogy: virtual worlds <ul><li>Ancient Spaces project, University of British Columbia </li></ul>Machu Picchu, Arts Metaverse, Open Croquet
  88. 91. Pedagogy: virtual worlds <ul><li>Second Life, </li></ul><ul><li>Bryan Zelmanov </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy: social software </li></ul><ul><li>“ Emotional bandwidth” (Linden Labs) </li></ul><ul><li>Social presence </li></ul><ul><li>Self-expression </li></ul>
  89. 92. Game studies <ul><li>Serious Games </li></ul><ul><li>Conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Scholarly articles and books (MIT Press) </li></ul><ul><li>Games Learning Society conference, http://www.glsconference.org/2008/index.html </li></ul>
  90. 93. Game studies <ul><li>Liberal arts instances </li></ul><ul><li>Aaron Delwiche, Trinity (image) </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Spielvogel, Hope </li></ul><ul><li>Harry Brown, Depauw </li></ul>
  91. 94. III. Mobile <ul><li>All of Web 2.0, just more so </li></ul><ul><li>Ambient </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerating </li></ul><ul><li>Annotating </li></ul>http://www.phonebashing.com/
  92. 95. <ul><li>(Found on BBC site, June 2005) </li></ul>The problem of the American situation
  93. 96. <ul><li>Pedagogical elements </li></ul><ul><li>Information on demand </li></ul><ul><li>Time usage changes </li></ul><ul><li>Class/world barrier reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile, multimedia, social research </li></ul><ul><li>Personal intimacy with units </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Swarming </li></ul>
  94. 97. <ul><li>Pedagogies: new forms </li></ul>John Schott, Carleton College, 2006; University of Umea, 2004
  95. 98. <ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Platform profusion </li></ul><ul><li>Walled gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Network limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Student privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty/staff privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright poaching </li></ul><ul><li>(Blackbelt Jones, </li></ul><ul><li>November 2007; </li></ul><ul><li>Open Handset Alliance) </li></ul>
  96. 99. National Institute for Technology and Liberal Education (NITLE) http://nitle.org Liberal Education Today blog http://b2e.nitle.org
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