4 Climate & Tourism[1]


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4 Climate & Tourism[1]

  1. 1. Tourism & Hospitality Geography Climate & Tourism
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Understand the climatic elements and explain how these affect the various types of recreational tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to describe the distribution of world climates and their significance for tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the world climate zones and tourism. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>What is the weather to us? </li></ul><ul><li>How can the climate affect our plans and activities? </li></ul><ul><li>Even with air-conditioning, climate control, most of the tourist experience happens outdoors </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the recreation we participate in is weather dependent . </li></ul>
  4. 4. We and the Weather <ul><li>Climate usually determines the duration of the holiday season. </li></ul><ul><li>We also need to cope with seasonal demands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This creates the problem of seasonality, both in profitability and employment </li></ul><ul><li>But this climate-tourism relationship is changing. </li></ul>
  5. 5. LATITUDE <ul><li>Easily understood as distance from the equator </li></ul><ul><li>Another factor which influences the climate is the axis of rotation </li></ul><ul><li>This gives us our summer and winter months, shorter days and longer nights. </li></ul><ul><li>Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Tropic of Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>United Arab Emirates </li></ul><ul><li>Oman capital city Muscat </li></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>Bangladesh </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Tropics of Capricorn </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Madagascar </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa </li></ul>
  8. 8. Climatic Elements & Tourism Temperature Climatic Elements Sunshine Precipitation Air Quality Wind
  9. 9. Temperature <ul><li>The climate element which has greatest influence on tourist activity & the type of clothing worn. </li></ul><ul><li>Suitability of the activities to the weather at a particular place. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, water sports are essentially warm weather activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air and humidity effect the weather. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sunshine <ul><li>The effect of sunshine is particularly important at the seaside. </li></ul><ul><li>The safe length of exposure to the sun will depend on the holiday-maker’s skin type and the strength of suntan preparations. </li></ul><ul><li>Skiers and mountain climbers at high altitudes risk sunburn since the air is clear and sunlight reflected from snow and bare rock. </li></ul><ul><li>The growing incidence of skin cancer was worrying health authorities, and sunbathing will loose its popularity. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Wind <ul><li>Influenced in their direction and strength by the gradient between high and low pressure areas, by the Earth’s rotation, and topography. </li></ul><ul><li>A knowledge of the winds is essential for the sailors. </li></ul><ul><li>The effects of winds; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea breezes, more comfortable temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frostbite, strong wind and low temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The wind-chill factor, the major constraint on outdoor recreations </li></ul>
  12. 12. Precipitation <ul><li>Various forms of precipitation; rain, hail </li></ul><ul><li>(water ice/stones), sleet (mix of snow and rain/frozen rain ) and snow. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be seen as the constraint for activities, but depends on its intensity, duration, and seasonal distribution. (“wet” and “dry” seasons) </li></ul><ul><li>Snow can be an expensive hazard for transport, or as a valuable recreational resource. </li></ul><ul><li>It contributes to winter sports activities, which benefits to remote mountain communities, but also led to environmental degradation. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Air Quality <ul><li>The monitoring of air quality is increasingly crucial. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental issues & pollutions; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emission of sulphur dioxide from “smock-stack” industries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smog, or severe air pollution are particularly common in regions, which inhibit air movement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The unpleasant cocktail of gases poisons the air, reducing the visibility, blighting vegetation, eroding historical monuments and threatening the health of people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid rain have degraded forests and lakes. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Air Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could effect outdoor activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seen as an unhealthy threat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motor vehicles, transportation running on fossil fuel. </li></ul>
  15. 17. World Climate Zones <ul><li>Tropical Climates </li></ul><ul><li>The humid climates that have no winter season. </li></ul><ul><li>Located near the equator </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature (humidity/warmth) are high and rainfall is heavy </li></ul><ul><li>Can be divided into two groups; </li></ul>Tropical Rainforest Closest to the equator. Has rainfall all year. Ex: Hawaii, Tropical Savanna Distinct dry season. Ex: Caribbean, Mexico, Africa Miami, Florida
  16. 18. World Climate Zones <ul><li>Dry Climates </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of the deserted areas </li></ul><ul><li>Deserts, areas that are very dry, with less than then inches of rain per year. </li></ul><ul><li>Steppe are semi-arid climates (low amount of rainfall), receiving from eight to sixteen inches of rain per year. </li></ul><ul><li>Steppe has greater amount of vegetation (green surface) than the true desert. </li></ul><ul><li>Saharan atlas. </li></ul>
  17. 19. World Climate Zones <ul><li>Mesothermal Humid Climates </li></ul><ul><li>Occupy the middle latitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Found of the margins of continents in the middle latitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>The temperatures are either warmer because of the latitude, or moderated by the water and winds on the west coasts of continents. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be divided into 3 groups; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marine West Coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humid subtropical </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. World Climate Zones <ul><li>The Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Hot temperatures reaching in the summer, dropping during mild winters. </li></ul><ul><li>by hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal summer tourist destination </li></ul><ul><li>Southern California & Southern Europe, all Mediterranean sea areas. </li></ul>
  19. 21. World Climate Zones <ul><li>The Marine West Coast climate </li></ul><ul><li>Has relatively moderate temperatures all year. </li></ul><ul><li>No dry season, quite humid all year. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: London, England; Paris, France; Seattle, Washington </li></ul>
  20. 22. World Climate Zones <ul><li>The Humid Subtropical Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Has hot summer and chilly mild winters </li></ul><ul><li>It receives between 25 to 50 inches of rain yearly, and is humid, which affects the comfort level for people. </li></ul><ul><li>The fall is the best time to visit places with such climates. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: American South – Atlanta, Charleston, Orlando, Florida Cities. </li></ul>
  21. 23. World Climate Zones <ul><li>Microthermal Humid Climates (little heat with more snowy winters) </li></ul><ul><li>Also in the middle latitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Have cooler winters than the mesothermal humid climates </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as Humid Continental Climates </li></ul><ul><li>Cold, snowy winters, alternate with warm, humid summer conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Chicago, Moscow, and Beijing </li></ul><ul><li>Spring and fall are ideal times to visit places in these climates. </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation characterized by mid-latitude forests. </li></ul><ul><li>Autumn colors in New England typify the beauty of places. </li></ul>
  22. 24. World Climate Zones <ul><li>Polar climates </li></ul><ul><li>Include subarctic, tundra, and icecap climates. </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism is associated with hunting, fishing, camping, and naturalist-related activities like animal geography. </li></ul><ul><li>The Arctic and Antarctica </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism is limited and restricted to a very short season. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Conclusion <ul><li>Climate is one of the key factors influencing tourism development and holiday travel. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors of climate strongly influence particular types of recreational activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate is subject to change, and so that the tour operators and tourism generally will have to adapt. </li></ul>