3  Tourism Resources
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  • 1. Tourism & Hospitality Geography The Geography of Resources for Tourism
  • 2. Objectives
    • Appreciate the nature of resources for tourism.
    • Distinguish the methods used to classify and evaluate resources for tourism.
    • Outline the main factors favoring the development of tourist resources.
    • Understand the way that destinations evolve.
    • Appreciate the need for tourism planning and sustainable development.
  • 3. Resources for Tourism
    • 3 characteristics of tourism resources;
      • Tourist resources is normally taken to refer to tangible objects.
      • Tourist resources are not used solely by tourists.
      • Tourist resources are perishable.
  • 4. Planning for Tourism Resources
    • Tourism brought economic benefits of employment, income and development.
    • Economic imperative overlooked the environmental social and cultural consequences.
    • Tourism planning evolved from an inflexible, physical planning approach to a flexible process which seeks to maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of tourism.
  • 5. Continued..
    • Tourism planning;
      • Is based on sound research
      • Involves local community in setting goals and priorities
      • Is implemented by the public sector in partnership with the private sector
    • Key concept to tourism planning is;
      • Carrying Capacity.
        • Planner determine the level of use that can be sustained by a tourist resource and manage to that level.
  • 6. Carrying Capacity
    • It refers to the ability of a destination to take tourism use without deteriorating in some way.
    • Mathieson and Wall (1982);
    • “ The maximum number of people who can use a site without unacceptable alteration in the physical environment and without an unacceptable decline in the quality of experience gained by visitors.”
  • 7. Continued..
    • Different types of carrying capacity:
      • From the point of view of the resource
        • Physical carrying capacity
          • Refers to number of facilities
        • Environmental or biological carrying capacity
          • Limits of use in the ecosystem
      • From the point of view of the visitor
        • Psychological or behavioral carrying capacity
          • The point at which the visitor feels that additional tourist would spoil their experience
      • From the point of view of the host community
        • Social carrying capacity
          • The ability of the host community to tolerate tourism
  • 8. Tourism Resources at the World Scale
    • Physical features
      • Mountains
      • More gently slopping hill lands
      • Elevated plateaus
      • (land above surface)
      • Lowland plains
    • Cultural features
      • Cultural differences across the world in terms of language, art, festivals, folklore, handicrafts, food, music and the way of life of different peoples
  • 9. Tourist Resources at the National Scale
    • Classification of resources for tourism
      • Natural
      • Human-made
      • Human-made and purpose-built
      • Special events
    • A broader view of the tourism resource base
      • User-oriented areas of highly intensive development close to population centers
      • Resource-based areas where the type of resource determines the use of the area
      • An intermediate category, where access is the determining factor
  • 10. Continued..
    • Evaluation of resources for tourism
      • Measurement of the suitability of the resource base to support different forms of tourism.
      • Problem- to include the varied requirements of different users.
    • The tourism product
      • Attractions, accessibility, amenities and ancillary services, combined to provide tourism product.
  • 11. Tourist Resources at the Local Scale
    • Private sector (banks)
    • Public sector
      • Central government
      • State-funded organization
    • Voluntary sector
    • -non profit making organizations (initiative)
    • Local community
  • 12. The Tourist Area Life Cycle The authorities attempt to “re-launch” the destination by providing new facilities, attracting new markets and re-investing. Rejuvenation Visitors visit new places. Destination depends on a smaller geographical catchments and repeat visit. Decline Peak visitor number. The destination is unfashionable with environmental, social and economic problems. Promotional efforts needed. Stagnation Destination is fully-fledged part of the tourist industry. The rate of increase of visitors is reducing. Recreational business emerged. Consolidation Large # of visitors. Control passed to national & international companies. Change in image and overuse may begin. Development Local initiatives provide facilities and advertising ensues. Large # of visitors. Tourist season & public sector involvement. Involvement Small # of adventurous tourists, un-spoilt nature and cultural features Exploration
  • 13. Conclusion
    • Developed tourist resources are cultural appraisals, considered by society to be of economic value.
    • Tourism planning for resources become vital as it could minimize the cost of tourism and to maintain integrity of the resource base.