Tourism & Hospitality Geography The Geography of Resources for Tourism
Objectives Appreciate the nature of resources for tourism. Distinguish the methods used to classify and evaluate resources for tourism. Outline the main factors favoring the development of tourist resources. Understand the way that destinations evolve.
Appreciate the need for tourism planning and sustainable development.
Resources for Tourism 3 characteristics of tourism resources; Tourist resources is normally taken to refer to tangible objects. Tourist resources are not used solely by tourists.
Tourist resources are perishable.
Planning for Tourism Resources Tourism brought economic benefits of employment, income and development. Economic imperative overlooked the environmental social and cultural consequences.
Tourism planning evolved from an inflexible, physical planning approach to a flexible process which seeks to maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of tourism.
Continued.. Is based on sound research Involves local community in setting goals and priorities Is implemented by the public sector in partnership with the private sector Key concept to tourism planning is;
Planner determine the level of use that can be sustained by a tourist resource and manage to that level.
Carrying Capacity It refers to the ability of a destination to take tourism use without deteriorating in some way. Mathieson and Wall (1982);
“ The maximum number of people who can use a site without unacceptable alteration in the physical environment and without an unacceptable decline in the quality of experience gained by visitors.”
Continued.. Different types of carrying capacity: From the point of view of the resource Physical carrying capacity Refers to number of facilities Environmental or biological carrying capacity Limits of use in the ecosystem From the point of view of the visitor Psychological or behavioral carrying capacity The point at which the visitor feels that additional tourist would spoil their experience From the point of view of the host community
The ability of the host community to tolerate tourism
Tourism Resources at the World Scale More gently slopping hill lands
Cultural differences across the world in terms of language, art, festivals, folklore, handicrafts, food, music and the way of life of different peoples
Tourist Resources at the National Scale Classification of resources for tourism Human-made and purpose-built A broader view of the tourism resource base User-oriented areas of highly intensive development close to population centers Resource-based areas where the type of resource determines the use of the area
An intermediate category, where access is the determining factor
Continued.. Evaluation of resources for tourism Measurement of the suitability of the resource base to support different forms of tourism. Problem- to include the varied requirements of different users.
Attractions, accessibility, amenities and ancillary services, combined to provide tourism product.
Tourist Resources at the Local Scale State-funded organization
-non profit making organizations (initiative)
The Tourist Area Life Cycle The authorities attempt to “re-launch” the destination by providing new facilities, attracting new markets and re-investing. Rejuvenation Visitors visit new places. Destination depends on a smaller geographical catchments and repeat visit. Decline Peak visitor number. The destination is unfashionable with environmental, social and economic problems. Promotional efforts needed. Stagnation Destination is fully-fledged part of the tourist industry. The rate of increase of visitors is reducing. Recreational business emerged. Consolidation Large # of visitors. Control passed to national & international companies. Change in image and overuse may begin. Development Local initiatives provide facilities and advertising ensues. Large # of visitors. Tourist season & public sector involvement. Involvement Small # of adventurous tourists, un-spoilt nature and cultural features Exploration
Conclusion Developed tourist resources are cultural appraisals, considered by society to be of economic value.
Tourism planning for resources become vital as it could minimize the cost of tourism and to maintain integrity of the resource base.