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Chapter 22 Assessment

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  • 1. Chapter 22 Notes
  • 2. The Scientific Revolution• Root of Modern Science – Looked to the Greeks (Aristotle) and the Bible to answer questions about the world – Medieval Times • Earth was unmovable and center of universe – Geocentric theory » Moon and sun moved around earth – Mid-1500’s • Scientists begin to publish findings – Based on observation and willingness to question accepted ideas – Later is known as the scientific revolution
  • 3. The Scientific Revolution• Causes of Scientific Revolution – Translation of Muslim texts – Academic courses in Astronomy, physics and math – New discoveries through out the world • Opened the possibility that there were more unknown truths – Exploration • Fuels scientific research – Printing Press • Spreads ideas- Fast
  • 4. The Universe• Challenging accepted science – Astronomy • Heliocentric Theory of the Universe – Nicolaus Copernicus – 25 years of planetary research – Reasoned that the planets, and stars revolved around the sun – Didn’t publish because of fear of ridicule and persecutions » His idea would contradict the idea that God put the Earth in the center of the Universe
  • 5. The Universe• Challenging accepted science – Galieo • Discovered – Law of the pendulum – All things fall at the same rate – Other astronomical things • Church was threatened by his findings – Made him renounce his findings – Kept him under house arrest till the end of his life
  • 6. The scientific method• Logical procedure for collecting and testing ideas – Start with a problem – Come up with a hypothesis – Test hypothesis with experimentation – Analyze and interpret the data
  • 7. Scientific method, Bacon and Descartes• Bacon – Refined the idea of empiricism • Observe, collect data and draw conclusions from data• Descartes – Developed analytical geometry – Link algebra and geometry – Doubt everything until proven by reason – “I think, therefore I am”
  • 8. Newton explain gravity- Hooray• Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy – Very influential scientific books – Universe worked similar to a watch • God was the creator of the watch (universe)
  • 9. Scientific instruments• Zacharias Jenssen – Created first microscope in 1590• Evangelista Torricelli – Created the first barometer in 1643 • Necessary in the prediction of weather• Gabriel Fahrenheit – Created first thermometer to use mercury in glass in 1714• Ander Celsius – Created another scale for measuring temperature in 1742
  • 10. Medicine and the Human Body• Andreas Vesalius – Mid-1500’s • Dissected human bodies • Published detailed drawings of human organs, bones and muscles• William Harvey – 1628 • Published book on the heart and circulation• Edward Jenner – Late 1700’s • Introduced a vaccine to prevent smallpox
  • 11. The Enlightenment in Europe• Scientific Revolution pave the way for “new” thinking in government, religion, economics and education• Reaches its height in the mid-1700s• Also known at the Age of Reason
  • 12. Government• Hobbes’ social contract – Thomas Hobbes • Leviathan (his writings) • Convinced that all people are selfish and wicked • Only an absolute leader could control the behavior of his citizens • Social contract – People give up their rights to a strong leader and in turn gain law and order
  • 13. Government• Locke’s Natural Right – John Locke • People could learn from experience and improve themselves • Criticized absolute rule • Advocated for self-rule • Natural rights (all people are born free and equal) – Life – Liberty – Property • Government’s role is to protect those rights
  • 14. The philosophes advocate reason• Mid-1700’s – Paris becomes meeting place for people who want to discuss politics and ideas – Social critiques become known as the philosophes – People could apply reason to all aspects of life
  • 15. The philosophes advocate reason• Turn to page 552, summarize the 5 concepts that form the core of the philosophes philosophy
  • 16. Extra space to write• Reason – Truths are discovered through reason or logical thinking• Nature – Natural=good and reasonable – Natural laws of economics/politics• Happiness – People who lived by natural laws=happy – Didn’t want to accept misery for happiness after death• Progress – Humankind can be perfected• Liberty – Freedom on the liberties they believed to be inherent – No restrictions on speech religion, trade, personal travel
  • 17. Voltaire Combats intolerance• Francois Marie Arouet (Voltaire) – French philosopher • Humanities worse enemies – Intolerance – Prejudice – Superstition• Montesquieu and the Separation of Powers – Division of power between different branches of a government – Separation of Powers – Outlines the idea of checks and balances that is a basis to our govrnment
  • 18. Rousseau: Champion of Freedom• Jean Jacques Rousseau – Believed that all people should consent and agree on forming a society- Social Contract – All people are equal and titles of nobility should be abolished – Inspires leaders of the French Revolution
  • 19. Beccaria Promotes Criminal justice• Ceasre Beccaria – Laws exists to preserve social order not avenge crimes • Against common abuses of justice – Torture – Irregular proceedings in trials – Cruel and unusual punishments • Advocated – Speedy trials – Punishments that fit the crimes – Abolition of the death penalty
  • 20. Impact of the Enlightenment• Belief in progress – Through reason a better society was possible – End of slavery – Better education• More secular outlook – People begin to question religious beliefs – Religious tolerance is explored• Importance of the individual – Look inward for guidance – Examine right and wrong for themselves
  • 21. Sread of Enlightenment Ideas• Denis Diderot – spread enlightened thinking in all areas by publishing the Encyclopedia• Franz Joseph Hayden – broke from traditionally ornate musical forms and developed the sonata and symphony• Wolfgang Amedeus Mozart – set a new standard for elegance and originality with his varied and numerous musical compositions• Ludwig van Beethoven – exhibited great range in his works; moved from the classical style of Mozart to begin new trend that carried music into the Age of Romanticism
  • 22. The Spread of the Enlightenment ideas• Samuel Richardson – wrote Pamela, the first English novel• Frederick the Great – committed himself to the goal of reforming and strengthening his country; granted many religious freedoms, reduced censorship, improved education and the justice system, and abolished torture; considered that the king should be “first servant of the state”• Joseph II – Abolished serfdom, initiated legal reforms, introduced freedom of the press, supported freedom of religion• Catherine the Great – tried to modernize and reform Russia according to the writings of the philosophes; accomplished limited reforms
  • 23. Terms• Salon – social gathering in a person’s home at which enlightened thinkers shared ideas and enjoy artistic performances• Baroque – grand ornate style of the arts that was popular before the Enlightenment• Neoclassical – simple and elegant style of the arts that emphasized order and balance and borrowed ideas and themes from classical Greece and Rome• Enlightened despot – absolute monarch who reflected Enlightenment ideals of reform and reason
  • 24. Baroque
  • 25. Neoclassical
  • 26. Name three developments in the arts during the Enlightenment• Arts reflected order and balance• Artists and architects borrowed ideas from classical Rome and Greece• Novel developed
  • 27. What sorts of reforms did the enlightened despots make? In what respects did their reforms fail?• Greater religious tolerance• Reduced censorship• Reduced torture• Many were limited or temporary• Failed to improve lives for the peasants
  • 28. Causes Events EffectsBritish needs to pay of French British parliament passes the Colonist boycottand Indian War Stamp Act manufactured goods in protest: Parliament repeals the Stamp Act taxColonists protest an import British close Boston harbor First Continental Congresstax on tea and dump tea off and station troops in the city meets to protest punishmentBritish ships of BostonBritish soldiers and American Second Continental Congress American Revolution beingsmilitiamen exchange fire at votes to form an army underLexington and Concord command of G. WashingtonFrance wants to weaken its France enters the war in 1778 Combined forces result inenemy Britain victory for the AmericansStates need a plan for a By approving the Articles of National government is set upnational govt. but want to Confederation, states create but is powerless to governprotect their own authority a weak national govt.Congress unable to pay debt- Daniel Shays leads a Congress approves aridden farmers for services in rebellion in Massachusetts Constitutional Convention tothe war revise the Articles of Confederation
  • 29. How do the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution reflect the ideals of the Enlightenment?• D of I uses the political ideals of John Locke to defend the rebellion against a govt. that abuse the natural rights of its citizens – Written by Thomas Jefferson• Constitution contains a series of checks and balances and a federal system that divides power – Montesquieu’s idea• Bill of rights guarantees many rights and freedoms advocated by the philosophes – Freedom of speech, religion, and protects the right of people accused of crimes