PHARE - Compilation


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Compilation of the research done by EuroControl/SESAR on the PHARE ATM project in the late 90s.

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PHARE - Compilation

  1. 1. PHARE: A Compilation Notes from the PHARE Program Reports
  2. 2. “Programme for Harmonised ATM Research in EUROCONTROL (PHARE)” • Future Air Traffic Management (ATM) concept: – Organize, co-ordinate and conduct studies and experiments to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of a future air-ground integrated air traffic management system – Started in 1989 and completed in 1999 • Objective -- to prove that an integrated air/ground environment using advanced ATM tools and Human Machine Interfaces would provide increased airspace capacity
  3. 3. Program Design PHARE comprised: • Initial concept definition and elaboration studies, • Development of tools (airborne, ground, communication and supporting tools), and • Large scale real-time simulations (PDs) Three PDs were planned: • PHARE Demonstration 1 addressing En-route issues • PHARE Demonstration 2 focusing on the Extended Terminal Maneuvering Area (ETMA) • PHARE Demonstration 3 providing a multi-site integrated experiment addressing flights from departure to arrival
  4. 4. Topics Addressed (1) • Capabilities of aircraft with advanced navigation and flight management equipment • Advanced automation support for air traffic controllers • Modification of controller roles including new concepts of task sharing within groups of controllers and multi-sector planning • Ground Human Machine Interface for efficient and effective use of the automation support
  5. 5. Topics Addressed (2) • Use of data-link for air ground-ground information exchange, in particular for trajectory negotiation • Better meteorological forecasting to improve trajectory prediction • A common integration environment • A common methodology and standard set of tools and procedures for experimental validation.
  6. 6. Concept-level (Evolutionary) Requirements • Aircraft to have progressively more accurate navigational performance in space (2D, 3D) and ultimately in space and time (4D) • ATM ground system to be continuously informed of each aircraft’s current position and its intentions • ATC to exploit this high quality information through more optimal decision-making
  7. 7. Concept Summary • The trajectory used by the ground system shall whenever possible be the trajectory generated by the aircraft systems • The trajectory for an aircraft shall be chosen by the pilot and shall only be constrained by ATC when necessary for de-confliction or to follow defined procedures • Flight trajectories shall be predicted taking into account constraints for the entire flight allowing management of the flight for greatest efficiency and economy • Decision making shall not be automated to the extent that the human is out of the picture; automation shall assist, not take over
  8. 8. Concepts (1) • Trajectory Prediction • Advanced Planning • Multi-Sector Planning • Tactical Load Smoother • Arrival Management • Departure Management
  9. 9. Concepts (2) • Conflict Solving Assistance • Co-operative Tools • Flight Path Monitoring • Air/Ground Negotiation • Ground/Ground Negotiation • Meteo
  10. 10. Key Notes (1) • Trajectory Predictor provides the following services: – Calculating optimal 4D trajectories, from aircraft current position to last position on planned route. – Flight Path Monitor to confirm an aircraft is following the agreed trajectory. • Advanced Planning – Conflict detection has to be provided which supports the optimization of traffic throughput and early conflict resolution. • Multi-Sector Planner is responsible for the medium- term planning of the trajectories that enter the Multi-Sector Area (MSA)
  11. 11. Key Notes (2) • Tactical Load Smoother provides the Multi-Sector Planner with information regarding the future “complexity” of the Multi-Sector Area: – Predict and analyze the air-traffic situation that will evolve some 10 to 40 minutes later. • Total number of aircraft • Number of conflicts • Complexity of the trajectories as assessed by number of vector changes – If one (or more) of the values passes the threshold level, an alarm can be generated to the Multi-Sector Planner.
  12. 12. Key Notes (3) • Arrival Manager is a ground based planning tool, used to: – Support ATC in automatically establishing an optimal arrival sequence – Enables ATC to manually edit the computed sequence – Provides for “what if” sequence generation • Departure Manager is a ground based planning tool, used to: – Allocating departure runways and providing takeoff schedules – Optimizing conflict-free climbing trajectories – ATC able to modify computed sequences – Includes a “what-if” mode
  13. 13. Key Notes (4) • Conflict Probe executes every time a new trajectory is generated, searching the flight database to see if any other trajectory conflicted • Co-operative Tools not only displays the conflicting aircraft but also aircraft that are close enough to the conflict for ATC to consider • Problem Solver does not provide solutions independent of ATC, but allows them to model de- conflictions (simple mouse “drag-and-draw” function) and then issue the trajectory constraints to apply solutions
  14. 14. Key Notes (5) • Flight Path Monitoring compares 4D tracked positions of aircraft against their 4D planned positions so as to detect deviations between them. – Deviations are calculated in three dimensions: • Laterally • Longitudinally • Vertically – For each direction, deviations are characterized as being insignificant, medium, or large (determined by Trajectory Predictor) and represent region of permissible error
  15. 15. Key Notes (6) • Trajectory Negotiation (TN) is the heart of air/ground integration – Air and ground systems interchanged detailed information about their requirements and come to an agreed contract for the execution of a flight (or the next segment of it) – Aircraft down links full details of its preferred trajectory – Ground ATM assesses this for possible conflict and responds with any necessary time or altitude constraints to prevent loss of separation – Constraints are then applied from the preferred trajectory leaving the final agreement as close as possible to it
  16. 16. Key Notes (7) • Negotiation Manager (NM) tool developed to handle trajectory passing between the ground sectors for ground/ground negotiation process – Studies found the NM was not compatible with the prevailing methods of control, i.e. with Letters of Agreement (LOAs) for sector transfer etc. – More work needed in future studies • Meteo portion of project studied the accuracy of meteorological forecasting and wind forecasting and the effect on modeling and implementation of aircraft trajectories
  17. 17. Outcomes & Conclusions (1) • ATC who participated in the experiments clearly recognized the potential of the PHARE concept • Also realized that it would lead to considerable changes in their roles – Tends to reinforce planning rather than executive tasks • Real-time trials on a variety of sectors showed: – Increasing traffic throughput (2X traffic load over 1989 baseline) – Maintaining an acceptable level of controller workload • Study could not conclusively demonstrate increased capacity
  18. 18. Outcomes & Conclusions (2) • Successfully demonstrated that the concept of trajectory control and trajectory negotiation could be conducted over a data link • Reliability and performance of air/ground data link based on SATCOM proved insufficient to demonstrate the full capability of PHARE concept • Ground ATM system tools appeared to achieve their aim of providing assistance to ATC • PHARE concept works well in en-route control when there is sufficient time to exercise advanced planning – Sectors must be large enough to profit from a 20-minute or more look-ahead • Significant reduction of ATC workload with 4D FMS and data link equipped aircraft