Making the Best of Economic Uncertainties
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NDSU 2009 Fall Conference PowerPoint slides from the general session.

NDSU 2009 Fall Conference PowerPoint slides from the general session.

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Making the Best of Economic Uncertainties Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Making the Best of Economic Uncertainties Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D. North Dakota State University Agriculture Extension and Research Fall Conference Friday, October 16, 2009 Holiday Inn Fargo, ND
  • 2. 1210 7 th Street, Suite C Harlan, Iowa 51537 Telephone: 712-235-6100 Fax: 712-235-6105 Email: [email_address] Web site: www.agriwellness.org   Building hope and health in the rural agricultural community Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5. AgriWellness – Building Hope and Health in the Rural Community
    • Who We Are
    • AgriWellness was founded in
    • 2001 to provide administrative
    • support, technical assistance and
    • provider training in the Sowing
    • the Seeds of Hope region (i.e.,
    • Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota,
    • Nebraska, North Dakota, South
    • Dakota and Wisconsin). We build
    • culturally competent, accessible,
    • affordable behavioral health
    • services for the agriculture
    • community.
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 6. Sowing the Seeds of Hope Farm Crisis Hotlines
    • Iowa Concern Hotline: 800-447-1985
    • http://extension.iastate.edu/iowaconcern
    • Kansas Rural Family Helpline: 866-327-6578
    • http://www.humec.k-state.edu/fshs/pfws/krfhprogram.html
    • Minnesota Crisis Connection: 866-379-6363
    • http://www.crisis.org
    • Nebraska Rural Response Hotline: 800-464-0258
    • http://uccnebraska.org/mission/RuralLife.html
    • 2-1-1 ND
    • http://www.mhand.org
    • South Dakota Rural Helpline: 800-664-1349
    • http://www.rapidcitydiocese.org/Home/HomePage.htm
    • Wisconsin Farm Center: 800-942-2474
    • http://www/datcp.state.wi.us/core/agriculture/farm-center
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 7. The SSoH Hotlines/Helplines Provide:
    • Culturally appropriate telephone counseling to callers who are employed in agricultural occupations
    • Three of the SSoH farm crisis services (Minnesota Crisis Connection, 2-1-1 ND , South Dakota Rural Helpline) are certified by the American Association of Suicidology to provide suicide prevention 24/7
    • At least two of the SSoH farm crisis services (Iowa Concern Hotline, 2-1-1 ND ) are accredited by the Alliance of Information and Referral Systems
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 8. The SSoH Hotlines/Helplines Provide (Cont):
    • All the SSoH hotlines/helplines offer information and referral for professional behavioral health services, other supports as needed (e.g., legal advice, mediation, financial expertise, etc.), community education, and most are able to offer support groups, educational retreats and home visits by outreach workers
    • All the SSoH hotlines/helplines have state coalitions of supporters who may assist with promotion and funding
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 9. Why Do People Farm?
    • Agriculture is a noble and essential occupation, a profoundly spiritual way of life.
    • - Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D.
    • Those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God.
    • - Thomas Jefferson
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 10. The Agrarian Imperative
    • Like many animal species, humans have a
    • basic need to acquire sufficient territory to produce
    • the food and shelter required by their families and
    • communities. Also called “the agrarian
    • personality”, this genetically programmed instinct
    • drives farmers to hang onto their land at all costs.
    • The agrarian imperative instills farmers to work
    • incredibly hard, to endure unusual pain and
    • hardship and to take uncommon risks.
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 11.
    • To farmers, “the land is everything.”
    • Ownership of a family farm is the
    • triumphant result of the struggles of
    • many generations. Losing the family
    • farm is the ultimate loss – bringing shame
    • to the generation that has let down their
    • forebearers and dashing the hopes for
    • successors.
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 12.  
  • 13.
    • Agriculture has two major
    • components: “Agri” and “Culture.”
    • It is necessary for health service
    • providers to understand the
    • culture of food producers as well as
    • the agricology of food production.
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 14. What are the Cultures of North Dakota Agricultural People?
    • Farmers
    • Ranchers
    • Native People
    • Hispanics/Latinos
    • Hutterites
    • Others?
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 15.
    • Research has accumulated which
    • indicates that the agricultural
    • population has a higher incidence
    • of depression, related to stress,
    • than the non-agricultural population.
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 16.
    • The relationship between stress and
    • performance is an inverted U-shape
    • function, that is, as stress increases,
    • performance improves until stress becomes
    • overwhelming; thereafter, as stress
    • increases, performance deteriorates and an
    • individual may become incapacitated.
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 17. Risk for Farm – Related Injuries
    • Farmers experiencing high economic
    • related stress are 2 – 3 times more
    • likely to experience a serious injury
    • than farmers not experiencing high
    • stress.
    Source: K. Thu, et al. (1997) Stress as a Risk Factor for Agricultural Injuries. Journal of Agromedicine 4 (3/4) 181-191. Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 18.
    • By its very nature, agriculture is
    • enmeshed in cycles of life and
    • death. It is more than
    • coincidence that farmers are
    • more apt to take their lives
    • during the planting and harvest
    • seasons than at other times.
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 19.  
  • 20. Age-Adjusted U.S. Suicide Rates by Urban-Rural, 1970 – 1997 Source: Singh, G. K., & Siahpush, M. (2002). The increasing rural-urban gradients in U.S. suicide mortality, 1970 – 1997. American Journal of Public Health , 92 (7), 1161-1167. Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 21. Comparison of Suicide by Farmers vs. Non-Farmers* Source: Gunderson, P., Donner, B., Nashold, R., Salkowicz, L., Sperry, S., & Wittman, B. (1993). The epidemiology of suicide among farm residents or workers in five north-central states, 1980 - 1988. American Journal of Preventive Medicine , 9 , 26-32. Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009 Farmers Non-Farmers Rate is twice the national average. Rate is slightly below average. Likely to occur in spring and fall. More likely to occur in summer. More likely to occur on Sunday, Monday and Tuesday. More likely to occur on Friday and Saturday. More likely to occur between 6:00 and 11:59 a.m. More likely to occur in late p.m., early a.m. Firearms are main method. Greater variety of methods. Few attempts precede suicide. Many attempts precede suicide.
  • 22. Characteristics of Callers to the Sowing the Seeds of Hope Hotlines/Helplines
    • Reasons for calling the hotlines:
      • Marital/family concerns – 24.6%
      • Problems coping with daily activities –27.7%
      • Feeling Depressed – 27.7%
      • Alcohol/drug abuse – 4.9%
      • Gambling – .6%
      • Stress over finances – 14.3%
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 23. Characteristics of Callers to the Sowing the Seeds of Hope Hotlines/Helplines (Cont.)
    • 79% lived on farms and were farmers
    • 11% lived on farms and were connected with agriculture but were not farmers
    • 10% were farmers and lived in town
    • 1.6% of callers (i.e., 685 out of 43,852 callers) reported suicidal ideation; 77 persons reported a suicide and 56 persons had attempted suicide
    • 54.5% of the callers were female
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 24. Characteristics of Callers to the Sowing the Seeds of Hope Hotlines/Helplines (Cont.)
    • 88.7% of 43,852 callers were adults, ages 18 – 64
    • 10.2% were adults older than 64 years
    • 1.1% were children and adolescents under 18 years
    • 86% were White/Non-Hispanic people
    • 2.7% were Black/African-Americans
    • 1.9% were American Indians
    • 1.1% were Hispanic
    • 8.3% were two or more races or not reported
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 25. Behavioral Health Conditions of 122 Farm Residents Experiencing Economic Stress     Primary Behavioral Health Condition Percent   Marital and Partner Relationship Difficulties 21 Parent-child Relational Problem 10 Other Family Issues 9 Adjustment Disorders of all Types 24 Depressive Illnesses 18 Anxiety Disorders 11 Schizophrenia and Psychotic Disorders 2 Substance Abuse* 5   *Substance abuse occurred as a secondary condition in 40% of the primary conditions. Source: Rosmann, M. R. (1987). The rural revolution of the 1980’s: Where are we – where are we going? National Association of Counties Knowledge Transfer Workshop, Des Moines, IA. 40  Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 26. The Arousal-Depletion Cycle*
    • The individual appraises the situation as threatening.
    • The sympathetic nervous system becomes aroused with a flood of neurotransmitter chemicals which prepare the individual to fight the threat or take flight from the threat or simply freeze.
    • Eventually, arousal depletes the nervous system of neurotransmitters, resulting in deficiencies of neurotransmitters normally associated with wellbeing, chiefly serotonin and norepinephrine.
    • Now depleted of essential neurotransmitters and as a result of the accumulation of cortisol, the individual feels tired but irritable, lethargic, and in short, depressed.
    • Often additional threats trigger repetition of the arousal-depletion cycle, leading to adaptational fatigue and chronic severe depression.
    • Multiple stressors wear down the individual’s ability to cope physiologically and psychologically, resulting in exhaustion, depression and even compromise to the immune system’s capacity to ward off disease
    Adapted from Antai-Otong, D. (1995). Psychiatric Nursing: Biological and behavioral concepts . Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders . Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 27.
    • There is a positive association between economic stress (e.g., unemployment) and suicide (Ortega, Johnson, Beeson and Kraft, 1994).
    • Depression and hopelessness often accompany overwhelming stress (Davidson, 1996).
    • Changes in family practices (e.g., increasing isolation because of fewer farmers and the need for family members to work off the farm) fit with the family stress model (Singh and Siahpush, 2002).
    • Suicide can be seen as a last ditch attempt to escape from overwhelming stress and despair (Rosmann, 1999).
    • Protective factors that reduce stress and its negative consequences involve support from a web of connections among members of the extended family and the local community (Carson, Araquistain, Ide, Quoss, et all 1994; Rettig, Danes and Bauer, 1991).
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 28. Managing Our Behavior
    • Behavior, like a feed ration, has
    • ingredients that can be varied to
    • maximize our well-being: what we
    • consume, how much and how hard
    • we work, sleep, recreate, pray,
    • laugh, talk and so forth .
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 29.  
  • 30. Factors That Increase Distress, Depression and Suicide:
    • Severe economic stress, leading to restructuring or forced sale of livestock and/or equipment and land
    • Exposures to certain classes of farm pesticides, including organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated substances
    • Sleep deprivation
    • Serious physical illnesses
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 31. Factors That Increase Distress, Depression and Suicide (cont.):
    • Recent loss of one or more loved ones
    • Unemployment
    • Entanglement in illegal activities
    • Divorce
    • Substance abuse
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 32. Did You Know? Persistent sleep deprivation is associated with :
    • Proneness to sleepiness when one should be attentive (e.g., while driving, operating farm equipment)
    • Slowed reaction time (ten hours of accumulated sleep deprivation is similar physiologically to .08 blood alcohol level)
    • Verbal and motor mistakes
    • Poor memory recall as well as difficulty learning new information
    • Emotional discontrol and increased proneness to violence and impulse discontrol
    • Immune system deficiency
    • Cardiac difficulties
    • Mood disorders
    • Earlier death
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 33. Danger Signals of Excessive Stress, Depression and Suicide
    • Verbalizations about hopelessness (e.g., “It’s no use, nothing I do works; what’s the use in trying anymore; I feel like giving up”)
    • Verbalizations about loss of interest or pleasure in doing things (e.g., “I don’t care about anything anymore; I haven’t laughed in a long time; nothing is fun”)
    • Dramatic statements and threats (e.g., “I feel like shooting all my hogs; I’m going to get that jerk if it’s the last thing I do”)
    • Avoiding social or public events such as church or kids’ sports and activities
    • Isolation, retreating behavior, flat affect
    • Deterioration in appearance of the livestock or farm, too high somatic cell counts, pastures overstocked, machinery fences and farm buildings unpainted and in disrepair
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 34. Danger Signals of Excessive Stress, Depression and Suicide (cont.)
    • Decline in personal appearance from the usual
    • Too many stressors occurring simultaneously (e.g., inability to make payments to lenders, multiple animal deaths, natural disasters such as drought or tornadoes)
    • Persistent trouble falling or staying asleep or sleeping too much
    • Near tears, such as the “lump in the throat” phenomenon but without actual crying
    • Emotional paralysis, such as inability to make a decision
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 35. Behaviors That Promote Release of Productive Hormones Such As Serotonin and Norepinephrine
    • Vigorous physical exercise
    • Laughter
    • Deep sleep, with active dreaming
    • Physical intimacy
    • Talking with persons you trust
    • Prayer and meditation
    • Receiving comforting touches
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 36. AgriWellness Resources
    • Check our website: http://www.agriwellness.org , which lists
      • All the Sowing the Seeds of Hope helplines and the helplines that are available in three other states
      • Links to other helpful resources
      • A glossary of agricultural and behavioral health terms
      • Papers and publications
      • Information about our biannual conference, along with conference proceedings
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 37. AgriWellness Resources (cont.)
    • AgriWellness newsletters: email us at [email_address] to receive:
      • Healthy Farmer, a newsletter for agricultural people
      • AgriWellness Partners, a newsletter for agencies, organizations and individuals interested in serving the agricultural population
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 38. North Dakota Resources
    • Do you have a list of resources that includes:
      • 2-1-1ND
      • Your mediation services providers
      • Your AgrAbility program
      • Your free Legal Aid service
      • Mental health and addictions directories
      • Job retraining resources
      • Agronomic resources
      • Animal husbandry resources
      • State subsidized health insurance provider
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 39. North Dakota Resources (cont.)
    • Farm Rescue – 701-252-2017; [email_address]
    • Rural Assistance Center: 1-800-270-1898; [email_address]
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 40. Resources for Behavioral Health Assessment Tools
    • National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ( www.niaa.nih.gov )
    • National Institute of Drug Abuse ( www.nida.nih.gov )
    • Screening for Mental Health, Inc. Telephone: (781) 239-0071 ( www.mentalhealthscreening.org )
    • Rural Assistance Center ( www.raconline.org ) Toll Free: 1-800-270-1898
    • SAMHSA ( www.samhsa.gov/centers/cmhs/cmhs ) Toll Free: 1-800-789-2647
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 41. National Occupational Research Agenda - Agriculture, Fishing and Forestry Sector Council Agenda*
    • Intermediate Goal 5.5 – Develop and
    • promote adoption of effective interventions
    • to enhance psychological well-being of
    • workers and to minimize the adverse affects
    • of stressful agricultural working conditions
    • (e.g., economic forces, weather and
    • isolation).
    *Adopted, December 2008 Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 42. NORA Action Steps*
    • Action step 5.5.1 – Develop a surveillance system to help
    • qualify the types and extent of psychological disorders
    • experienced by agricultural workers. Use these findings to
    • develop research priorities.
    • Action step 5.5.2 – Conduct targeted research on factors
    • associated with psychological disorders, especially as
    • they relate to specific regional concerns or patterns.
    • Action Step 5.5.3 – Develop, implement and evaluate culturally
    • appropriate educational and outreach programs for promoting
    • psychological well-being of agricultural producers, farm
    • workers and their families. Involve agricultural workers in
    • their development and delivery
    *Adopted, December 2008 Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 43. The Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 (i.e., The Farm Bill) authorizes a Farm and Ranch Stress Assistance Network (FRSAN) which contains the following provisions:
    • Requires the Secretary of Agriculture, in coordination with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, to make competitive grants to support cooperative programs between state Extension services and nonprofit organizations
    • Each FRSAN shall provide stress assistance programs to individuals engaged in farming, ranching and other agricultural-related occupations
    • Funds shall be awarded to initiate, expand or sustain programs that provide professional agricultural behavioral health counseling and referral for other forms of assistance as necessary through farm telephone helplines and websites
    • Make available community education, support groups, outreach services and activities, and home visits to deliver assistance in situations in which a farm resident is homebound
    Produced by Michael R. Rosmann, Ph.D., Oct., 2009
  • 44. So Long!