Towards a Context-Sensitive               Structure for Behavioural Rules          (Context, Scope, Antecedents, and Resul...
Summary of Talk: a view fromCognitive ScienceSuggest dividing behavioural rules into 4 bits:      –    Context      –    S...
Different Aspects ITowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. ...
Different Aspects II   Universe of Knowledge                                Knowledge indicated by current cognitive conte...
Bit 1:                                                         ContextTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioura...
A (simplistic) illustration of context from thepoint of view of an actorTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behaviou...
Situational Context• The situation in which an event takes place• This is indefinitely extensive, it could include  anythi...
Cognitive Context (CC)• Many aspects of human cognition are context-  dependent, including: memory, visual perception,  ch...
The Context Heuristic• The kind of situation is recognised in a rich,  fuzzy, complex and unconscious manner• Knowledge, h...
Some Possible Examples of CognitiveContext?•     Greeting someone you do not know•     A lecture•     An interview•     Be...
Some Research Responses toContext-DependencyA number of responses:• Only do research within a single context,  resisting a...
Context-Dependency andRandomness                                                                                          ...
However• Although Cognitive Context in General  might be hard to identify• Socially Entrenched Contexts are often  rather ...
Choice and Update of CognitiveContext• CC is largely learnt from experienced  situations in a rich and unconscious way• Oc...
Identifying Context from NarrativeEvidence• Apart from socially entrenched contexts  (lectures, parties, interviews etc.)…...
Bit 2:                                                            ScopeTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behaviour...
About Scope• By “scope” I mean the reasoning as to which  knowledge is possible given the circumstances• For example, if a...
Scope vs. Cognitive Context• Both scope and cognitive context determine  which knowledge is useful for any particular  sit...
Identifying and modelling scope• Compared to CC, scope is relatively well  studied using formal models of reasoning       ...
Bits 3&4:                                   (local) Narrative StepsTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural R...
Encoding Narrative Steps• *If* CC and scope is identified then, I  hypothesize, the local narrative structure will  be eas...
About Narrative Steps• These might not be crisp but of the nature  More A and B tends to result in more Z• These are often...
ConclusionTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence ...
CSAR as a bridging structure betweennarrative text and behavioural rules*IF* this structure turns out to be a useful and“n...
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Towards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules (Context, Scope, Antecedents, and Results)

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Slides given at an informal workshop on "Using Qualitative Evidence to inform Behavioural Rules suitable for an agent-based simulation" see http://cfpm.org/qual2rule/

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Towards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules (Context, Scope, Antecedents, and Results)

  1. 1. Towards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules (Context, Scope, Antecedents, and Results) Bruce Edmonds Centre for Policy Modelling, Manchester Metropolitan UniversityTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 1
  2. 2. Summary of Talk: a view fromCognitive ScienceSuggest dividing behavioural rules into 4 bits: – Context – Scope – Antecedents – Results• Since this, I argue, seems to align with human cognitive structure• Which are each dealt with and updated in different ways (making their use feasible)• And thus might be a more “natural” structure for human behavioural rulesTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 2
  3. 3. Different Aspects ITowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 3
  4. 4. Different Aspects II Universe of Knowledge Knowledge indicated by current cognitive context Knowledge that is possible to apply given circumstances Cause1 & Cause2…  Result1 & Result2… Cause3 & Cause2…  Result5 & Result2…Towards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 4
  5. 5. Bit 1: ContextTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 5
  6. 6. A (simplistic) illustration of context from thepoint of view of an actorTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 6
  7. 7. Situational Context• The situation in which an event takes place• This is indefinitely extensive, it could include anything relevant or coincident• The time and place specify it, but relevant details might not be retrievable from this• It is almost universal to abstract to what is relevant about these to a recognised type when communicating about this• Thus the question “What was the context?” often effectively means “What about the situation do I need to know to understand?Towards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 7
  8. 8. Cognitive Context (CC)• Many aspects of human cognition are context- dependent, including: memory, visual perception, choice making, reasoning, emotion, and language• The brain somehow deals with situational context effectively, abstracting kinds of situations so relevant information can be easily and preferentially accessed• The relevant correlate of the situational context will be called the cognitive context• It is not known how the brain does this, and probably does this in a rich and complex way that might prevent easy labeling/reification of contextsTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 8
  9. 9. The Context Heuristic• The kind of situation is recognised in a rich, fuzzy, complex and unconscious manner• Knowledge, habits, norms etc. are learnt for that kind of situation and are retrieved for it• Reasoning, learning, interaction happens with respect to the recognised kind of situation• Context allows for the world to be dealt with by type of situation, and hence makes reasoning/learning etc. feasible• It is a fallible heuristic with social roots in terms of the coordination of action, norms, habitsTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 9
  10. 10. Some Possible Examples of CognitiveContext?• Greeting someone you do not know• A lecture• An interview• Being Lost• Being Socially Embarrassed• Travelling on a train/bus• Leaving home to go somewhere• Accidently bumping into someone you do not know on the pavement/in the corridorTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 10
  11. 11. Some Research Responses toContext-DependencyA number of responses:• Only do research within a single context, resisting any generalisation• Only use discursive, natural language approaches where context is implicitly dealt with (but also mostly hidden)• Try to see what (inevitably weaker knowledge) is general across the various contexts in what is being studiedTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 11
  12. 12. Context-Dependency andRandomness Lots of information lost if randomness used to “model” contextual variationTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 12
  13. 13. However• Although Cognitive Context in General might be hard to identify• Socially Entrenched Contexts are often rather obvious• But one needs to drop the imperative of looking (only) for abstract and general theories for behaviour• Being satisfied with more “mundane” and context-dependent accountsTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 13
  14. 14. Choice and Update of CognitiveContext• CC is largely learnt from experienced situations in a rich and unconscious way• Occasionally one can realise one has the wrong context if a lot of the detailed knowledge it indicates is simultaneously wrong but which is the right CC is a matter of recognition from past positive learning• Once CC is learnt it is very difficult to change, but new CC can still be learntTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 14
  15. 15. Identifying Context from NarrativeEvidence• Apart from socially entrenched contexts (lectures, parties, interviews etc.)…• …the relevant CC is hard to identify from narrative evidence because: – To a large extent, we recognise the right CC for any text unconsciously and easily – The CC are learnt in a rich, “fuzzy” manner over a long period of time by inhabiting them which resists reification• This is one of the prime needs: how to “mark up” the CC behind narrative evidence?Towards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 15
  16. 16. Bit 2: ScopeTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 16
  17. 17. About Scope• By “scope” I mean the reasoning as to which knowledge is possible given the circumstances• For example, if all the seats are taken in a lecture, then the norms, habits and patterns as to where one sits do not apply• Reasoning about scope can be complex and is done consciously• However once judgements about scope are made then they tend to be assumed, unless the situation changes criticallyTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 17
  18. 18. Scope vs. Cognitive Context• Both scope and cognitive context determine which knowledge is useful for any particular situation that is encountered• However, they play very different roles: – CC is learnt using pattern recognition over a long time, but then is largely a „given‟, is almost impossible to change when learnt, is quick and automatic and is socially rooted – Scope is largely reasoned afresh each time, taking effort to do so, is possible to re-evaluate but only if needed, and is more individually orientedTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 18
  19. 19. Identifying and modelling scope• Compared to CC, scope is relatively well studied using formal models of reasoning – e.g. Updating Markoff/state representations of causation, non-monotonic logics, causation in Baysian networks etc.• Scope plays a relatively explicit part in human language, sometimes being explicitly stated, at other times using relatively well understood rules – e.g. conversational implicature• It is often possible to infer participant‟s judgements as to scope and possibility, when not explicitly mentionedTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 19
  20. 20. Bits 3&4: (local) Narrative StepsTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 20
  21. 21. Encoding Narrative Steps• *If* CC and scope is identified then, I hypothesize, the local narrative structure will be easier to understand, because changing CC and/or scope can do a lot of the “work” in expressing/encoding knowledge• Within CC & scope I suggest a simple basic structure of sets of statements of the form: (on the whole) Z follows/followed from A, B…• A very special case of this is when we say that: A, B… implies Z or that: A, B… causes Z• (I will write A, B…Z), where A, B are the “Antecedents” and Z is the ResultsTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 21
  22. 22. About Narrative Steps• These might not be crisp but of the nature More A and B tends to result in more Z• These are often chained in forwards, branching or backwards manner to make an inference or a narrative• (even quite classical) formal logics and annotation systems capture these• Most AI/expert systems encode these, but rarely touch on scope (that is advanced AI) and never on ContextTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 22
  23. 23. ConclusionTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 23
  24. 24. CSAR as a bridging structure betweennarrative text and behavioural rules*IF* this structure turns out to be a useful and“natural” encoding of human narrativeknowledge/expression then two steps areneeded:1. Techniques to capture/approximate/guess appropriate Cognitive Contexts and Scope judgments from Narrative Text2. AI/Computer science architectures that make the encoding and use of CSAR structured knowledgeTowards a Context-Sensitive Structure for Behavioural Rules, Bruce Edmonds, Informal Workshop on Qual. Evidence & Rules, MMU, Sept. 2012, slide 24

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