The Offshore Wind Infrastructure Project<br />
The Offshore Wind Infrastructure Project<br />Objectives<br />Create testing and monitoring infrastructure for offshore wi...
Structural health and Performance Monitoring
Wind measurements</li></ul>Generate datasets<br />Develop advanced data interpretation and modeling techniques<br />Implem...
The Offshore Wind Infrastructure Project<br />Lidar<br />Fix/Floating<br />Climate<br />Chamber<br />Monitoring<br />Syste...
Failures Offshore Wind Turbines<br /><ul><li>Tower and Foundation
Rotor Blades
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Owi monitoring-reduced


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Owi monitoring-reduced

  1. 1. The Offshore Wind Infrastructure Project<br />
  2. 2. The Offshore Wind Infrastructure Project<br />Objectives<br />Create testing and monitoring infrastructure for offshore wind energy<br /><ul><li>Accelerated lifetime component testing
  3. 3. Structural health and Performance Monitoring
  4. 4. Wind measurements</li></ul>Generate datasets<br />Develop advanced data interpretation and modeling techniques<br />Implement enhanced O&M strategies<br />
  5. 5. The Offshore Wind Infrastructure Project<br />Lidar<br />Fix/Floating<br />Climate<br />Chamber<br />Monitoring<br />Systems<br />Acquiring Knowledge of component lifetime<br />Acquiring Knowledge of wind climate in wind farm, wakes, performance<br />Acquiring Knowledge on Structural Health and Performance Monitoring<br />O&M<br />
  6. 6. Failures Offshore Wind Turbines<br /><ul><li>Tower and Foundation
  7. 7. Resonance
  8. 8. Fatigue
  9. 9. Corrosion
  10. 10. Cracks
  11. 11. Rotor Blades
  12. 12. Surface roughness
  13. 13. Icing
  14. 14. Fatigue, cracks
  15. 15. Loosening at the blade roots
  16. 16. Pitch and Yaw System
  17. 17. Angle offset
  18. 18. Hydraulic failures
  19. 19. Motor failure
  20. 20. Gearbox CMS Data
  21. 21. Offset, misalignment
  22. 22. Unbalance
  23. 23. Tooth wear
  24. 24. Bearing, Shaft
  25. 25. Wear, pitting
  26. 26. Deformation
  27. 27. Fatigue
  28. 28. Power Module
  29. 29. Failure Frequency convertor
  30. 30. Failure Switching Gear
  31. 31. Failure Transformer
  32. 32. Generator
  33. 33. Electrical asymmetries
  34. 34. Overheating</li></li></ul><li>Monitoring Offshore Wind Turbines<br /><ul><li>Gearbox CMS Data
  35. 35. Vibration data
  36. 36. Acoustic Emission data
  37. 37. Oil quality & temperature</li></ul>Generator CMS Data<br /><ul><li>Vibration data
  38. 38. Phase currents
  39. 39. Temperatures windings</li></ul>Bearings CMS Data<br /><ul><li>Vibration data
  40. 40. Temperature
  41. 41. Meteorological Data
  42. 42. Wind Speed
  43. 43. Wind Direction
  44. 44. Air Temperature/Pressure
  45. 45. Rain
  46. 46. Performance Data
  47. 47. Power
  48. 48. Rotor Speed
  49. 49. Blade & Tower SHM Data
  50. 50. Vibration data
  51. 51. Strain measurements
  52. 52. Acoustic Emission data
  53. 53. Blade root moments
  54. 54. Pitch Yaw Process Data
  55. 55. Currents measurements
  56. 56. Angles
  57. 57. Temperatures
  58. 58. Transformer Diagnosis Data
  59. 59. Discharge measurements
  60. 60. Velocity measurements switches
  61. 61. Oil Analysis
  62. 62. Temperatures
  63. 63. SHM – O&M platform
  64. 64. Data Analysis
  65. 65. Damage: location, size, type
  66. 66. O&M Decision making software</li></li></ul><li> Load Monitoring<br />Challenges<br />How can load quantities e.g. blade root loads, rotor loads, tower loads be measured and processed in a practical way.<br />Site wind conditions might not satisfy those used in the design of wind turbines IEC61400-1, what are the real wind and wave loads<br />Can inverse methods be applied for identifying the real wind loads<br />Can load monitoring be used for structural health monitoring <br />Proposed solutions using the standards and recently developed techniques by VUB<br />Direct measurements of mechanical load according IEC 61400-13 standards<br />Direct measurement of real wind loads and wave heights<br />Identifying time-varying wind loads on structures from in situ vibration response data using inverse methods<br />Applying real loads in Finite element and analyze measured and modeled loads <br />
  67. 67. Dynamic Monitoring<br />Challenges<br />How can the dynamic behaviour of a wind turbine be analyzed during operating conditions <br />Existing operational modal analysis techniques are strictly speaking not applicable due to harmonic content of the aerodynamic loads<br />The dynamic behavior of wind turbines is characterized by high aerodynamic damping and nearby modes<br />How to deal with wind turbulences when pitch excitation is used for dynamic testing of operating wind turbines <br />Proposed solutions developed by the VUB/AVRG and to be validated on wind turbines<br />Operational Modal analysis using transmissibility measurements. This is a recently developed OMA techniques that makes no assumption about the nature of the loads<br />The Polyreference Least Squares Frequency domain OMA approach well known for its clear stabilsation diagrams also for highly damped structures and nearby modes<br />OMAX approach combines experimental modal analysis with operational modal analysis by considering both the excitation signal and the turbulence excitation as valuable data<br />Figure from Applicability Limits of Operational Modal Analysis to Operational WindTurbinesD. Tcherniak+, S. Chauhan+, M.H. Hansen<br />Figure from Full-scal modal wind turbine tests: comparing shaker excitation with wind excitation; In Proceedings of IMAC 28<br />
  68. 68. Corrosion Monitoring <br />Challenges<br />Can corrosion be predicted for a complex structure like offshore wind turbines located in a harsh environment ? <br />How accurate are these predictions and can the accuracy be improved ?<br />How can the corrosion performance in the splash zone be optimized ?<br />What is the potential for continuously monitoring the state of the CP system / the state of the monopile ?<br />What alternative factors may cause unexpected corrosion.<br />Proposed solutions developed by VUB<br />Lifetime prediction based on a Potential Model, including CP performance.<br />Expanding the capabilities of the model by measuring relevant parameters at the turbine location (O2, salinity, T, pH) + lab-scale experiments using these parameters to generate model input.<br />Screening of potential proven coating alternatives<br />Implementing the SURF corrosion sensor on a test location<br />Focus on biofilms / microbial effects, interior of the pile…<br />
  69. 69. Performance Monitoring <br />Challenges<br />Can power curves* obtained from SCADA data be used for fault prediction and diagnosis in wind turbines<br />What is the most adequate approach to estimate and model the power curves of wind turbines<br />Can the detected outliers be correlated with a specific fault <br />Proposed solutions to be investigated<br />Non-parametric modeling based on e.g. data mining approaches <br />Parametric modeling using e.g. Least Squares estimation techniques<br />On-line monitoring by e.g. residual approach, control charts, trend analysis<br />Labeling SCADA data with status/fault codes<br />Figures from On-line monitoring of power curves; Andrew Kusiak*, HaiyangZheng, Zhe Song; Renewable Energy 34 (2009) 1487–1493<br />*Measurement Power Curve according IEC 61400-12<br />
  70. 70. Research Questions, Needs and Solutions <br />STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING FOUNDATION, SUPPORT STRUCTURE, TOWER and BLADES<br /><ul><li>What are the real loads acting on these structures and how can they be measured
  71. 71. How can the dynamic behavior foundation and support structure be monitored and its design be improved
  72. 72. How accurate is prediction about the dynamic behavior of the foundation, tower and blades
  73. 73. How can the dynamic behavior wind turbine, tower and blades be monitored during operation
  74. 74. Can structural health monitoring be achieved from the measured load data and the identified dynamic behavior
  75. 75. How can a robust corrosion monitoring technique for offshore wind turbines be implemented</li></ul>Solutions<br /><ul><li>Load Monitoring using direct and inverse methods
  76. 76. Dynamicmonitoring of tower and support structure using operational modal analysis
  77. 77. Corrosion monitoring of support structure using modeling and sensors
  78. 78. Finite Element Modeling for structural design, load estimation and monitoring
  80. 80. Can performance monitoring and fault prediction be obtained from SCADA data</li></ul>Solutions<br /><ul><li> Power Curve Monitoring using parametric and non-parametric approaches
  81. 81. Trend analysis and data mining</li></ul>Finally how can performance monitoring, structural health monitoring and wind data be combined in one improved O&M tool <br />
  82. 82. 11<br /><br />Contact:Dr. ir. ChristofDevriendtVrijeUniversiteitBrussel | Pleinlaan 2 | B-1050 Brussel | BelgiumDept. of Mechanical Engineering | Acoustics & Vibration Research GroupTel. +32 2 6292390 | Fax +32 2 6292865 | GSM +32 477412049Mail:<br />