Type of plate margin Description ofchangesEarthquake/ volcanicactivityExamplesDestructive (oceanic &continental)Oceanic crust is forceddown & meltsVolcanoes producedby melted oceanicrockEarthquakes producedby rock risingNazca & SouthAmerican platescollidingDestructive (twocontinental)Continental platespushed upwardsFold mountainsEarthquakes produced Indo-Australiancollides with Eurasian= HimalayasConstructive on land Plates move apart,magma moves tosurfaceSome volcanic activity,earthquakes along thefaultsEast African Rift ValleyConstructive underthe oceanPlates move apart Volcanoes occur whenmagma reaches thesurfaceMid Atlantic RidgeConservative Plates slide past eachotherEarthquakes producedfrom frictionSan Andreas Fault
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-12739417Earthquakes can occurwhen plates ______towards each other, or______ by _____Normally these plateswant to move___________ at about 9cm per yearBut sometimes they get_______. Now theenergy ______ as theplates continue to______Eventually, they _____.All the stored _______gets __________The result is an_______________. Theplates literally _______up, displacing a lot ofenergy into the _____Extension: how doyou think anearthquake mightcause a tsunami?vhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/what-causes-earthquakes/14060.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-12739417Earthquakes can occurwhen plates movetowards each other, orside by side.Normally these plateswant to move togetherat about 9cm per yearBut sometimes they getstuck. Now the energybuilds as the platescontinue to moveEventually, they slip. Allthe stored energy getsreleasedThe result is anearthquake. The platesliterally flickup, displacing a lot ofenergy into the crustExtension: how doyou think anearthquake mightcause a tsunami?v
So why did Japan experience the huge tsunami this year?
Using thediagram, write cleardefinitions for‘epicentre’and ‘focus’Focus – the point within the earth’s crust where an earthquakeoccursEpicentre – the point on the earth’s surface directly above the focuswhere an earthquake occurs
What wouldhappen if thefocus was atthe red crossinstead?
saturatedgroundwatershakingupwardssurfacesludgeThe effect of liquefaction in New Zealand in February 2011 earthquakeWhat do you think thesecondary effects ofliquefaction are?
Explain why Kobewas particularlysuceptible to theeffects ofliquefaction in 1995
LO: To understand the three mainways to limit the damage fromearthquakesHow do you reduce the damagefrom Earthquakes?
Key Themes Exam 50%• Weds 12th June• 29 days away• 15 hours of teaching time• HOWEVER…. Still got to complete 2 case studiesfor earthquakes, hurricanes, drought and then 2hurricane case studies.• EVERY LESSON IS COMPULSORY• YOU SHOULD BE REVISING – RIVERS AND COASTSAND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTSDME resit meetingin here tomorrowlunchtime for 5minutes
Complete secondary effects• Add them to your table.• Come up with 5 and you get a point for everyone you match with my list.• Try linking them with your primary effects.
4-marker questions – explainWhen a 4-marker asks you to explain, youneed to make 2 descriptive points andexplain them.Example...Explain why some Year 11students at Carterton CC might choose to gointo Sixth Form. (4 marks)
Your turn….• Explain how humans are affected byearthquakes (4marks).make 2 descriptive points and explain them.How many marks?Roads get damaged and people cannot get to work.Roads get damaged and people cannot get around, meaning that theirbusiness might lose money until the roads are repaired.As water pipes burst, people cannot get fresh drinking water, so theyhave to buy bottled water, which might be expensive or run out.Roads get damaged and people can’t go to work and they have no cleandrinking water because pipes burst.
Predict –Use technology to warn people a hazard iscomingProtect –Put measures in place to reduce the threat of ahazardPrepare –Get ready for the arrival of a hazardDefinitions...
Quick Definitions• Predict – say when a hazard is coming• Protect – put protection in place• Prepare – get readyExtension: can you think of an example of eachof these for earthquake hazards?
Predict, Prepare or Protect?Making sure people areready for when anearthquake hits e.g.Earthquake drillsDesigningearthquakeproofbuildingsMonitoring groundmovements to see whenan earthquake might hitExtension: which one do you think is the best idea for a citythat often gets earthquakes? Why?PREPARE PROTECTPREDICT
Earthquake definition“A sudden and violent shaking of theground, sometimes causing greatdestruction, as a result of movements withinthe earths crust or volcanic action.”How would you go about predicting anearthquake?
Earthquake Prediction Attempts
Knowing when the quake will arrive keepsgetting easier in Japan. Official earthquakewarnings that pop up in a window on yourcomputer screen is the latest alertmethod. Already earthquake warnings arebroadcast on TV. Cable TV providers andtelecoms offer official earthquake warningemails to cellphones and computers. Acable TV company sells an earthquakewarning receiver. A digital cordless phoneknows a tremor is on the way.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=24KfBwkMw_M
Japan: an earthquake-proof country?
Watch the clip about earthquake proof buildings in JapanWhat have they added to the hotel to make it earthquake proof?What have these architects added to the Akashi Kaikyō suspensionbridge in Japan?How did it change during the earthquake??http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BpCjGiQqjRM
Earthquake proofbuildings (retrofitting)• What parts of thebuilding do you thinkmake it aseismic(posh word forearthquake proof!)• Make a sketch of thebuilding and label onthe parts• Page 146
Homework: Due next Friday• Write a short paragraph to answer thequestion:“Is Japan ready for the next big quake?”• Use your own research• Think about the 3 Ps!