Prewriting is the process of coming up with ideas for your essay.This is not a formal, polished writing.
Outlining comes after you already have the ideas for your paper.It is a way of laying out your thoughts before you begin writing.Use bullet points to write down each concept you want to mention in the order you want to mention them.
The draft is the first attempt to organize information.Typically called a rough draft for a reason.YOU WILL MAKE MISTAKES!Your eassy structure does not need to be perfect.
An introduction that piques the audience’s interest, tells what the essay is about, and motivates readers to keep reading.A thesis statement that presents the main point, or controlling idea, of the entire piece of writing.A topic sentence in each paragraph that states the main idea of the paragraph and implies how that main idea is connected to the thesis statement.Supporting sentences in each paragraph that develop or explain the topic sentence. These can be specific facts, examples, anecdotes, or other details that elaborate on the topic sentence.A conclusion that reinforces the thesis statement and leaves the audience with a feeling of completion.
Reworking your essay so that the ideas are expressed in the best way possible.Revising is not the editing stage.
Editing is eliminating punctuation, grammar, and spelling mistakes.Should be saved for the end of the writing process.Spell check can be a false friend.
The writing process
TheWritingProcessBy: Brittany Council
Stages of thewriting Process There are several stages of the writing process. Each stage is essential. Prewriting Outlining the structure of ideas Drafting Revising Editing
Prewriting Choose /narrow your topic Determine your audience, purpose, tone, point-of-view, and tense Explore your topic Make a plan
Choose a topic Advice for Topic Selection Thetopic should be interesting to you. The topic should be researchable. The topic should not be too broad. Avoid topics that are overworked.
PrewritingThe four strategies below are bestused when initially deciding on a topic: Using experience and observations Reading Free writing Asking questions
DetermineYour Audience Your audience is composed of those who will read your writing. Ask yourself: Who are my readers? What do my readers know about my topic? What do my readers need to know about my topic? How do my readers feel about my topic?
DetermineYour Purpose Purpose is the reason you are writing. Whenever you write, you always have a purpose. Most writing fits into one of 3 categories: expressive writing, informative writing, or persuasive writing. More than one of these may be used, but one will be primary.
Determine Tone Toneis the mood or attitude you adopt as you write. Seriousor humorous? Intimate or detached?
DeterminePoint-of-View Point-of-view is the perspective from which you write an essay. There are 3 point-of-view: first person (I, we), second person (you), and third person (he, she, they) One of the most common errors in writing occurs when the writer shifts point-of-view unnecessarily.
DetermineTense Tense is the voice you use to designate the time of the action or state of being. Present tense Past tense Future tense
Explore YourTopic Pre-writing Techniques: Brainstorm Freewriting Ideal Mapping Questioning Searching the Internet Discussing
Outlining Organize ideas Write a thesis statement Write an outline
Organizing Ideas Three common methods of organizing: Chronological order - a method of organization that arranges ideas according to time. Spatial order - a method of organization that arranges ideas according to physical characteristics or appearance. Order of importance - a method of organizationthat arranges ideas according to their significance.
Advice for Organizing Look at the question you answered when you were developing you working thesis. Look at your prewriting. Find the main ideas or categories of your thinking. Put less important items under more important items. Make an outline. Decide how you will set up you paper. How can you organize the paper to achieve your objective?
Drafting Strategies for drafting: Begin writing with the part you know the most about. Write one paragraph at a time and then stop. Take short breaks to refresh your mind. Be reasonable with your goals. Keep your audience and purpose in mind as you write.
Basic Elements ofa First Draft Introduction Thesis statement Topic Sentence Supporting sentences Conclusion
Revising Revising is finding & correcting problems with content; changing the ideas in you writing to make them clearer, stronger, and more convincing. Revising looks at the “Big Picture”.
RevisingStrategies Look for… Unity Detail and support Coherence
Unity Does everything refer back to the main point? Does each topic sentence refer to the thesis? Does each sentence in the paragraph refer back to the topic sentence?
Detail andSupport Does each paragraph contain at least two examples? Is each example followed by at least one supporting detail?
Coherence Are all points connecting to form a whole? Are transitions used to move from one idea to the next?
Revision Tips Take a break from your draft before attempting to revise. Read your draft out loud and listen to your words. Imagine yourself as your reader. Look for consistent problem areas. Get feedback from peers. Get help from a tutor!
Editing Editing is finding and correcting problems with grammar, style, word choice & usage, and punctuation. Editing focuses on the “Little Picture” – words.
Editing Check list for editing Are your capital letters correct? Have you used your punctuation correctly? Have you avoided run-ons? Are you using verbs, pronouns, and modifiers correctly? Have you read your work aloud to listen for problems? Did you check every possible misspelling in a dictionary?