Around 1850 1857 1859 1862The Bessemer In 1857, Fredrick Social Darwinism In 1862, CongressProcess was Law Olmsted along grew out of the passed thedeveloped with English born English naturalist Homestead Act,independently by the architect Calvert Charles Darwin’s offering 160 acres ofBritish manufacturer Vaux , helped draw theory of biological land to any citizen orHenry Bessemer up a plan for evolution. In his intended citizen whoand iron maker “Greensward” which book published in was head of theWilliam Kelley was selected to 1859, Darwin household.around 1850, soon become Central described hisbecame widely Park, in New York observations thatused. This technique City. Olmsted some individuals areinvolved injecting air envisioned the parks weeded out byinto molten iron to beauty would soothe “Natural Selection”.remove the carbon the city’s inhabitants Which meant someand other impurities. and let them enjoy a strived to live while “Not Ural” setting. others died off.
1862 1863 1864 November 29, 1864 The Cheyenne Indians thought they wereIn 1862, Congress The first George Pullman was save near Chicago’spassed the Transcontinental an American inventor sand Creek ReserveHomestead Act , Railroad was a railroad and industrialist. He for the winter.which offered 160 line built in 1863 by the was known as the Although, theacres of land free to Central Pacific Railroad inventor of the Cheyenne wereany citizen or of California and the sleeping car. The first attacked by U.S.intended citizen. Union Pacific Railroad. sleeping was invented Colonel JohnDuring the 19th By linking with the in 1864. Chivington and troops,century up to existing railway network at dawn on November 29, 1864, the attack600,000 families of the Eastern U.S. the killed over 150took advantage of road thus connected inhabitants, mostlythe governments the Atlantic and Pacific women and children.offer. They were coasts of the U.S. by The Sand Creekcalled rail for the first time. Massacre was one ofHomsteader’s. the most tragic events occurred in 1864.
1864 1865 January 1st, 1867 Late 1860’s To reinstate white In 1865, Andrew In the United StatesThe Credit Mobilier voters who may have Carnegie was so failed the literacy test History, the Gildedwas a construction busy managing his or couldn’t pay the poll Age was the periodcompany formed in money he earned, tax, several southern following the Civil1864 by owners of he happily left his states added a War beginning in thethe Union Pacific job at Pennslvania Grandfather Clause to the late 1860’s toRailroad, who used Railroad. He then their constitutions. The about the next era init to fraudulently made his own Steel clause stated that history. The Gildedskim off railroad even if a man failed Company(Carnegie age was a economicprofits for the literacy test or Steel Company). His growth that attractedthemselves. couldn’t pay the poll Company millions form tax he was entitled to manufactured more Europe. Railroads vote if his Grandfather steel than all the had been eligible to were the major factories in Great vote before January industry, but the Britain. 1st, 1867. Although, factory system, this law wasn’t used till mining and labor the 1876 election. unions also gained importance.
1867 1867 1869 1870In 1867, Oliver Karl Max was a In 1869, William M. Corporations such German Tweed, known asHudson Kelley, as the Standard Oil philosopher, Boss Tweed led thestarted the Patrons Company, economist, Tweed Ring, a groupof Husbandry, an established by John. sociologist, historian, of corrupt politicians,organization for D. Rockefeller, took journalist, and defending New Yorkfarmers that became City. One scheme, the a different approach revolutionist. Hispopularly known as construction of New to mergers.the Grande. Its ideas played a Rockefeller used a York county significant role in theoriginal purpose was Courthouse, involved trust to gain total development ofto provide a social graft. The project cost control of the oil social science andoutlet and an tax payers 13 million industry in America. the social while the actual costeducational forum In 1870, movement. He was 3 million. Thefor isolated farm Rockefellers published, various difference went intofamilies. Standard Oil books during his the pockets of Tweed Company of Ohio lifetime, with the and his followers. processed two or most notable being three percent of the the Capital in 1867. country’s crude oil.
1870 1870’s 1870’s Mid 1870’sThe Great Plains By the 1870’s, the Grande was an The Vanderbilts are one of thewas the grassland Grande gave rise to organization also oldest and best known families in America. It all began withextending through the National called the Patrons of Jan Aertson Van der Bilt whothe west-central Farmers Alliance. Husbandry. By the emigrated from Holland, who’sportion of the United These groups 1870’s however, descendants prospered onStates. This area included many Grande members Stanten Island, NY. It wasn’tcovers parts of the other’s who spent most of their until Cornelius Vanderbilts lifetime where the family nameU.S. states of sympathized with time and energy came from and extraordinaryColorado, Kansas, farmers. The NFA fighting railroads. wealth during the mid 1870’s.Montana, Nebraska, sent lecturers from The Grande’s battle Vanderbilt with his wife of 53New Mexico, North town to town to plan included years, Sophia, 13 children, 37Dakota, Texas, and educate people teaching members grand-children, and 27 grand- children, established whatWyoming. In 1870, about topics such as how to organize, became known as thethe new railroads lower interest rates how to set up luxurious residences. Oneacross the plains and loans, and Farmers very famous one is known asbrought hunters who government control Corporations, and the Biltmore House inkilled off almost all over railroads and how to sponsor state Asheville, NC.the Bison for their banks. legislation tohides. regulate railroads.
1871-1873 1874 June 1876 1876Chief Joseph also known Successively as the On June 25-26, 1876, The Alexander Grahamas Young Joseph, independent party or Battle Of Little Big Horn Bell invented thesucceeded his father as Greenback Party, was an occurred near the Little Big telephone withleader of the Wallowa American Political Party with Horn River in Eastern Thomas Watson inband in 1871. In 1873, Montana Territory, it was an antimonopoly ideology 1876. It opened theJoseph negotiated with the most prominent action which began to be active in way for a world widethe federal government to of the great Sioux war of 1874. The party opposed 1876. The Native communicationensure his people could the deflationary lowering of network. The Americans, stood theirstay on their land in the prices paid to producers Telephone and Type ground waiting for the 7thWallowa Valley. Although, entailed by a return to a Calvary. When George A. Writer office work andthe government forced the bullion-based monetary Custer arrived with troops, created new jobs forWallowa Band to move to system, the policy favored the Native Americans women.the Idaho Reserve with by the republican party. It murdered all of the 7ththe other Nez Pearce. also was a slang term for a Calvary including Custer,Joseph, pleaded for more fiat currency issued during with spears and rifles withintime but, eventually an hour.moved his tribe to the the American Civil War.reservation.
June 15, 1877 1878 1879 1879-1880The Nez Pearce were The roots of the National The Dumbbell African Americans whoNative American people Farmers Alliance and Tenements also moved from the post-living in the pacific Industrial Union commonly called Old Law reconstruction south tonorthwest region of the known as the “Southern Tenements was built Kansas in 1879-1880U.S. In 1877 they were Alliance” dated back to in New York City, where known as aforced to move to the approximately 1875. after the Tenement Exoduster. After theinhabitants of a Although, the group grew House Act Of 1879. end of reconstruction,reservation in Idaho. The and organized on a The 1879 law racial oppression offlight of the non-treaty statewide basis in 1878. required that every slavery led manyNez-Pearce began on but was almost inhabitable room freedmen to seek aJune 15th, 1877 with Chief immediately killed when it have a window new place to live.Joseph, Looking Glass, attempted to enter the opening to plain air, Many immigrated toWhite Bird, Ollokot, Leah political field and was torn a requirement that Kansas because thatElk, and Toohoolhoolzote asunder by antagonistic was by including air was the famous homeleading 800 men, women, factions favoring shafts between land of the abolitionistand children in an attempt Democratic and adjacent buildings. John Brown.to reach a peacefully Greenback Parties.sanctuary.
1880 1881 1881 1884Thomas Alva Edison Sitting Bull was the Booker T. Washington was a Mark Twain or Samuelinvented the leader of the prominent African American Longhorne Clemens,incandescent light Hunkpapa Sioux. educator, that believed that was a novelist whobulb. Which was Sitting Bull led his racism would end once blacks inspired a host of otherpatented in 1880. people by strength acquired useful labor skills and young authors when heHe later then and purpose. He proved their economic value to declared hisinvented a entire was determined society. By 1881, he headed the independence ofsystem for producing whites should leave Tuskegee Normal and Industrial “literature and all thatand distributing Sioux territory. His institute, now called the bosh.” Yet, some of hiselectrical power. most famous fight Tuskegee University in Alabama. books have become was at Little bighorn The Tuskegee aimed to equip classics of American River, where he African Americans with teaching literature. For example, killed George diplomas and useful skills in The Adventures of Armstrong Custer. agricultural domestic or Huckleberry Fin which Although, sitting bull mechanical work. was published in 1884 surrendered to the is known commonly. government in 1881.
December 11,1886 1886 Tuesday May 4th, 1887 1886A white Baptistmissionary, R.M. One approach to the The Haymarket Affair, also InterstateHumphrey, organized the organization to the known as the Haymarket CommerceColored Farmers organization of labor Massacre refers to the Commission wasNational Alliance on was craft unionism, aftermath of a bombing that enacted in 1887,December 11, 1886 In which included took place at a labor that reestablishedHouston, Texas. skilled workers from demonstration on Tuesday the federalMembers of the local one or more trades. May 4th, 1886, at Haymarket governments right toColored Farmers Alliance Samuel Gompers Square in Chicago. It began supervise railroadpromoted cooperative led the Cigar Makers as a peaceful rally for an activities andbuying and selling. International Union eight hour day, it resulted in a created a five-Unlike white to join with other dynamite thrown at the member interstateorganizations however, craft unions in 1886. police, resulting in the deaths Commercethe black alliances had to of seven police officers and at Commission to dowork mostly in secret to lease four civilians. so.avoid racially motivateviolence at the hands ofangry landowners andsuppliers.
1887 1888 1889 1880’s George Eastman developed aIn 1887, congress passed the Jane Addams was a In the 1880’s, series of more convenientDawes Act aiming to alternatives to the heavy glass pioneer settlement William F. Cody“Americanize” the Native plates previously used. Now, worker who founded toured the countryAmericans. The act broke up the instead of carrying their dark the Hull House in with a show calledreservations and gave some of rooms around with them, Chicago in 1889. Buffalo Bill’s Wildthe reservation land to individual photographers could use flexible She also was a West. The showNative Americans - 160 acres to film, coated with gelatin emulsions, public philosopher, featured trick ridingeach head of household and 80 and could send their film to a sociologist, author, studio for processing. In 1888, and ropingacres to each adult. The and leader in women Eastman developed his Kodiak exhibitions. It thrilledgovernment would sell the suffrage and world camera. The purchase price of audiences with mockremainder of the reservations to peace. Later in her $25.00 included a 100- picture roll battles betweensettlers, and Native Americans to life she won the Cowboys and of film. When the photographerbuy farm implements. took the pictures they then sent it Nobel Prize, she Indians. This helped to Eastmans Factory in New York. was the first women form the Rodeo. There, they would develop them to do so. and send them back for $10.00 with the camera reloaded.
1880’s 1880’s 1890 December 28th, 1890In the 1880’s, overland The Native American tribe On December 28th, 1890, the A blend of Africantransport or Long Drive, of called the Sioux, continued Seventh Calvary- Custer’s old American spirituals regiment rounded up about 350animals often lasted about to suffer poverty and and European starving and freezing Sioux3 months. A typical drive disease. In desperation, musical forms, Indians and took them to a campincluded one Cowboy for ragtime originated in they turned to a paiute at Wounded Knee Creek in southevery 250 to 300 head of prophet who promised that the 1880’s in the Dakota. The next day, thecattle, a cook who also if the Sioux performed a soldiers demanded that the saloons of the south.drove the chuck wagon and Ragtime later ritual called the Ghost Native Americans give up all theirset up camp; and a Dance, the Native weapons. A shot fired; from which became known aswrangler who cared for the American lands and way of side was unclear. The soldiers Jazz, Rhythm andextra horses. During the life will be restored. The opened fire with the deadly Blues, and Rock &long drive the Cowboy was Ghost Dance movement Cannon, within minutes the Roll.in the saddle from dawn till spread rapidly among Seventh Calvary slaughtered 300dusk. He slept on the 25,000, Sioux on the unarmed Native Americans,ground and slept in rivers. Dakota Reserve in 1890. including several children. The soldiers then left the corpse to freeze on the ground.
1890 1890 1890’s 1890’sSome states, limited the In 1890, the Sherman Antitrust After initial moments of While Europeanvote to people who could Act made it legal to form a trust excitement, the immigrants immigrants arriving onread, and required that interfered with free trade faced the anxiety of not the east coast passedregistration officials to between states or with other knowing whether they through Ellis Island,administer a Literacy Test to countries. Prosecuting would be admitted to the Asians primarilytest reading. Blacks trying to companies under the Sherman United States. They had to Chinese arrived on thevote were often asked more Act was not easy, however, pass immigration west coast passeddifficult questions than because the act didn’t clearly inspections, such as the admission at Angelwhites or given a test in a define terms such as trust. The one at Castle Garden, New Island in San Franciscoforeign language. Officials Supreme Court threw out seven York, which was later Bay. During the 1890’scould pass or fail applicants of the eight cases the federal known as Ellis Island. From till the late 1900’s,as they wished. The first government stopped trying to the 1890’s till the 1900’s about 50,000 Chineseformal voter Literacy Tests enforce the Sherman Act, and Ellis Island was the major immigrants entered thewere introduced in 1890. the consolidation of the immigration station in the United States through businesses continued. United States. Angel Island.
1891 July 4th, 1892 1894 1895The term “collective The Omaha Platform was the Some labor leaders felt that W.E.B. Dubois was thebargaining” was first used in party program adopted at the unions should include an first African American to1891, by economic Theorist formative convention of the laborers skilled and unskilled, receive a doctorateBeatrice Webb. However, populist(or peoples)party held in a specific industry. This from Harvard in 1895.collective negotiations and in Omaha, Nebraska on July concept captured the He strongly agreed withagreements had existed since 4th, 1892. The platform immigration of Eugene V. Washington gradualthe rise of trade unions during preamble was written by Debs, who made the first approach. In 1905,the 18th century. Collective Ignatius L. Donnelly. The major attempt to form such an Dubious founded theBargaining is a process of planks themselves represent individual union-the American Niagara Movement,negotiation between the merger of agrarian Railroad Union(ARU). In 1894, which insisted thatemployees and corporations concerns of the farmers the new union won a strike for blacks should seek aaimed at reaching agreements alliance with the free-currency higher wages. Within two liberal arts education sothat inform workers of their monetarism of the greenback months, its membership that the African-shared interests negotiated by party while explicitly endorsing climbed to 150,000, dwarfing American communityan entity that acts like a the goals of the largely urban the 90,000 enrolled in the four would have well-corporation. knights of the labor. skilled railroad brotherhoods. educated leaders.
Early 1896 1896 1896 1896As the 1896 campaign At the same time blacks lost The 1896, the Plessey William Jennings Bryan, Editor ofprogressed, the voting rights southern states Vs. Ferguson, supreme the Omaha World-herald,Republican Party stated passed racial segregation laws court ruled that the delivered an impassioned addressit’s firm commitment to or Jim Crow Laws is another separation of races in to the assembled delegates. Anthe gold standard and name. Which separated whites public accommodations excerpt of what has becomenominated Ohioan from blacks in public or private was legal and did not known as the “cross of gold”William McKinley for facilities, in schools, hospitals, violate the fourteenth speech follows. Bryan wonpresident. parks, and transportation amendment. The democratic nomination for the systems throughout the south. decision established the 1896 election. His main weakness Segregation said that doctrine “separate but was his vice-presidential everyone was made “separate equal”, which allowed candidate Maine banker Arthur but equal”. Segregation was states to remain Scwall. Nor did democrats want to tested in the Plessey Vs. segregated. keep him as a candidate in the Ferguson case in 1896, where running. So he was replaced by segregation was established Thomas Watson of Georgia. not un constitutional and everyone is “separate but equal”.
July 9th, 1896 1800’s 1800’s 1800’sThe cross of gold speech The term culture shock was Participants in a Trust A political machine was anwas delivered by William introduced for the first time turned their stock over to organized group thatJennings Bryan, a former in the 1800’s to describe a group of trustees-people controlled the activities of aunited states congressman the anxiety produced when who ran the separate political party in a city, thefrom Nebraska at the a person moves to a companies as one large political machine also offeredDemocratic National completely new corporation. In return, the services to voters andConvention in Chicago on environment. This term companies were entitled businesses in exchange forJuly 9th, 1896. In the address expresses the lack of to dividends on profits political or financial support.Bryan supported bimetallism direction, the feeling of not earned by the trust. Trusts In the decades after the civilor “free silver’, which he knowing what to do or how were not legal mergers, war, political machinesbelieved would gain the to do things in a new however. Rockefeller used gained control of localnation prosperity. He environment and not a trust to gain total control government in Baltimore, NY,described the gold standard knowing what is appropriate of the oil industry in San Francisco, and otherconcluding, the speech “you or inappropriate. The felling America. major cities. Politicalmay not crucify mankind of culture shock generally Machines were mostly seenupon a cross of gold”. sets in after the first few in the 1800’s. weeks of coming to a new place.
1800’s Mid 1800’s 1800’s Late 1800’sWhen involved with The term “socialism” was A scab is a person Graft, was the illegalgrafting, the worker created by Henri de Saint- who works despite use of politicalthen “kicked back” a Simon, a founder of utopian an on going strike. influence forportion of the socialism. The term “socialism” Scabs are usually personal gain. Forearnings to the was created to contrast against individuals who are example, by helpingpolitical machine the liberal doctrine of not employed by the a person find workthey were working “individualism”. The original company prior to the on a constitutionfor. Taking these socialists condemned Liberal trade union dispute, project for the city, akickbacks or illegal individualism as failing to but rather hired prior political machinepayments for their address social concerns of to or during the could ask the workerservices, enriched poverty, social oppression, and strike to keep the to bill the city forthe political gross inequality of wealth. organization more than the actualmachines-and Socialism was commonly seen running. cost of materials andindividuals in the mid 1800’s. “strikebreakers” may labor. Graft waspoliticians. also refer to workers mostly used in the who cross picket 1800’s. lines to work. Scab’s were commonly seen in the 1800’s.
1800’s 1901 December 17th, 1903Those who moved to the A Monopoly or complete In the early 20th century, brothersbroad, flat plains often made control over its industry’s Orville and Wilbur Wright, bicyclefreestanding houses by production, wages, and manufacturers from Dayton, Ohio,stacking blocks of prairie turf. prices. One way to create a experimented with new enginesLike a dug out, a sod home, or monopoly was to set up a powerful enough to keep “heavier-Soddy, was warm in winter holding company, a than-air” craft aloft. First the Wrightand cool in summer. Soddys corporation that did nothing brothers built a glider. Then theywere small, however , and but buy out the stock of commisioned a 4-cylinder internaloffered little light or air. They other companies. Headed combustion engine, chose awere havens for snakes, by banker J.P. Morgan, U.S. pepeller, and designed a biplaneinsects, and other pests. steel was one of the with a 40’4 wing span. OnAlthough, they were fire proof sucessful holding December 17th, 1903, at Kitty Hawk,they leaked when it rained. companies. In 1901, it North Carolina they had their firstSoddys were used mostly became the world’s largest flight. It covered 120 feet and lastedduring the 1800’s. business. 12 seconds.