Toronto Food Strategy
Bring Food Home
Food Access Mapping

Barbara Emanuel
November, 2013
Toronto Food Strategy
 Spearheaded by TPH to foster healthy & sustainable
food system
City of Toronto’s Existing Food Connections
Toronto Food Strategy Approach
 Build/strengthen networks by doing
things together
 Leveraging resources
 Top down & bo...
Food Environment Mapping

 Better understanding of
spatial relationships
among income,
food access, etc
 Changing the di...
Few Healthy Affordable
Food Sources
Lack of Green Spaces
Few Amenities in Walking Distance
Inadequate access to public tra...
Health Inequalities & Inner Suburbs
Using TPH Inspector Data to Create Maps
Detroit

Cleveland
= Low Income & no supermarket within 1km walking/driving distance
Mapping a Food Environment Index

1km radius street network
BEWARE THE
HIDDEN DANGERS
OF PRETTY MAPS
GIS Mapping: Questions to Ask
 What’s the quality of the data used to create the map?
 What was the methodology?
 Is it...
MRFEI Scores for Toronto
MRFEI Scores for Toronto
MRFEI Scores & Low Income
Kipling
& Finch
Don Mills Sheppard

Markham &
Ellesmere
Morningside &
Ellesmere

Lotherton
Pathway
Flemingdon
Park

East S...
Lotherton Pathway, Toronto – Closest discount grocery  2.5km
Findings So Far
 Problem in Toronto is NOT quantity of food stores but
quality of retail in many areas
 Less healthy foo...
Findings So Far
Findings So Far…
 NOT true that big food retailers are ignoring prime locations in
lowest income communit...
Explanations?
 Density in problem areas
doesn’t fit with traditional
big food retail models (but
they’re trying to adapt)...
Mobile Good Food Market
Healthier
Corner
Stores

Working with Existing
Small Food Retailers
 Approx 8 convenience stores in Toronto for
every supermarket
Kabul Market- Scarborough
Food Retail Assessment in Scarborough
Insights from Research So Far

 Wide variation in small food
store models
 Many practical barriers for
owners to integra...
Insights from Research So Far
 Very little institutional support exists for small-scale food retail
 Many store owners k...
Community Consultations
What Are We Doing with the Research?

 Informing implementation of
new Residential Apartment
Commercial zone

TPH Healthy...
 Examples of apt tower communities in Germany
Source: ERA Architects (2010). Tower Neighbourhood Renewal in the Greater G...
Brian Cook, Research Consultant
Toronto Food Strategy
bcook@toronto.ca
416-338-7864
Barbara Emanuel, Manager
Toronto Food ...
Toronto Food Strategy: Food Access Mapping
Toronto Food Strategy: Food Access Mapping
Toronto Food Strategy: Food Access Mapping
Toronto Food Strategy: Food Access Mapping
Toronto Food Strategy: Food Access Mapping
Toronto Food Strategy: Food Access Mapping
Toronto Food Strategy: Food Access Mapping
Toronto Food Strategy: Food Access Mapping
Toronto Food Strategy: Food Access Mapping
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Toronto Food Strategy: Food Access Mapping

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Speaker: Barbara Emanuel
Session: Innovations in Food Access Programs

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  • Building food connections broadly, with community but also with TPH and other city Divisions
    Food Strategy is not a report – ongoing process to identify, leverage and strengthen the conectinos between food and many other issues
    Making food visible (food traditionally not what Cities do, but we are trying to align City of Toronto policies, by-laws etc with goals of a health focused food system.
    Helping everyone be intentional about food – to see food as part of City mandate
    Admin – Board of Health Approved in 2008, Cultivating Food Connections in 2010
  • “Food Connections” presents a vision of a health-focused food system, in which health becomes the overarching and driving principle. Our food problems show that the current system does not have health as its goal.
    A health-focused food system means much more than making safe and nutritious food more available. It would support the social determinants of health. In other words, such a food system would promote social justice, protect the environment, creates local, diverse & green economic development, builds strong communities, foster food-friendly neighbourhoods, empower people with food skills & info, and much more.
    PHOTO:
    Afri-Can Food Basket at McVean farm in Brampton
  • Influence price,
    Image – denormalizing
    Accessibility (get it and do it)
  • making connectionsn w comminity
    Making links between issues (seeing link b/w urban ag, environmental outcomes/food handler training to employment outcomes)
    Glasses – see opportunities for City to meet existing social, economic and health goals throgh food (see next slide for example)
    Leverage funding – looking for links and connections, we keep eyes oen to find creative ways to leverage creative funding. In last year we have been able to get money from McConnell, provincial money through into health, United Way, OCE to help us do more!
    use food to achieve multiple goals
    - progress through action – we try to just DO stuff together with partners in City and Community
  • making connectionsn w comminity
    Making links between issues (seeing link b/w urban ag, environmental outcomes/food handler training to employment outcomes)
    Glasses – see opportunities for City to meet existing social, economic and health goals throgh food (see next slide for example)
    Leverage funding – looking for links and connections, we keep eyes oen to find creative ways to leverage creative funding. In last year we have been able to get money from McConnell, provincial money through into health, United Way, OCE to help us do more!
    use food to achieve multiple goals
    - progress through action – we try to just DO stuff together with partners in City and Community
  • making connectionsn w comminity
    Making links between issues (seeing link b/w urban ag, environmental outcomes/food handler training to employment outcomes)
    Glasses – see opportunities for City to meet existing social, economic and health goals throgh food (see next slide for example)
    Leverage funding – looking for links and connections, we keep eyes oen to find creative ways to leverage creative funding. In last year we have been able to get money from McConnell, provincial money through into health, United Way, OCE to help us do more!
    use food to achieve multiple goals
    - progress through action – we try to just DO stuff together with partners in City and Community
  • making connectionsn w comminity
    Making links between issues (seeing link b/w urban ag, environmental outcomes/food handler training to employment outcomes)
    Glasses – see opportunities for City to meet existing social, economic and health goals throgh food (see next slide for example)
    Leverage funding – looking for links and connections, we keep eyes oen to find creative ways to leverage creative funding. In last year we have been able to get money from McConnell, provincial money through into health, United Way, OCE to help us do more!
    use food to achieve multiple goals
    - progress through action – we try to just DO stuff together with partners in City and Community
  • making connectionsn w comminity
    Making links between issues (seeing link b/w urban ag, environmental outcomes/food handler training to employment outcomes)
    Glasses – see opportunities for City to meet existing social, economic and health goals throgh food (see next slide for example)
    Leverage funding – looking for links and connections, we keep eyes oen to find creative ways to leverage creative funding. In last year we have been able to get money from McConnell, provincial money through into health, United Way, OCE to help us do more!
    use food to achieve multiple goals
    - progress through action – we try to just DO stuff together with partners in City and Community
  • making connectionsn w comminity
    Making links between issues (seeing link b/w urban ag, environmental outcomes/food handler training to employment outcomes)
    Glasses – see opportunities for City to meet existing social, economic and health goals throgh food (see next slide for example)
    Leverage funding – looking for links and connections, we keep eyes oen to find creative ways to leverage creative funding. In last year we have been able to get money from McConnell, provincial money through into health, United Way, OCE to help us do more!
    use food to achieve multiple goals
    - progress through action – we try to just DO stuff together with partners in City and Community
  • making connectionsn w comminity
    Making links between issues (seeing link b/w urban ag, environmental outcomes/food handler training to employment outcomes)
    Glasses – see opportunities for City to meet existing social, economic and health goals throgh food (see next slide for example)
    Leverage funding – looking for links and connections, we keep eyes oen to find creative ways to leverage creative funding. In last year we have been able to get money from McConnell, provincial money through into health, United Way, OCE to help us do more!
    use food to achieve multiple goals
    - progress through action – we try to just DO stuff together with partners in City and Community
  • making connectionsn w comminity
    Making links between issues (seeing link b/w urban ag, environmental outcomes/food handler training to employment outcomes)
    Glasses – see opportunities for City to meet existing social, economic and health goals throgh food (see next slide for example)
    Leverage funding – looking for links and connections, we keep eyes oen to find creative ways to leverage creative funding. In last year we have been able to get money from McConnell, provincial money through into health, United Way, OCE to help us do more!
    use food to achieve multiple goals
    - progress through action – we try to just DO stuff together with partners in City and Community
  • making connectionsn w comminity
    Making links between issues (seeing link b/w urban ag, environmental outcomes/food handler training to employment outcomes)
    Glasses – see opportunities for City to meet existing social, economic and health goals throgh food (see next slide for example)
    Leverage funding – looking for links and connections, we keep eyes oen to find creative ways to leverage creative funding. In last year we have been able to get money from McConnell, provincial money through into health, United Way, OCE to help us do more!
    use food to achieve multiple goals
    - progress through action – we try to just DO stuff together with partners in City and Community
  • making connectionsn w comminity
    Making links between issues (seeing link b/w urban ag, environmental outcomes/food handler training to employment outcomes)
    Glasses – see opportunities for City to meet existing social, economic and health goals throgh food (see next slide for example)
    Leverage funding – looking for links and connections, we keep eyes oen to find creative ways to leverage creative funding. In last year we have been able to get money from McConnell, provincial money through into health, United Way, OCE to help us do more!
    use food to achieve multiple goals
    - progress through action – we try to just DO stuff together with partners in City and Community
  • making connectionsn w comminity
    Making links between issues (seeing link b/w urban ag, environmental outcomes/food handler training to employment outcomes)
    Glasses – see opportunities for City to meet existing social, economic and health goals throgh food (see next slide for example)
    Leverage funding – looking for links and connections, we keep eyes oen to find creative ways to leverage creative funding. In last year we have been able to get money from McConnell, provincial money through into health, United Way, OCE to help us do more!
    use food to achieve multiple goals
    - progress through action – we try to just DO stuff together with partners in City and Community
  • And in big cities with all our wealth and food availability, we still have many low-income neighbourhoods with little access to healthy, affordable food or a high density of unhealthy food options. This is Lotherton Pathway in west Toronto, a lower income area cut off from food stores, where residents take extreme measures to reduce the 2.5km walk to the nearest discount grocery store.
  • When we talk about food system – we talk in linear way a ”grow it to throw it” but others talk about it in a circular system of activities from production through to waste. We like to think about as a interconnected system – with not only activities but with people and organizations all interacting and interdependent.
    Essence of a food strategy – help reorient these connections in favour of a healthier and more sustainable food system.
    Food system - Production, processing, distribution, retail, marketing, purchasing, preparation, consumption and disposal. In other words, everything from “grow it to throw it”.
    Food system is big and important – Toronto residents and government spends $7 billion annually on food – 1 in 8 jobs directly related to food, Toronto is 2nd largest food distribution hub in North America
  • making connectionsn w comminity
    Making links between issues (seeing link b/w urban ag, environmental outcomes/food handler training to employment outcomes)
    Glasses – see opportunities for City to meet existing social, economic and health goals throgh food (see next slide for example)
    Leverage funding – looking for links and connections, we keep eyes oen to find creative ways to leverage creative funding. In last year we have been able to get money from McConnell, provincial money through into health, United Way, OCE to help us do more!
    use food to achieve multiple goals
    - progress through action – we try to just DO stuff together with partners in City and Community
  • making connectionsn w comminity
    Making links between issues (seeing link b/w urban ag, environmental outcomes/food handler training to employment outcomes)
    Glasses – see opportunities for City to meet existing social, economic and health goals throgh food (see next slide for example)
    Leverage funding – looking for links and connections, we keep eyes oen to find creative ways to leverage creative funding. In last year we have been able to get money from McConnell, provincial money through into health, United Way, OCE to help us do more!
    use food to achieve multiple goals
    - progress through action – we try to just DO stuff together with partners in City and Community
  • Conducted community food mapping sessions too
  • Toronto Food Strategy: Food Access Mapping

    1. 1. Toronto Food Strategy Bring Food Home Food Access Mapping Barbara Emanuel November, 2013
    2. 2. Toronto Food Strategy  Spearheaded by TPH to foster healthy & sustainable food system
    3. 3. City of Toronto’s Existing Food Connections
    4. 4. Toronto Food Strategy Approach  Build/strengthen networks by doing things together  Leveraging resources  Top down & bottom up strategies for change  Research & evaluation
    5. 5. Food Environment Mapping  Better understanding of spatial relationships among income, food access, etc  Changing the discussion on “food deserts”
    6. 6. Few Healthy Affordable Food Sources Lack of Green Spaces Few Amenities in Walking Distance Inadequate access to public transit Low Household Income
    7. 7. Health Inequalities & Inner Suburbs
    8. 8. Using TPH Inspector Data to Create Maps
    9. 9. Detroit Cleveland
    10. 10. = Low Income & no supermarket within 1km walking/driving distance
    11. 11. Mapping a Food Environment Index 1km radius street network
    12. 12. BEWARE THE HIDDEN DANGERS OF PRETTY MAPS
    13. 13. GIS Mapping: Questions to Ask  What’s the quality of the data used to create the map?  What was the methodology?  Is it telling the right story or sending us down the wrong path?  Maps (like all research) tell us about the next set of questions to ask, rather than telling us THE ANSWERS
    14. 14. MRFEI Scores for Toronto
    15. 15. MRFEI Scores for Toronto
    16. 16. MRFEI Scores & Low Income
    17. 17. Kipling & Finch Don Mills Sheppard Markham & Ellesmere Morningside & Ellesmere Lotherton Pathway Flemingdon Park East Scarb Storefront Kingston Galloway Warden Woods Teesdale
    18. 18. Lotherton Pathway, Toronto – Closest discount grocery  2.5km
    19. 19. Findings So Far  Problem in Toronto is NOT quantity of food stores but quality of retail in many areas  Less healthy food retail envir’t common across Toronto  Many lower income areas have low MRFEI but income does not predict food envir’t score  Schools more likely to have fast food within 500m/1km vs surrounding areas
    20. 20. Findings So Far Findings So Far…  NOT true that big food retailers are ignoring prime locations in lowest income communities  Need to look beyond supermarkets at full food retail environment  Need to look at dynamic food sourcing (e.g. environments near homes AND schools, workplaces, transit, etc.) Photo source: ERA Architects (2012). Healthy Apartment Neighbourhoods By Design: Barriers and Solutions.
    21. 21. Explanations?  Density in problem areas doesn’t fit with traditional big food retail models (but they’re trying to adapt)  “Progressive” regulatory legacies can impede alternate food distribution models today  Little support for small food enterprises
    22. 22. Mobile Good Food Market
    23. 23. Healthier Corner Stores Working with Existing Small Food Retailers
    24. 24.  Approx 8 convenience stores in Toronto for every supermarket
    25. 25. Kabul Market- Scarborough
    26. 26. Food Retail Assessment in Scarborough
    27. 27. Insights from Research So Far  Wide variation in small food store models  Many practical barriers for owners to integrating healthier foods  Residents value customer service highly
    28. 28. Insights from Research So Far  Very little institutional support exists for small-scale food retail  Many store owners keen to serve community, provide healthier foods  Most successful examples we saw prioritized positive relationships with customers
    29. 29. Community Consultations
    30. 30. What Are We Doing with the Research?  Informing implementation of new Residential Apartment Commercial zone TPH Healthy TPH Healthy Public Policy Public Policy
    31. 31.  Examples of apt tower communities in Germany Source: ERA Architects (2010). Tower Neighbourhood Renewal in the Greater Golden Horseshoe
    32. 32. Brian Cook, Research Consultant Toronto Food Strategy bcook@toronto.ca 416-338-7864 Barbara Emanuel, Manager Toronto Food Strategy bemanuel@toronto.ca 416-392-7464

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