Special-purpose (media player, digital cameras, and medical equipment)</li></li></ul><li>Integrated Circuit<br /><ul><li>Also called chips or microchips; connect transistors and other electronic components on a thin piece of material like silicon.
Store and process bits and bytes</li></li></ul><li>Central Processing Unit (CPU)<br /><ul><li>A group of circuits that perform the processing in a computer, typically in one integrated circuit called a microprocessor.
The CPU governs all actions that a computer carries out</li></li></ul><li>Control Unit<br /><ul><li>Accesses program instructions then decodes them.
After doing this they direct the flow of data in and out of the ALU, the registers, RAM, and other system components like secondary storage, input, and output devices.</li></li></ul><li>Arithmetic/logic unit and Registers<br />ALU contains the circuitry to process mathematical and logical operations.<br />Registers holds the bytes being processed at the time.<br />
Cache<br /><ul><li>A temporary storage place for frequently and recently accessed data.
Having certain data stored in a cache makes the operation of the computer faster
The size of cache is measured in megabytes (MB)</li></li></ul><li>Clock Speed<br />Speed of the processor: says how fast it can process data (measured in gigahertz (GHz)<br />
Multiprocessing<br />Uses more than one processing unit to increase productivity and performance<br />
Multi Core Processor<br /><ul><li>Combines multiple CPUs on one chip to speed up processing</li></li></ul><li>Moore’s Law<br />Number of transistors on a chip will double every two years<br />
Optical Computing<br />Optical processors use light waves instead of electrical currents<br />Have the potential to be 500x faster than electronic circuits<br />
Three-Dimensional Processing<br />Change 2D wafers to 3D arrays to speed up processing<br />Allows processing to occur vertically and horizontally<br />
Quantum Computing<br /><ul><li>Uses quantum bits (qubits) instead of bits
Displays properties of the laws of quantam mechanics rather than classical psychics</li></li></ul><li>DNA Computing<br />Computer would be composed of enzymes and DNA molecules<br />Perform 330 trillion operations per second (100,000x the speed of PCs)<br />
Motherboard<br /><ul><li>Primary circuit of a computer
All core components are connected here</li></li></ul><li>Bus<br />Subsystem on the motherboard that transfers data among the components<br />