Atom basics
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    Atom basics Atom basics Presentation Transcript

    • The Atom Atomic Number and Mass Number Isotopes LecturePLUS Timberlake 1
    • Atomic Theory Atoms are building blocks of elements Similar atoms in each element Different from atoms of other elements Two or more different atoms bond in simple ratios to form compounds LecturePLUS Timberlake 2
    • Subatomic Particles Particle Symbol Charge Relative Mass Electron e- 1- 0 Proton p+ + 1 Neutron n 0 1 LecturePLUS Timberlake 3
    • Location of Subatomic Particles 10-13 cm electrons protons nucleus 10-8 cm LecturePLUS Timberlake neutrons 4
    • Atomic Number Counts the number of protons in an atom LecturePLUS Timberlake 5
    • Periodic Table Represents physical and chemical behavior of elements Arranges elements by increasing atomic number Repeats similar properties in columns known as chemical families or groups LecturePLUS Timberlake 6
    • Periodic Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 11 Na LecturePLUS Timberlake 7
    • Atomic Number on the Periodic Table Atomic Number Symbol 11 Na LecturePLUS Timberlake 8
    • All atoms of an element have the same number of protons 11 protons Sodium 11 Na LecturePLUS Timberlake 9
    • Learning Check AT 1 State the number of protons for atoms of each of the following: A. Nitrogen 1) 5 protons 2) 7 protons 3) 14 protons B. Sulfur 1) 32 protons 2) 16 protons C. Barium 1) 137 protons 2) 81 protons LecturePLUS Timberlake 3) 6 protons 3) 56 protons 10
    • Solution AT 1 State the number of protons for atoms of each of the following: A. Nitrogen 2) 7 protons B. Sulfur 2) 16 protons C. Barium 3) 56 protons LecturePLUS Timberlake 11
    • Number of Electrons An atom is neutral The net charge is zero Number of protons = Number of electrons Atomic number = Number of electrons LecturePLUS Timberlake 12
    • Mass Number Counts the number of protons and neutrons in an atom LecturePLUS Timberlake 13
    • Atomic Symbols Show the mass number and atomic number Give the symbol of the element mass number 23 atomic number Na sodium-23 11 LecturePLUS Timberlake 14
    • More Atomic Symbols 16 31 O 8 8 p+ 8n 8 e- 65 P 15 Zn 30 15 p+ 30 p+ 16 n 35 n LecturePLUS 15 e- Timberlake 30 e- 15
    • Masses of Atoms A scale designed for atoms gives their small atomic masses in atomic mass units (amu) An atom of 12C was assigned an exact mass of 12.00 amu Relative masses of all other atoms was determined by comparing each to the mass of 12 C An atom twice as heavy has a mass of 24.00 amu. An atom half as heavy is 6.00 amu. 16 LecturePLUS Timberlake
    • Atomic Mass Na 22.99 Listed on the periodic table Gives the mass of “average” atom of each element compared to 12C Average atom based on all the isotopes and their abundance % Atomic mass is not a whole number LecturePLUS Timberlake 17
    • Learning Check AT6 Using the periodic table, specify the atomic mass of each element (round to the tenths place): A. calcium __________ B. aluminum __________ C. lead __________ D. barium __________ E. iron __________ LecturePLUS Timberlake 18
    • Solution AT6 Using the periodic table, specify the atomic mass of each element (round to the tenths place): A. calcium _40.1 amu _ B. aluminum _27.0 amu _ C. lead _207.2 amu_ D. barium _137.3 amu_ E. iron _55.8 amu__ LecturePLUS Timberlake 19