Tested and analyzed data for the fuel efficiency and thermal efficiency of a thermoelectric cook stove for developing countries. Adjusted various components to demonstrate the effects on the efficiency and to optimize the cook stove.
Define biomass / Describe the open-burning fire used (ex: 3-stone fire) / Poor combustion = carbon monoxide, PM, and low efficiency / leads to the deforestation problem in Haiti (4% of forest left)
Capitizalize the first word in each one.Pick about 5 that important. Don’t go thru the whole list
Open Fire: No combustion chamber; common; poor combustion. Three-stone fire / Rocket Stove: fuel-feeding slot / air flow allows for better combustion / reduce heat loses, used the most
Downdraft and Updraft Gasifiers – flow of the gases / Downdraft produces charcoal, burns tar, best for cooking / Updraft produces tar, burns charcoal / TLUDs (Inverted Downdraft)
Mention the Senior Design Team, mention thermoelectric powering the fan, reduce explanation on thermoelectric
Describe the skirt. Focusing
Mention how a new batch of fuel is used for the Hot startMIGHT MENTION OTHER TYPES OF TESTS
Simplify explanation on this slide. Explain test stand
Most of CO is produced in startup
Start Simple: How much heat goes into water over how much energy we burn.
Explain what air flow is. More emphasis on the Simmer.
Change order by priority
Acknowledge EPA and P3
Testing and Optimization of Improved Cookstoves for Developing Countries
Testing and Optimization of an Improved Cook Stove for Developing Countries<br />Brianna Stephenson-Vallot<br />Dr. Robert Stevens<br />Mechanical Engineering<br />Rochester Institute of Technology<br />Undergraduate Research and Innovation Symposium<br />August 13, 2010<br />
Motivation<br />Over 3 billion people use plant material or animal waste as fuel for cooking<br />Biomass use requires families to spend a considerable amount of their income, energy, and time collecting and preparing the fuel<br />1.6 million people die each year from indoor air pollution<br />Using biomass as fuel contributes to deforestation, which is a devastating problem in many developing countries.<br />
RIT Stove Project Objectives<br />The purpose of the stove project is to:<br />Reduce fuel use by a factor of two or greater;<br />Improve the affordability of cooking;<br />Create microenterprises and develop local expertise;<br />Implement a design that is intuitive, transportable, and enhances conventional cooking techniques for traditional foods;<br />Provide an electrical power source;<br />Improve the air quality for women and children; and<br />Minimize the negative impact on the local and global environment by incorporating a life cycle analysis in the design process.<br />
Summer 2010 Research Objectives<br />Improve stove characterization technique<br />Demonstrate testing repeatability<br />Optimize concept stove<br />Skirt design<br />Primary and secondary air flow rates<br />Insulation thickness and radiant barrier<br />Compare concept stove to a Haitian stove <br />
Classification of Cook Stoves<br />Charcoal Stove<br />Liquid or Gas Fuel Stove<br />http://www.bioenergylists.org/stovesdoc/Ezzati/New%20Folder/metal.jpg<br />http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/VhARzq11pifTNUljR09z6g?feat=embedwebsite<br />
Classification of Cook Stoves<br />Gasifier Stove<br />Forced Draft Fan Stove<br />http://www.vrac.iastate.edu/ethos/files/ethos2009/Stove%20Developments/TLUD%20Gasifier.pdf<br />http://www.treehugger.com/files/2006/03/philips_smokele.php<br />
Current Protoype<br />Cooking Pot<br />Exhaust<br />Secondary Air Inlets<br /><ul><li>The first cook stove and the testing stand was designed and developed by senior design teams
Uses a forced draft (blower) in the structure of a gasifier cook stove.
Contains thermoelectric module to power the blower and generate electricity.
Fabricated using existing Haitian fabrication techniques utilizing a recycled 55 gallon drum.</li></ul>Fire<br />Burning Charcoal<br />Gasifying Charcoal<br />Fan<br />Primary Air Inlets<br />
Current Prototype<br />Optimize concept stove<br />Skirt design<br />Primary and secondary air flow rates<br />Insulation thickness and radiant barrier<br />
Stove Testing<br />Original Water Boiling Test<br /><ul><li>Bring 5 L of water to a boil for a “Cold Start”
Bring a fresh 5 L of water to a boil from a “Hot Start”
From the “Hot Start,” allow the water to continue to boil for 45 minutes
Provides feedback on fuel consumption and thermal efficiency</li></li></ul><li>Stove Testing<br />RIT Modified Water Boiling Test<br /><ul><li>Bring 2.5 L of water to boil from a “Cold Start”
Simmer Stage: Allow the water to continue boiling for 20 minutes
Allows to quickly verify repeatability</li></li></ul><li>Stove Testing<br />
Thermal Efficiency<br /> = Thermal Efficiency<br />QSensible = The energy needed to raise the temperature of water<br />QLatent= The energy required to evaporate water.<br />QFuel = The amount of energy contained in the fuel.<br />mFuel = The mass of the fuel consumed<br />HHV = Higher Heating Value of fuel<br />
Results<br />Possible Sources of Errors:<br />Weather <br />Temperature<br />Wind conditions<br />Error in measurement<br />Time in between tests<br />The stove may not have cooled properly<br />
Conclusions<br />The test is repeatable for the simmer portion<br />The test is not repeatable for the warm-up portion possibly due to testing technique<br />The changes to stove design appear to have a relatively small impact and cannot be quantified due to the uncertainty in our measurements.<br />
Recommendations<br />Monitor surface temperature during stove cool down to improve warm-up repeatability.<br />Quantify uncertainties and reduce where appropriate<br />Test the stove with a varying primary and secondary air flow rates<br />Explore spacing and geometry of skirt<br />Explore thermal loss impact by adding insulation and improved radiant barrier<br />Test with various pots<br />Measure exhaust flow rate to properly quantify CO emissions<br />
Acknowledgements<br />Dr. Robert Stevens<br />EPA’s P3 Program (People, Prosperity, and the Planet)<br />McNair Scholars Program<br />Essie Sierra-Torres<br />Linda White<br />Karen VanMeenen<br />