Testing and Optimization of Improved Cookstoves for Developing Countries

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Tested and analyzed data for the fuel efficiency and thermal efficiency of a thermoelectric cook stove for developing countries. Adjusted various components to demonstrate the effects on the efficiency and to optimize the cook stove.

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  • Define biomass / Describe the open-burning fire used (ex: 3-stone fire) / Poor combustion = carbon monoxide, PM, and low efficiency / leads to the deforestation problem in Haiti (4% of forest left)
  • Capitizalize the first word in each one.Pick about 5 that important. Don’t go thru the whole list
  • Open Fire: No combustion chamber; common; poor combustion. Three-stone fire / Rocket Stove: fuel-feeding slot / air flow allows for better combustion / reduce heat loses, used the most
  • Downdraft and Updraft Gasifiers – flow of the gases / Downdraft produces charcoal, burns tar, best for cooking / Updraft produces tar, burns charcoal / TLUDs (Inverted Downdraft)
  • Mention the Senior Design Team, mention thermoelectric powering the fan, reduce explanation on thermoelectric
  • Describe the skirt. Focusing
  • Mention how a new batch of fuel is used for the Hot startMIGHT MENTION OTHER TYPES OF TESTS
  • Simplify explanation on this slide. Explain test stand
  • Most of CO is produced in startup
  • Start Simple: How much heat goes into water over how much energy we burn.
  • Explain what air flow is. More emphasis on the Simmer.
  • Change order by priority
  • Acknowledge EPA and P3
  • Testing and Optimization of Improved Cookstoves for Developing Countries

    1. 1. Testing and Optimization of an Improved Cook Stove for Developing Countries<br />Brianna Stephenson-Vallot<br />Dr. Robert Stevens<br />Mechanical Engineering<br />Rochester Institute of Technology<br />Undergraduate Research and Innovation Symposium<br />August 13, 2010<br />
    2. 2. Motivation<br />Over 3 billion people use plant material or animal waste as fuel for cooking<br />Biomass use requires families to spend a considerable amount of their income, energy, and time collecting and preparing the fuel<br />1.6 million people die each year from indoor air pollution<br />Using biomass as fuel contributes to deforestation, which is a devastating problem in many developing countries.<br />
    3. 3. Outline<br />Motivation<br />Research Objectives<br />Overview of Stove Technologies<br />Current Prototype<br />Stove Testing<br />Results<br />Conclusions<br />
    4. 4. RIT Stove Project Objectives<br />The purpose of the stove project is to:<br />Reduce fuel use by a factor of two or greater;<br />Improve the affordability of cooking;<br />Create microenterprises and develop local expertise;<br />Implement a design that is intuitive, transportable, and enhances conventional cooking techniques for traditional foods;<br />Provide an electrical power source;<br />Improve the air quality for women and children; and<br />Minimize the negative impact on the local and global environment by incorporating a life cycle analysis in the design process.<br />
    5. 5. Summer 2010 Research Objectives<br />Improve stove characterization technique<br />Demonstrate testing repeatability<br />Optimize concept stove<br />Skirt design<br />Primary and secondary air flow rates<br />Insulation thickness and radiant barrier<br />Compare concept stove to a Haitian stove <br />
    6. 6. Classification of Cook Stoves<br />Open Fire<br />Rocket Stove<br />http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/_D6z6UiS0hupX2pf1LIP5A<br />http://wings.interfree.it/html/Elbow.html<br />
    7. 7. Classification of Cook Stoves<br />Charcoal Stove<br />Liquid or Gas Fuel Stove<br />http://www.bioenergylists.org/stovesdoc/Ezzati/New%20Folder/metal.jpg<br />http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/VhARzq11pifTNUljR09z6g?feat=embedwebsite<br />
    8. 8. Classification of Cook Stoves<br />Gasifier Stove<br />Forced Draft Fan Stove<br />http://www.vrac.iastate.edu/ethos/files/ethos2009/Stove%20Developments/TLUD%20Gasifier.pdf<br />http://www.treehugger.com/files/2006/03/philips_smokele.php<br />
    9. 9. Current Protoype<br />Cooking Pot<br />Exhaust<br />Secondary Air Inlets<br /><ul><li>The first cook stove and the testing stand was designed and developed by senior design teams
    10. 10. Uses a forced draft (blower) in the structure of a gasifier cook stove.
    11. 11. Contains thermoelectric module to power the blower and generate electricity.
    12. 12. Fabricated using existing Haitian fabrication techniques utilizing a recycled 55 gallon drum.</li></ul>Fire<br />Burning Charcoal<br />Gasifying Charcoal<br />Fan<br />Primary Air Inlets<br />
    13. 13. Current Prototype<br />Optimize concept stove<br />Skirt design<br />Primary and secondary air flow rates<br />Insulation thickness and radiant barrier<br />
    14. 14. Stove Testing<br />Original Water Boiling Test<br /><ul><li>Bring 5 L of water to a boil for a “Cold Start”
    15. 15. Bring a fresh 5 L of water to a boil from a “Hot Start”
    16. 16. From the “Hot Start,” allow the water to continue to boil for 45 minutes
    17. 17. Provides feedback on fuel consumption and thermal efficiency</li></li></ul><li>Stove Testing<br />RIT Modified Water Boiling Test<br /><ul><li>Bring 2.5 L of water to boil from a “Cold Start”
    18. 18. Hold the boil for one minute
    19. 19. Simmer Stage: Allow the water to continue boiling for 20 minutes
    20. 20. Allows to quickly verify repeatability</li></li></ul><li>Stove Testing<br />
    21. 21. Thermal Efficiency<br /> = Thermal Efficiency<br />QSensible = The energy needed to raise the temperature of water<br />QLatent= The energy required to evaporate water.<br />QFuel = The amount of energy contained in the fuel.<br />mFuel = The mass of the fuel consumed<br />HHV = Higher Heating Value of fuel<br />
    22. 22. Results<br />
    23. 23. Results<br />Possible Sources of Errors:<br />Weather <br />Temperature<br />Wind conditions<br />Error in measurement<br />Time in between tests<br />The stove may not have cooled properly<br />
    24. 24. Conclusions<br />The test is repeatable for the simmer portion<br />The test is not repeatable for the warm-up portion possibly due to testing technique<br />The changes to stove design appear to have a relatively small impact and cannot be quantified due to the uncertainty in our measurements.<br />
    25. 25. Recommendations<br />Monitor surface temperature during stove cool down to improve warm-up repeatability.<br />Quantify uncertainties and reduce where appropriate<br />Test the stove with a varying primary and secondary air flow rates<br />Explore spacing and geometry of skirt<br />Explore thermal loss impact by adding insulation and improved radiant barrier<br />Test with various pots<br />Measure exhaust flow rate to properly quantify CO emissions<br />
    26. 26. Acknowledgements<br />Dr. Robert Stevens<br />EPA’s P3 Program (People, Prosperity, and the Planet)<br />McNair Scholars Program<br />Essie Sierra-Torres<br />Linda White<br />Karen VanMeenen<br />
    27. 27. Questions?<br />

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