America claims an empire

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  • 1. America Claims anAmerica Claims an EmpireEmpire Does the U.S. have a duty to fightDoes the U.S. have a duty to fight for freedom in neighboringfor freedom in neighboring countries?countries?
  • 2. Imperialism and AmericaImperialism and America Main IdeaMain Idea Beginning in 1867 and continuing through theBeginning in 1867 and continuing through the century, global competition caused thecentury, global competition caused the United States to expand.United States to expand. Why it Matters TodayWhy it Matters Today During this time period, the United StatesDuring this time period, the United States acquired Hawaii and Alaska, both of whichacquired Hawaii and Alaska, both of which became states in 1959.became states in 1959.
  • 3. One American’s StoryOne American’s Story ► Queen Liliuokalani-Queen Liliuokalani- HawaiiHawaii ► Haoles-whiteHaoles-white foreignersforeigners
  • 4. American ExpansionismAmerican Expansionism ►America had always sought to expand theAmerica had always sought to expand the size of their nation.size of their nation. ►America to join imperialist power in EuropeAmerica to join imperialist power in Europe and establish colonies overseas.and establish colonies overseas. ►ImperialismImperialism- policy in which stronger- policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, ornations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories.military control over weaker territories.
  • 5. Global CompetitionGlobal Competition ► Africa was a prime target of EuropeanAfrica was a prime target of European expansionism.expansionism.  Ethiopia and Liberia- remained independentEthiopia and Liberia- remained independent ► Imperialist competed for AsiaImperialist competed for Asia  Japan joined European nations in competitionJapan joined European nations in competition
  • 6. World Colonial Empires, 1900World Colonial Empires, 1900
  • 7. Three Factors Fueled the NewThree Factors Fueled the New American ImperialismAmerican Imperialism Three Factors Military Strength New Markets Cultural Superiority Alfred Thayer Mahan Need for raw materials New markets for goods Social Darwinism Spread Christianity “Civilize” people
  • 8. The U.S. Acquires AlaskaThe U.S. Acquires Alaska ►William Seward-William Seward- Secretary ofSecretary of State under presidents AbrahamState under presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson.Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. ►U.S. to buy Alaska for $7.2 millionU.S. to buy Alaska for $7.2 million from Russiafrom Russia  ““Seward’s Icebox”, “Seward’s Folly”Seward’s Icebox”, “Seward’s Folly”  1959 became a state. About 2 cents an1959 became a state. About 2 cents an acre.acre.  Land rich with minerals, timber, and oil.Land rich with minerals, timber, and oil.
  • 9. The U.S. Takes HawaiiThe U.S. Takes Hawaii ► 1867- U.S. took over1867- U.S. took over the Midway Islandsthe Midway Islands just north of Hawaiijust north of Hawaii ► Hawaii wasHawaii was economically andeconomically and militarily important.militarily important. U.S. & Hawaii Cry for Annexation End of a Monarchy Duty Free Sugar 1887-Pearl Harbor John L. Stevens Sanford D. Dole 1898-Hawaii annexed 1959-50th State
  • 10. Hawaiian IslandsHawaiian Islands
  • 11. Roots of ImperialismRoots of Imperialism Roots of U.S. Imperialism Politica l Economic Cultural Rivalry w/others imperialist Const. of modern Naval Fleet Foreign trade, unemployment, depression Competition from other nations Combining Social Darwinism w/Anglo Superiority Spread Christianity
  • 12. Imperialism and AmericaImperialism and America ReviewReview ► What three factors spurred AmericanWhat three factors spurred American imperialism?imperialism?  Economic CompetitionEconomic Competition  Political and Military CompetitionPolitical and Military Competition  Racial SuperiorityRacial Superiority ► How did Queen Lilioukalani’s main goalHow did Queen Lilioukalani’s main goal conflict with American imperialist goals?conflict with American imperialist goals?  She wanted to preserve Hawaii for Hawaiians,She wanted to preserve Hawaii for Hawaiians, while Americans wanted to annex the islands.while Americans wanted to annex the islands.
  • 13. Spanish-American WarSpanish-American War Main IdeaMain Idea In 1898, the United States went to war to helpIn 1898, the United States went to war to help Cuba win its independence from Spain.Cuba win its independence from Spain. Why it Matters TodayWhy it Matters Today U.S. involvement in Latin America and AsiaU.S. involvement in Latin America and Asia increased greatly as a result of the war andincreased greatly as a result of the war and continuous today.continuous today.
  • 14. Cubans Rebel Against SpainCubans Rebel Against Spain ► By the end of the 19By the end of the 19thth century-Spain had lost mostcentury-Spain had lost most of its colonies. It retained only the Philippines andof its colonies. It retained only the Philippines and the island of Guam, some outposts in Africa, andthe island of Guam, some outposts in Africa, and the Caribbean islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico.the Caribbean islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico. Preludes to War America interested in Sugar Cubans revolt 1868 & 1878 Revolt not successful Abolished slavery-1886 Jose Marti- Cuba Libre! Americans were split on the issue
  • 15. War Fever EscalatesWar Fever Escalates ► Spain responded bySpain responded by sending Generalsending General Valeriano WeylerValeriano Weyler toto suppress the Cubansuppress the Cuban revolt.revolt. USS Maine Explodes De Lome Letter Yellow Journalism War Fever
  • 16. War with SpainWar with Spain ►America attacks in the PhilippinesAmerica attacks in the Philippines  April 30, CommodoreApril 30, Commodore GeorgeGeorge DeweyDewey opened fire on the Spanishopened fire on the Spanish fleet at Manilafleet at Manila  7 hours to capture the fleet.7 hours to capture the fleet.  Americans join Filipino rebels led byAmericans join Filipino rebels led by Emilio Aguinaldo.Emilio Aguinaldo.
  • 17. War with Spain: Pacific TheaterWar with Spain: Pacific Theater
  • 18. War in the CaribbeanWar in the Caribbean Treaty Of Paris San Juan Hill Rough Riders War in the Caribbean
  • 19. War with Spain: CaribbeanWar with Spain: Caribbean
  • 20. Treaty of Paris DebateTreaty of Paris Debate ►Debate over annexation of the PhilippinesDebate over annexation of the Philippines ►Opponents formed the Anti-ImperialistOpponents formed the Anti-Imperialist LeagueLeague ►February, 1899--ratification of peace treatyFebruary, 1899--ratification of peace treaty makes U.S. a colonizing nationmakes U.S. a colonizing nation
  • 21. American Empire, 1900American Empire, 1900
  • 22. The Spanish-American WarThe Spanish-American War ReviewReview ► Why was American opinion about CubanWhy was American opinion about Cuban independence divided?independence divided?  U.S. businessmen sided with Spain because theyU.S. businessmen sided with Spain because they wanted to protect their investments. The Americans,wanted to protect their investments. The Americans, however, sympathized with the Cuban demand forhowever, sympathized with the Cuban demand for independence.independence. ► Briefly describe the terms of the Treaty of Paris ofBriefly describe the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1898.1898.  Cuba’s independence; Spain’s relinquishing of PuertoCuba’s independence; Spain’s relinquishing of Puerto Rico and Guam demand for independence.Rico and Guam demand for independence.
  • 23. Acquiring New LandsAcquiring New Lands Main IdeaMain Idea In the early 1900’s, the United StatesIn the early 1900’s, the United States engaged in conflicts in Puerto Rico, Cuba,engaged in conflicts in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines.and the Philippines. Why it Matter TodayWhy it Matter Today Today, the United States maintains a strongToday, the United States maintains a strong military and political presence in strategicmilitary and political presence in strategic worldwide location.worldwide location.
  • 24. Ruling Puerto RicoRuling Puerto Rico ► After the Spanish-American war, the United StatesAfter the Spanish-American war, the United States didn’t promise Puerto Ricans independence.didn’t promise Puerto Ricans independence. Ruling Puerto Rico Military Rule Return to Civil Government Gen. Nelson A. Miles Foraker Act 1901- Insular Cases
  • 25. Cuba and the United StatesCuba and the United States ► 1898- U.S. recognized Cuba’s independence and1898- U.S. recognized Cuba’s independence and passed thepassed the Teller AmendmentTeller Amendment ..  Stated the U.S. had no intention of taking over any partStated the U.S. had no intention of taking over any part of Cuba.of Cuba. Cuba & U.S American Soldiers Platt Amendment Protecting American Business Interest Couldn’t make treaties U.S. could intervene Cuba no debt U.S. could lease land
  • 26. Filipinos RebelFilipinos Rebel ►Emilio Aguilnaldo- rebel leaderEmilio Aguilnaldo- rebel leader ►Philippine-American WarPhilippine-American War  Feb. 1899-rose to revoltFeb. 1899-rose to revolt  70,000 U.S. troops sent- majority African-70,000 U.S. troops sent- majority African- AmericansAmericans  Took nearly 3 years to put down the rebellion.Took nearly 3 years to put down the rebellion. ►Aftermath of the WarAftermath of the War  Government set up much like Puerto RicoGovernment set up much like Puerto Rico  Finally became independent on July 4, 1946.Finally became independent on July 4, 1946.
  • 27. Foreign Influence in ChinaForeign Influence in China ► Weakened by war and foreign intervention, ChinaWeakened by war and foreign intervention, China became vulnerable to foreign countries.became vulnerable to foreign countries. Jon Hay Open Door Notes Boxer Rebellion Protecting Am. Rights
  • 28. Protecting American RightsProtecting American Rights ►Open Door Policy reflected three deeplyOpen Door Policy reflected three deeply held American beliefs about the U.S.held American beliefs about the U.S. industrial capitalist economy:industrial capitalist economy:  U.S. growth depended upon exportsU.S. growth depended upon exports  U.S. had right to intervene to keep foreignU.S. had right to intervene to keep foreign markets openmarkets open  Closing areas to American products, citizens, orClosing areas to American products, citizens, or ideas threatened U.S. survival.ideas threatened U.S. survival.
  • 29. The Impact of U.S. Territorial GainsThe Impact of U.S. Territorial Gains ►Anti-imperialist vs. ImperialistAnti-imperialist vs. Imperialist  McKinley is re-elected-strong imperialistMcKinley is re-elected-strong imperialist  Anti-Imperialist LeagueAnti-Imperialist League ►Included prominent officialsIncluded prominent officials
  • 30. Acquiring New LandsAcquiring New Lands ReviewReview ► Why was the U.S. interested in events in Puerto Rico?Why was the U.S. interested in events in Puerto Rico?  Puerto Rico was strategically important to the U.S. as a way toPuerto Rico was strategically important to the U.S. as a way to assert its presence in the Caribbean and as a base for protecting aassert its presence in the Caribbean and as a base for protecting a possible canal through Panama.possible canal through Panama. ► What sparked the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, and how was itWhat sparked the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, and how was it crushed?crushed?  The Boxers staged a revolt to expel foreigners from China. InThe Boxers staged a revolt to expel foreigners from China. In August 1900, troops from Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and theAugust 1900, troops from Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and the U.S. marched on the Chinese capital. The International force putU.S. marched on the Chinese capital. The International force put an end to the rebellion.an end to the rebellion. ► What three key beliefs about America's industrial capitalistWhat three key beliefs about America's industrial capitalist economy were reflected in the Open Door Policy?economy were reflected in the Open Door Policy?  U.S. dependence on exports for growth, U.S. right to intervene toU.S. dependence on exports for growth, U.S. right to intervene to keep markets open, closing an area to American products threatenkeep markets open, closing an area to American products threaten U.S. survival.U.S. survival.
  • 31. America as a World PowerAmerica as a World Power Main IdeaMain Idea The Russo-Japanese War, the PanamaThe Russo-Japanese War, the Panama Canal, and the Mexican Revolution addedCanal, and the Mexican Revolution added to America’s military and economic power.to America’s military and economic power. Why it Matter TodayWhy it Matter Today American involvement in conflicts aroundAmerican involvement in conflicts around 1900 led to involvement in World War I and1900 led to involvement in World War I and later to a peacekeeper role in today’s world.later to a peacekeeper role in today’s world.
  • 32. Roosevelt/Wilson ForeignRoosevelt/Wilson Foreign PoliciesPolicies
  • 33. Teddy Roosevelt and the WorldTeddy Roosevelt and the World ► The assassination of William McKinley in 1901The assassination of William McKinley in 1901 thrust Vice-President Teddy Roosevelt into thethrust Vice-President Teddy Roosevelt into the role of a world leader.role of a world leader. Roosevelt & The World Roosevelt Peacemaker Panama Canal 1904-Russia declares War on Japan Treaty of Portsmouth Hay-Pauncefote Treaty-1901 $10 million + $250,000 annually
  • 34. Roosevelt and the WorldRoosevelt and the World ► Constructing the CanalConstructing the Canal  Builders battled diseaseBuilders battled disease  Workers were from Spain,Workers were from Spain, Italy; ¾ were blacks fromItaly; ¾ were blacks from the West Indies;the West Indies;  5,600 died from accidents5,600 died from accidents or diseaseor disease  August 15, 1914- CanalAugust 15, 1914- Canal openedopened ► Roosevelt CorollaryRoosevelt Corollary  ““Speak softly and carry aSpeak softly and carry a big stick”big stick”  1904- Roosevelt Corollary-1904- Roosevelt Corollary- U.S. would use force toU.S. would use force to protect its economicprotect its economic interests in Latin Americainterests in Latin America
  • 35. Roosevelt and the WorldRoosevelt and the World ►Dollar DiplomacyDollar Diplomacy  American banker loaned money to Nicaragua toAmerican banker loaned money to Nicaragua to pay debts.pay debts.  Bankers gained control of Nicaragua’s state-Bankers gained control of Nicaragua’s state- owned railroad system and its national bank.owned railroad system and its national bank.  People revolted against Pres. Adolfo Diaz.People revolted against Pres. Adolfo Diaz.  Taft administration used the policy of using U.S.Taft administration used the policy of using U.S. government loans made to foreign countries bygovernment loans made to foreign countries by American businesspeople.American businesspeople. Dollar Diplomacy.Dollar Diplomacy.
  • 36. Woodrow Wilson’s MissionaryWoodrow Wilson’s Missionary DiplomacyDiplomacy ► Monroe Doctrine in 1823 warned against any nationsMonroe Doctrine in 1823 warned against any nations expanding their influence in Latin America.expanding their influence in Latin America. ► Wilson’s “Missionary Diplomacy”, had a moral responsibilityWilson’s “Missionary Diplomacy”, had a moral responsibility to deny any Latin American government it viewedto deny any Latin American government it viewed oppressive, or hostile to U.S. interest.oppressive, or hostile to U.S. interest. Missionary Diplomacy Mexican Revolution Intervention in Mexico Rebellion in Mexico Porfirio Diaz overthrown Gen. Victoriano Huerta Wilson invades Veracruz Venustiano Carranza “Pancho” Villa Emiliano Zapata
  • 37. Activities of the United States in theActivities of the United States in the Caribbean, 1898-1930Caribbean, 1898-1930
  • 38. Chasing VillaChasing Villa ► President Wilson ordered Gen. John Pershing anPresident Wilson ordered Gen. John Pershing an about 15,000 soldiers to capture Villa dead orabout 15,000 soldiers to capture Villa dead or alive.alive. ► Troops clash with Mexican army in 1916.Troops clash with Mexican army in 1916. ► Pershing is ordered home in 1917.Pershing is ordered home in 1917. ► U.S. pursued and achieved several foreign policyU.S. pursued and achieved several foreign policy goals in the early 20goals in the early 20thth century.century.  Expanded access to foreign marketsExpanded access to foreign markets  U.S. built a modern day navyU.S. built a modern day navy  U.S. exercised its police power to ensure dominance inU.S. exercised its police power to ensure dominance in Latin AmericaLatin America
  • 39. America as a World PowerAmerica as a World Power ReviewReview ► What conflict triggered the war with Russia and Japan?What conflict triggered the war with Russia and Japan?  A dispute over KoreaA dispute over Korea ► Why is the construction of the Panama Canal consideredWhy is the construction of the Panama Canal considered one of the world’s greatest engineering feats?one of the world’s greatest engineering feats?  Workers fought disease, such as yellow fever andWorkers fought disease, such as yellow fever and bubonic plague. Volcanic soil was difficult to remove.bubonic plague. Volcanic soil was difficult to remove. Thousands died.Thousands died. ► Explain the key difference between Woodrow Wilson’sExplain the key difference between Woodrow Wilson’s moral diplomacy and Teddy Roosevelt’s “big stick”moral diplomacy and Teddy Roosevelt’s “big stick” diplomacy.diplomacy.  ““Big stick” diplomacy demanded that EuropeanBig stick” diplomacy demanded that European countries stay out of the affairs of Latin America.countries stay out of the affairs of Latin America. Wilson’s “moral diplomacy” demanded that countries inWilson’s “moral diplomacy” demanded that countries in Lain America set up democraciesLain America set up democracies..