Dr. Brian J. Spiering
Building Better Models in
Cognitive Neuroscience:
APPLICATION
Review
• Better models help solve better problems
• Why?
• Ideals
• Modeling
HOW DOES
PROCEDURAL
EXPERTISE
DEVELOP?
1)Idea
2)Inception
3)Instantiations
Previous Notions
“It has been widely held that although memory
traces are at first formed in the cerebral cortex,
they are ...
Previous Notions
“Routine, automatic, or overlearned behavioral
sequences, however complex, do not engage the
PFC and may ...
Previous Notions
An Contrarian Model of
Procedural Expertise
Procedural learning is striatum dependent.
Procedural expertise is striatum independent.
SPEED Model
(Subcortical Pathways...
INCEPTION
F. Greg Ashby John Ennis
SCHEMATIC
OVERVIEW
Sensory
Association
Cortex
Response
BA
B
A-B difference
A
B
A B
A
Premotor Area
(Cortex)
Thalamus
Globus Pallidus
Striatum...
Sensory
Association
Cortex
A Response
A
A
A
A
Premotor Area
(Cortex)
Thalamus
Globus Pallidus
Striatum
Excitatory
Inhibito...
Sensory
Association
Cortex
Response
BA
B
A-B difference
A
B
A B
A
Premotor Area
(Cortex)
Thalamus
Globus Pallidus
Striatum...
Sensory
Association
Cortex
Striatum
SNpc
Dopamine
Excitatory
SPEED Model:
Subcortical Learning
Sensory
Association
Cortex
Response
BA
B
A-B difference
A
B
A B
A
Premotor Area
(Cortex)
Thalamus
Globus Pallidus
Striatum...
Sensory
Association
Cortex
Response
BA
A-B difference
SPEED Model:
Cortical
Sensory
Association
Cortex
Response
BA
B
A-B difference
A
B
A B
A
Premotor Area
(Cortex)
Thalamus
Globus Pallidus
Striatum...
ACTIVATION
EQUATIONS
Sensory
Association
Cortex
BA Striatum
A BGlobus Pallidus
A
B
Thalamus
BA
Premotor Area
(Cortex)
Response
A-B difference
Sensory
Association
Cortex
Response
BA
B
A-B difference
A
B
A B
A
Premotor Area
(Cortex)
Thalamus
Globus Pallidus
Striatum...
LEARNING
Sensory
Association
Cortex
A
A
A A
Premotor Area
(Cortex)
Thalamus
Globus Pallidus
Striatum
SPEED Model:
1st Trial
Sensory
Association
Cortex
A
A
A A
Premotor Area
(Cortex)
Thalamus
Globus Pallidus
Striatum
SPEED Model:
Early Learning
Sensory
Association
Cortex
A
A
A A
Premotor Area
(Cortex)
Thalamus
Globus Pallidus
Striatum
SPEED Model:
Middle Learning
Sensory
Association
Cortex
A
A
A A
Premotor Area
(Cortex)
Thalamus
Globus Pallidus
Striatum
SPEED Model:
Mature Performance
LEARNING
EQUATIONS
Sensory
Association
Cortex
BA
Premotor Area
(Cortex)
2-Factor
Learning
Sensory
Association
Cortex
BA
Striatum
Sensory
Association
Cortex
SNpc
3-Factor
Learning
Dopamine Release
Incorrect Trial
Correct Trial
Break
INSTANTIATIONS
Romo, Merchant et al.
0
0.5
1
12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Cycles Per Second
ProportionofLowResponses
0
0.5
1
12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Cycles per Second
ProportionofLowResponses
Low High
Monkeys
SPEED
Speed (mm/s)
Merchant et al. (1997)
SPEED
Romo et al., 1997
SPEED
Carelli, Wolske, & West (1997)
SPEED
Carelli et al., 1997
Choi, Balsam, & Horvitz (2005)
SPEED
Nosofsky & Palmeri (1997)
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
B
B
B B
Brightness
Saturation
Participant 1
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
5
20
35
50
65
80
95
110
125
140
Block (N)
MeanResponseTime
SPEEDNosofsky &...
SPEED
UPDATES
Building better models in cognitive neuroscience. Part 2: Application
Building better models in cognitive neuroscience. Part 2: Application
Building better models in cognitive neuroscience. Part 2: Application
Building better models in cognitive neuroscience. Part 2: Application
Building better models in cognitive neuroscience. Part 2: Application
Building better models in cognitive neuroscience. Part 2: Application
Building better models in cognitive neuroscience. Part 2: Application
Building better models in cognitive neuroscience. Part 2: Application
Building better models in cognitive neuroscience. Part 2: Application
Building better models in cognitive neuroscience. Part 2: Application
Building better models in cognitive neuroscience. Part 2: Application
Building better models in cognitive neuroscience. Part 2: Application
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Building better models in cognitive neuroscience. Part 2: Application

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Building better models in cognitive neuroscience. Part 2: Application

  1. 1. Dr. Brian J. Spiering Building Better Models in Cognitive Neuroscience: APPLICATION
  2. 2. Review • Better models help solve better problems • Why? • Ideals • Modeling
  3. 3. HOW DOES PROCEDURAL EXPERTISE DEVELOP?
  4. 4. 1)Idea 2)Inception 3)Instantiations
  5. 5. Previous Notions “It has been widely held that although memory traces are at first formed in the cerebral cortex, they are finally reduced or transferred by long practice to subcortical levels” (p. 466) Karl Lashley (1950) In search of the engram
  6. 6. Previous Notions “Routine, automatic, or overlearned behavioral sequences, however complex, do not engage the PFC and may be entirely organized in subcortical structures” (p. 323) Joaquin Fuster (2001) The prefrontal cortex – an update
  7. 7. Previous Notions
  8. 8. An Contrarian Model of Procedural Expertise
  9. 9. Procedural learning is striatum dependent. Procedural expertise is striatum independent. SPEED Model (Subcortical Pathways Enable Expertise Development)
  10. 10. INCEPTION
  11. 11. F. Greg Ashby John Ennis
  12. 12. SCHEMATIC OVERVIEW
  13. 13. Sensory Association Cortex Response BA B A-B difference A B A B A Premotor Area (Cortex) Thalamus Globus Pallidus Striatum SPEED Model
  14. 14. Sensory Association Cortex A Response A A A A Premotor Area (Cortex) Thalamus Globus Pallidus Striatum Excitatory Inhibitory SPEED Model: Single Subcortical
  15. 15. Sensory Association Cortex Response BA B A-B difference A B A B A Premotor Area (Cortex) Thalamus Globus Pallidus Striatum SPEED Model: Subcortical
  16. 16. Sensory Association Cortex Striatum SNpc Dopamine Excitatory SPEED Model: Subcortical Learning
  17. 17. Sensory Association Cortex Response BA B A-B difference A B A B A Premotor Area (Cortex) Thalamus Globus Pallidus Striatum SPEED Model: Subcortical
  18. 18. Sensory Association Cortex Response BA A-B difference SPEED Model: Cortical
  19. 19. Sensory Association Cortex Response BA B A-B difference A B A B A Premotor Area (Cortex) Thalamus Globus Pallidus Striatum SPEED Model: Cortical Learning
  20. 20. ACTIVATION EQUATIONS
  21. 21. Sensory Association Cortex
  22. 22. BA Striatum
  23. 23. A BGlobus Pallidus
  24. 24. A B Thalamus
  25. 25. BA Premotor Area (Cortex)
  26. 26. Response A-B difference
  27. 27. Sensory Association Cortex Response BA B A-B difference A B A B A Premotor Area (Cortex) Thalamus Globus Pallidus Striatum SPEED Model
  28. 28. LEARNING
  29. 29. Sensory Association Cortex A A A A Premotor Area (Cortex) Thalamus Globus Pallidus Striatum SPEED Model: 1st Trial
  30. 30. Sensory Association Cortex A A A A Premotor Area (Cortex) Thalamus Globus Pallidus Striatum SPEED Model: Early Learning
  31. 31. Sensory Association Cortex A A A A Premotor Area (Cortex) Thalamus Globus Pallidus Striatum SPEED Model: Middle Learning
  32. 32. Sensory Association Cortex A A A A Premotor Area (Cortex) Thalamus Globus Pallidus Striatum SPEED Model: Mature Performance
  33. 33. LEARNING EQUATIONS
  34. 34. Sensory Association Cortex BA Premotor Area (Cortex) 2-Factor Learning
  35. 35. Sensory Association Cortex BA Striatum Sensory Association Cortex SNpc 3-Factor Learning
  36. 36. Dopamine Release Incorrect Trial Correct Trial
  37. 37. Break
  38. 38. INSTANTIATIONS
  39. 39. Romo, Merchant et al.
  40. 40. 0 0.5 1 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Cycles Per Second ProportionofLowResponses
  41. 41. 0 0.5 1 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Cycles per Second ProportionofLowResponses Low High Monkeys SPEED Speed (mm/s)
  42. 42. Merchant et al. (1997) SPEED
  43. 43. Romo et al., 1997 SPEED
  44. 44. Carelli, Wolske, & West (1997)
  45. 45. SPEED Carelli et al., 1997
  46. 46. Choi, Balsam, & Horvitz (2005)
  47. 47. SPEED
  48. 48. Nosofsky & Palmeri (1997)
  49. 49. A A A A A A B B B B B B Brightness Saturation
  50. 50. Participant 1 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 5 20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125 140 Block (N) MeanResponseTime SPEEDNosofsky & Palmeri (1997)
  51. 51. SPEED
  52. 52. UPDATES

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