History of the columbia turnpike presentation1

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  • 1. History of Columbia Turnpike
  • 2. Five Topics of Discussion
    • Colonial Roads and the Need for Turnpikes
    • 3. Development of Washington, D.C. and Columbia Turnpike
    • 4. Civil War and Railroads
    • 5. Government Transportation Experiments
    • 6. Prominent Structures along the Pike
  • Roads in America
    Colonial roads
    Local responsibility
    Unprofessional results
    Authorization of turnpikes
    • Legislative not technological
  • English vs. American Turnpikes
    English system
    • Organized as trusts
    • 7. Rates regulated by government
    • 8. Outside investors
    • 9. Road returned to public
  • English vs. American Turnpikes
    American system
    • New England – Did not subsidize
    • 10. Virginia – State subsidized
    • 11. Rates not government regulated
    • 12. Local Investors
    • 13. Road remains with turnpike company after amortization of debt
  • Turnpikes/Toll Roads
    1800-1830 = 10,000 miles of turnpikes.
    Road Improvements:
    Roadbeds were smoothed and hardened
    Curves straightened.
    Bridges constructed to replace fords.
  • 14. DC and Columbia Turnpike
    Residence Act
    District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801
    “Instant City”
    Slow Growth
  • 15. Benjamin Henry Latrobe and Turnpikes
    Emigrated from England, 1795.
    Famous for architectural work.
    DC was center for Latrobe’s transportation work.
  • 16. Solution to Slow Growth is Turnpikes
    • Little River Turnpike
    • 17. Long Bridge – 14th Street Bridge
    • 18. Washington and Alexandria Turnpike Company
    • 19. Columbia Turnpike Company
  • Columbia Turnpike Company April 12, 1810
    Three turnpikes
    Capital to Baltimore
    Capital to Montgomery Courthouse
    Capital to Shenandoah Valley/Southwest (Columbia Pike)
  • 20. Stipulations of Columbia Turnpike Charter
    • Dimensions of road
    • 21. Toll gates
    • 22. Maximum toll
    rates
    • Repair of roads
    • 23. Roads to become free
  • Columbia Turnpike and the Civil War
    Alexandria County
    Critical route to the south
    Fortification of turnpike
  • 24. Fort Runyon
  • 25. Columbia Turnpike and the Civil War
  • 26. Freedman’s Village
  • 27. Columbia Pike and W&OD
  • 28. Columbia Pike and Washington-Virginia Railway
  • 29. Columbia Pike Experiments, 1911-1915
    • Alexandria County and US Department of Agriculture, Office of Public Roads
    • 30. Experimental Maintenance Program
    • 31. Columbia Pike chosen due to its high amount of traffic
  • Columbia Pike Experiments, 1911-1915
    Plank Drag’s Purpose:
    Smoothes
    Shapes
    Hardens
  • 32. Columbia Pike Experiments, 1921
    Continually Reinforced Concrete Pavement (CRCP)
    • Winter 1921
    • 33. 1st CRCP Road
    • 34. 32 Sections of varying design
    • 35. Large percentage of longitudinal steel and slabs constructed on a sub-base of cinders.
  • Military Structures along Columbia Pike
    Arlington naval radio station (1913-1941)
    South end of Ft. Meyer
    450 Ft and 650 ft
    Transatlantic communication
  • 36. Military Structures along Columbia Pike
    Pentagon
    Construction completed in 1943
    Dramatic impact of the East End of Columbia Turnpike
  • 37. Military Structures along Columbia Pike
    Pentagon’s Impact
  • 38. Military Structures along Columbia Pike
    Pentagon’s Impact
  • 39. Construction of Garden Apartments
    Fillmore Garden Apartments
    Garden city
    Planning:
    • 1-3 story structures
    • 40. Low-density superblock
    • 41. Separation of automobiles and pedestrians
    • 42. Common landscaped exterior spaces
  • Columbia Turnpike