What do they do? Audience response system allow students to participate in a lecture by answering questions and expressing views/opinions. Questions are posed using PowerPoint and responses summarised and presented to the group on the following slide. All data collected by the handsets is recorded and can be analysed and presented after the session.
How can they be used? Indicative Models of Use: Discursive/Peer Instruction: Addressing core concepts (known problem areas): 1st vote – students vote as individuals, questions test the understanding of the concept: in groups, students asked to explain or defend their responses: 2nd vote – individuals respond and the two sets of responses compared: feedback and explanation given by tutor/lecturer Feedback and Evaluation: Module evaluations; revision sessions; instantaneous feedback to class and tutor about t Assessment: In-class tests: diagnostic/formative/summative tests
Example Question Slide“Samurai : Japan :: Knight : ” United States France England Jamaica
0 Example Question Slide Staff development sessions should be compulsory? Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Rather they didn’t exist
Example Question Slide What gender are you? Male Female
What do you need? A PC or Laptop Connected to a projector or interactive whiteboard With Microsoft Windows 98SE or higher (Microsoft Windows XP recommended) And Microsoft Office 2000 or higher, including PowerPoint, Excel, Word and Outlook TurningPoint software Voting handsets A USB Receiver to plug into the PC and collate the responses
Why use them? Lectures: often passive learning experiences hard to gauge student understanding can be difficult to engage large numbers Audience Response Systems can help to: Encourage active learning/teaching and engagement offers anonymity of response; Give an immediacy of experience Create a collaborative experience – all can share in the results Help to address issues with motivation, attendance and retention Be responsive/contingent – to the needs of a particular cohort at a given time
How can they be used? Flexible - across varying contexts: In-class: Teaching Assessment Evaluation Revision Marketing Liaison with external agencies (OIGA,outreach) etc Scalable: Roehampton has circa 140 handsets Can be used for small group and/or large cohorts (handsets between individuals/pairs/groups)
Example: Giving students the vote Example of use: Suzy Jagger, computing module ' Professional issues‘, class debates on ethical issues. Students were asked questions before and after a debate using the keypads to record their responses. View example
Example: Peer Instruction Case Study – University of Strathclyde students asked to respond to question individually question focuses on known problem areas (e.g. common misconceptions) in order to promote conceptual changes students discuss their answer with a peer or group (why did they answer one or the other? which was the right answer and why?) students vote for second time, again individually, so some visual comparison demonstrates the shift in student understanding (graphically) View example
Examples: Formative Assessment David Woodman – Crucible Questioning Citizenship Module – students addressing issues such as the value of compulsory voting Students were given an in-class test using the ARS (20 questions on a topical ‘World News’ event from the previous week) This was followed a month later with a formally assessed online test in StudyZone
Getting Started Creating a Question with TurningPoint Install the TurningPoint software (contact either eLearning Services or IT Helpdesk to get it installed) Double Click the TurningPoint icon on your desktop When TurningPoint 2008 is opened, a non-interactive slide is displayed. From the TurningPoint Toolbar, click “Insert Slide” .
Select a Slide Type from the drop down list. An interactive slide is inserted in your presentation.
Enter your question into the text box entitled “Enter Question text…”
Getting Started Inserting objects: charts/timers To add additional control to your slide: Click “Insert Object” to access the drop down menu. Select a reminder type: Countdowns Response counters & response tables And/or answer now keys
Getting Started Polling with response devices Plug your receiver/dongle into the laptop or computer you are using Open TurningPoint 2008 and open an the interactive presentation Make sure “Response Devices” is selected in the drop down menu on the TurningPoint Toolbar To prep slides for polling, reset your Session by clicking “Reset” on the TurningPoint Toolbar which will display a drop down menu. Click “Session.” Launch your presentation in “Slide Show” mode and click to advance through the presentation. Once the interactive slide appears, participants can answer the question. Polling will remain open until you advance to display the graphical results.
Saving/Re-using/Re-setting Save your presentation as you would with any PowerPoint – this will return the format and questions you have created and it should retain the data from a interactive session To Re-Use an interactive presentation, open the saved interactive presentation and click ‘Reset’ from the TurningPoint toolbar – choose All Slides. Then run the presentation, ensuring that you save the finished session with a different name to the original Alternately you can export session data. From the TurningPoint toolbar: Tools > Session Management > Export Session Data
Further Considerations Method of distribution – knowing beforehand is useful eg beginning of the class, during the class cuts down on disruption Establishing the value of the handset – distributing in class (and the relative slightness of the handset) means they tend to be viewed of little value ( eg they can walk off with them or think they are a gift!) but they are about £40 a handset so, good to communicate that early on Timing/number of questions – e.g. to overcome dealing with latecomers and early leavers also in an hour’s session, if using the peer instruction model above, optimum number of questions seemed to be about 3 or 4 or so as this allowed for some discursive activity Including an orientation or icebreaker question– maybe worth making the first question something that introduces how to use the voting system and can serve as a point of reference (eg identifying results to future questions by gender or age)