Transcript of "Birth & reproductive developmental process"
By: Mylacia Hopkins & Shabria Baylor
Introduction Did you know that in many types of bony fish they can be born a male, transform into a female, and then convert back to a male. One could also produce sperm and eggs. These are just two of the many interesting facts you will learn from this power point presentation
Reproduction And Development Reproduction and development are integral factors of life. Multicellular organisms arise through a process that begins with the fertilized egg and ends with a new individual (Chopin). The fertilized egg undergoes cell divisions to increase the number of cells; simultaneously, the cells produced differentiate into the organs and organs systems of the fully formed organism (Chopin).
Repro. And Development Continue Fertilization is the fusion of the nuclei of the egg and sperm, and the single cell that results from this fusion is called the fertilized egg or zygote (Chopin). Each of the gametes are haploid which, contains one- half of the chromosomes Fertilization restores the diploid number (Chopin). The egg degrades the cytoplasm and organelles of the sperm; only the chromosomes of the sperm contribute to the fertilized egg (Chopin).
Repro. And Development Continue Gastrulation is the folding in of the cells of the blastula at a point called the blastopore Ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm are the three germ layers from which all cells, tissues and organs develop (Chopin). Induction is the process during which individual cells are "told" what they are supposed to become (Chopin).
The Difference Between Vertebrates & Invertebrates Vertebrates Invertebrates Have a backbone Do not have backbone Have no internal Have a central system skeleton Internal skeleton Have a fluid-filled hydrostatic skeleton
Reproduction in Vertebrates Reproduction and development of sexual characteristics in vertebrates are controlled directly by the hormones produced in the gonads, estrogens, progesterone and testosterone (King). Males brood the eggs until the young hatch and can swim actively when he expels them into the water (). In pipe fishes and sea horses the female places her eggs into the males pouch Some males can reproduce eggs
Vertebrates Cont. Ovoviviparous Fishes The female retains fertilized eggs in her body Embryo is nourished by yolk sac No nutrient connection between the parent and the developing embryos (Animal Explore). Viviparous Fishes The female retains eggs in her ovary Embryo is nourished by connection with the mother (Animal Explore).
Bony Fishes Sexual Maturity Fishes become sexually mature at various ages, depending on species. In general, small species begin reproducing at an earlier age than large species (Animal Explore). Reproductive modes In most species of bony fishes, sperm and eggs develop in separate male and female individuals (Animal Explore).
Bony Fish Cont. There are many factors that may influence bony fish breeding Changes in the duration of sunlight Temperature change Presence of the opposite sex, currents, tides, moon stages, and presence of spawning areas Reproduction in bony fishes are generally in cycles Some bony fishes may spawn many times in a year Some may reproduce once a year until they die Others may reproduce only once during their lifetime
Reproduction in Invertebrates Flatworms Production of millions of eggs Associated with many difficulties in dispersing the species Reproductive Flat worm’s reproduction is asexual because they can divide into 2 halves Each half grows into a separate organism. They possess both male and female sex organs The worms practice cross-fertilization
A Insects Life Cycle Insects have two different life cycles Nymphs Larva They are different in ways and are alike in ways Mostly all insect go through one of the two life cycles
Nymph Cycle Nymphs are insects that hatch out of the egg. Feed off of plants, mostly roots of plants. These insects often eat for many years. Typical nymph insects look exactly like the adult except there the young. Most nymph that looks like the adult will not have wings and some will have wings. Nymphs usually shed skin Grow bigger in size Some nymphs may come out of the ground and shed their last layer of skin before actually being a adult
Larvae Cycle Larva’s eggs hatches into caterpillars or larva. Larvae eats mostly anything it can find to eat to get nourishment; this can go on for several years and or several days Larva looks completely different from the adult Larva sheds its skin and it becomes a pupa this is the last time they shed their skin
Comparing Fish & InsectsFish Insects Sexually Sexually Created by egg and sperm Created by egg and sperm Lay eggs Lay eggs Some die after reproduction Some die after reproduction Some fishes embryo occur Some fishes embryo occur outside females body outside females body Some fishes embryo occur Some fishes embryo occur inside females body inside females body
Contrasting Fish & InsectsFish Insects Some fish have live young Most of all insect lay eggs Some fish die after Most insects go through 2 reproduction cycles after reproduction Some fish reproduce once in There is simple reproduction their life There is complex Some fish reproduce annually reproduction Some fish reproduce many After insect lay their young it times a year take about 7-10 days to them to break out of their egg
Conclusion As you can see every living thing can reproduce and repeat for generations and generations. The only difference is how they reproduce. Humans reproduce inside the mother where the sperm enters the egg. In fish they sometimes lay eggs and then the male releases the sperm on them. Last but not least insects which lay eggs and go through two cycles after reproduction. It seems like all the same process but there are many differences.
Works Cited"Animal Explore." Bony Fishes. Discovery Cove Inc, 2011. Web. 28 Nov 2011. <http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/info-books/bony- fish/reproduction.htm>.Chopin, Suzzette. "Development." Biology Refernce. N.p., 2011. Web. 1 Nov 2011. <http://www.biologyreference.com/Co- Dn/Development.html>.Ramel, Gordon. The Placental Mammal and Reproduction. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov 2011. <http://www.earthlife.net/mammals/reproduction.html>.King, Peter. "Vertebrate Physiology Bio410." Reproduction. N.p., 01Jan. 2011. Web. 1 Nov 2011. <http://people.fmarion.edu/pking/vertphys/reproduction.html>.Anatomy of Animals. N.p., 2011. Web. 1 Nov 2011. <http://universe- review.ca/R10-33-anatomy.htm>.Lense, Liquid. “Flickr.” Flickr. 2010. Web. 8 Dec. 2011.
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