Baroque Era – defined by a music period 1600-1750 1600 – year of the first opera production 1750 – year of the death of Bach
Baroque The term baroque was not a complement – it originally meant overdone – too many notes in music, too much color in painting, and too grand in architecture. It has come to include the following definitions: – Marked by elaborate ornamentation – Aims to create a dramatic effect – Appealing to the spirit through the senses – Enlarged space – Heightened sensuality combined with spirituality – Naturalistic rather than ideal, emotional rather than rational – Conflict, paradox and contrast, heightened spirituality, lively sensuality – Ornate
More Bernini – Beautiful Bodies and Beautiful Movement How does this David compare with the others?
The Calling of Saint Matthew 1599-1600
The Crucifixion of Saint Peter
Rubens is a name to know – “fleshy” subjects – especially women!)
Jan Vermeer – Another master of light!!!
Scientific Discoveries People were beginning to trust their own minds Scientists such as Galileo and Newton were unlocking the secrets of the universe Telescope Microscope
Changes in music Instruments gained a place of their own in sacred music as well as secular music Solo styles is introduced Sacred music was composed in a more secular style
Elements of Opera A drama sung to orchestral accompaniment. One of the foremost innovations of the era because it allowed the realism of extreme emotions. Fusion of music, poetry, acting, dance, scenery, costumes —that offers a theatrical experience. (chorus and extras) Originated in Italy. Characters and plot are revealed through song—rather than the speech used in ordinary drama. Performers have to sing and act simultaneously Created by composer and dramatist. Libretto is the text, written by the librettist or dramatist. Music is created by the composer. 11
Oratorio Large-scale composition for chorus, orchestra, vocal soloists; usually set to a narrative text. Different from opera in that it has no scenery, costumes, or acting. Based on biblical stories but usually not intended for religious services. Today they are performed in concert halls or churches. First appeared in 17th century Italy as musical dramatizations of biblical stories. During this period it spread to other countries Most famous, best known, and best loved Oratorio—is Handel’s Messiah. Dr. Battersby 12
Church Cantata Consists of solos, recitatives, duets and choruses interspersed with instrumental interludes Flourished in Germany as part of the service of the Lutheran Church Written by J.S. Bach
George Frideric HandelBorn in Germany, studied music in Italy, and lived mainly in EnglandBest known for his vocal worksWent blind late in his life.
Johann Sebastian Bach Member of a large musical family Favorite instrument was the organ His death in 1750 marked the end of the Baroque Period in music
Claudio Monteverdi Regarded as an important composer of the opera wrote one of the earliest operas, LOrfeo,
Antonio Cesti Italian composer of the Baroque period most celebrated of his operas were La Dori (Venice, 1663), Il pomo doro (Vienna, 1668) and Orontea (1656). Il pomo doro (The Golden Apple) was performed for the wedding of Emperor Leopold I.
Pointers for ReviewI.Middle Ages- Different periods in the middle ages- Gregorian Chant- Composers- Musical forms
II. Renaissance-Vocal forms – Choir (classification of voice) - Mass (Ordinary and Proper) - Motet - Frotolla - Madrigal - Instrumental Forms -Composers and compositions
III. Baroque PeriodA.Vocal Forms - The Opera - Oratorio - Church Cantata B. Instrumental Forms - Sonata - Concerto Grosso - Basso Continuo
Timeline- Significant Historical Events- Changes in musical style- Composers- Compositions- Vocal Forms- Instrumental Forms