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    State of the art review paper State of the art review paper Document Transcript

    • State  of  the  Art  Review  Paper       1   State of the Art Review Paper Drury University Brett Henderson
    • State  of  the  Art  Review  Paper       2   Communication  discipline  has  been  ever  changing  over  the  years,  and  it’s  not  going  to  stop  any  time  soon.  Georgette  Wang  in  an  article  written  in  2011  says,  “Unlike  most  disciplines,  communication  studies  have  since  their  heyday  been  kidnapped  by  the  development  of  media  technologies.  To  discuss  the  centrality  of  communication  discipline  in  this  era  of  dazzling  technological  change  is  therefore  more  like  attempting  to  sketch  a  train  as  it  shoots  by.”  (pg.  1)  The  paradigm  that  everyone  was  accustomed  to  is  no  longer  anywhere  to  be  found  with  the  recent  surge  of  mass  communication.  We  need  to  start  the  process  of  a  paradigm  shift  because  of  inadequacies  of  the  existing  dominant  paradigm  in  guiding  communication  studies.  The  technological  change  has  been  taking  place  for  two  decades,  but  it  has  just  now  caught  up  with  the  communication  discipline.         Along  with  the  changes  in  technology,  another  change  in  discipline  regarding  communication  paradigm  would  be  the  trend  of  globalization.  According  to  research  done  by  Wang,  newspaper  circulation  recorded  phenomenal  growth  in  Africa,  Asia,  and  Latin  America  while  significant  decline  in  North  America  and  Europe.    Wang  talks  about  communication  studies  and  how  they  were  founded  in  the  west  and  then  introduced  to  the  rest  of  the  world.  With  the  studies  showing  the  increase  in  newspaper  circulation  in  certain  parts  of  the  world,  and  the  decrease  in  the  west,  the  death  of  the  newspaper  is  almost  certain.  With  the  rest  of  the  world  following  what  North  America  and  Europe  do  they  will  soon  follow  them  in  to  the  technological  world  as  well.       Even  though  the  rest  of  the  world  hasn’t  gone  completely  to  broadband  subscription,  they  have  expanded  the  mobile  cellular  subscriptions  at  an  incredible  
    • State  of  the  Art  Review  Paper       3  rate.  According  to  the  research  done  by  Wang,  cellular  subscriptions  are  up  to  73%  of  the  world  at  the  end  of  2010  compared  to  53  percent  at  the  end  of  2005.  With  the  increase  growth  in  mobile  news  and  the  outdated  newspaper  in  North  America  and  Europe  the  paradigm  shift  is  already  taking  place.  Georgette  Wang  states  that,  “It  is  important  to  note  here  that  paradigm  generally  reflects  more  closely  the  needs,  values,  aspirations,  and  world  views  of  the  historic,  social,  and  cultural  context  that  has  nurtured  it.”  (Pg.  3)  The  same  paradigm  that  is  running  communication  in  the  west,  according  to  Wang,  is  the  same  that  is  currently  dictating  it  at  the  global  level.  This  is  why  the  paradigm  is  shifting  worldwide;  it  all  starts  with  the  communication  shift  in  the  west,  and  trickles  out  to  the  rest  of  the  world.  “To  establish  dialogue  with  the  rest  of  the  global  academic  community  and  contribute  to  theoretical  discourse,  researchers  in  Asia,  Africa,  and  Latin  America  need  to  recognize  the  value  and  relevance  of  their  cultural  heritage  to  communication  research  and  the  potential  of  their  unique  media  and  communication  matters  in  developing  new  methods,  theories,  and  paradigms.”  In  order  to  keep  the  world  on  the  right  track  of  communication  discipline,  we  need  get  away  from  the  “west”  and  “non-­‐west”  cultural  perception  of  research.    Wang’s  final  statement  of  the  article,  Paradigm  shift  and  the  Centrality  of  Communication  Discipline,  adds  on  to  what  I  had  been  researching  when  it  comes  to  discipline.  “  To  establish  the  centrality  of  discipline,  we  need  a  dominant  paradigm  that  can  effectively  guide  and  frame  research.  Yet  the  inadequacies  of  the  existing  paradigm  in  responding  to  the  major  changes  in  media  and  communication  studies  are  increasingly  visible.  New  theoretical  frameworks  are  called  for,  but  before  it  can  happen,  we  need  to  face  paradigmatic  issues.  This  is  
    • State  of  the  Art  Review  Paper       4  the  time  to  consider  a  paradigm  shift.”  (pg.  6)  The  world  of  communication  is  already  shifting;  it’s  time  for  the  paradigm  to  change  with  it.       In  the  article,  Shifting  Paradigms:  Decentering  the  Discourse  of  Mass  Communication  Research,  Hanno  Hardt  researches  the  decentralizing  of  communication  discipline.    Hanno  states,  “Decentering  of  mass  communication  research  as  a  discursive  formation  by  an  alternative  cultural  discourse  that  challenges  its  dominant  ideology  with  return  to  communication  as  an  emancipatory  practice,  guided  by  the  subjective  nature  of  theory,  the  centrality  of  human  agency,  and  the  permanent  critique  of  social,  political,  and  economic  conditions  of  communication.”  (pg.  1)  He  says  that  the  decentering  of  mass  communication  occurred  under  the  influence  of  modernist  and  postmodernist  European  ideas.  They  use  culture,  ideology,  power,  and  language  in  the  study  of  social  formations.  Hardt  also  realizes  there  are  something’s  that  won’t  always  work  for  decentralizing  communication.  “It  would  be  foolish  to  suggest,  however,  that  decentering  mass  communication  research  has  resulted  in  terminating  universal  or  general  claims  to  authoritative  knowledge  of  communication  and  media,  and  that  mass  communication  research  in  its  institutional  guise  of  journalism  and  mass  communication  has  joined  in  sustained  critique  of  media  practices  or  embraced  a  critical  pedagogy  for  the  benefit  of  future  intellectual  work.”  (pg.  6)  Decentralizing  communication  research  would  work  as  part  of  solving  the  new  paradigm  shift  that  is  happening  in  the  communication  world  today.     Based  on  research  on  the  topics  of  discipline  and  paradigm  shifts,  it’s  pretty  clear  that  is  very  important.  There  are  different  theories  on  whether  to  centralize  or  
    • State  of  the  Art  Review  Paper       5  decentralize  the  communication  research.  I  personally  agree  with  Wang,  due  to  research  I  have  conducted  that  we  should  centralize  the  communication  discipline.  This  will  set  a  precedent  for  the  rest  of  the  world.  The  new  paradigm  will  be  set  and  we  can  move  forward  globally  and  technologically  in  communication.  This  will  steady  the  research  and  allow  communication  to  continue  to  be  considered  a  discipline.  Communication  is  a  widely  used  tool  on  every  level  of  life.  It  needs  to  recognize  by  more  people  how  communication  can  help  them  in  their  business,  education,  school  or  relationships.  If  communication  can  set  a  standard  on  how  it  is  researched  and  the  paradigm  is  set,  mass  communication  will  continue  to  be  a  discipline,  and  will  continue  to  help  everyone  around  the  world.                    
    • State  of  the  Art  Review  Paper       6   Reference PageWANG,  G.  (2011).  Paradigm  Shift  and  the  Centrality  of  Communication         Discipline.International  Journal  Of  Communication  (19328036),  51458-­‐1466.    Youell,  D.,  &  Downey,  P.  (2000).  COMMUNICATION  IN  A  NEW  WORLD   ORDER.  Strategic  Communication  Management,  4(2),  28.    Hardt,  H.  (1999).  Shifting  Paradigms:  Decentering  the  Discourse  of  Mass   Communication  Research.  Mass  Communication  &  Society,  2(3/4),  175.