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  • 1. REVIEW FOR EXAM 1 Prof. Bauchner Psych 180, Section 1 September 24, 2012
  • 2. The Neuronhttp://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/chmodel.html
  • 3. Parts Of The Neuron• Cell Body (Soma): contains the nucleus of the neuron which contains DNA and other organelles• Axon: Takes information AWAY from the cell body• Dendrites: Take information TO cell body (SIGNAL RECEIVERS)• Myelin: Insulating fatty layer that SPEEDS UP signal transmission. Breaks of myelin are called Nodes of Ranvier• Presynaptic Terminal: The region of the neuron conducting signals towards the synapse (contains the NTs).
  • 4. 3 Types of Neurons• SENSORY: allow you to receive information from the outside world via your senses (taste food, hear a drum)• MOTOR : permit communication with muscle fibers to allow you to move your body (contract or relax a muscle)• INTERNEURONS: majority of neurons in your brain…involved in thinking, remembering, logic
  • 5. What is a neurotransmitter?• A messenger of neurological information that travels from one cell to another WHAT KIND OF NEUROLOGICAL INFO?
  • 6. Types of NTs• Acetylcholine: MUSCLE ACTION, LEARNING AND MEMORY• Dopamine: MOVEMENT, LEARNING, ATTENTION, EMOTI ON• Serotonin: MOOD, HUNGER, SLEEP• Norepinephrine: ALERTNESS, AROUSAL
  • 7. WHAT IS CNS?• CENTRAL NERVOUS SYTEM – BRAIN – SPINAL CORD
  • 8. LOBES OF THE BRAIN http://www.paulnussbaum.com/
  • 9. FRONTAL LOBEOrganizationConcept FormationMental FlexibilityPersonalityExecution of behavior (Frontal Lobe is referred to as ExecutiveSystem)Abstract ReasoningProblem SolvingPlanningJudgmentEthical BehaviorInhibitionExpressive LanguageAffectAttention
  • 10. TEMPORAL LOBE• Memory and new learning Language comprehension Auditory processing Spatial processing Attention Emotion
  • 11. PARIETAL LOBEReadingCalculationAttentionShort Term MemoryCross Modal Processing (e.g.listening, writing, reading notes)Spatial navigationVisual perception and discrimination
  • 12. OCCIPITAL LOBEVisual ProcessingVisually PerceiveVisual DiscriminationVisual Spatial SkillFacial Discrimination
  • 13. STROOP TASKBLUE YELLOW RED ORANGE PINK
  • 14. CLASS QUESTION #1 !!• Which lobe of the brain are we predominantly using when we attempt the Stroop Task?A) FrontalB) TemporalC) ParietalD) Occipital
  • 15. CLASS QUESTION #1 !!• Which lobe of the brain are we predominantly using when we attempt the Stroop Task?A) FRONTALB) TemporalC) ParietalD) Occipital
  • 16. CerebellumBALANCE, COORDINATION
  • 17. LIMBIC SYSTEM : THE EMOTIONCENTER OF THE HUMAN BRAINAMYGDALA- FEAR/SURPRISEHIPPOCAMPUS- SPATIAL NAVIGATIONCINGULATE GYRUS- HEART RATE, BLOOD PRESSUREHYPOTHALAMUS - HUNGER, THIRST, SLEEP CYCLE, SEXUAL AROUSALTHALAMUS
  • 18. THE BRAIN IS PLASTIC?
  • 19. Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers EA Maguire, DG Gadian, IS Johnsrude, CD Good, J Ashburner, RSJ Frackowiak, and CD Frith. 2000. PNAS 97(8):4398-4403.Shenet.org i240.photobucket.com
  • 20. The Hippocampus• Brain structure which lies under the medial temporal lobe• LTM• Spatial Navigation• Part of Limbic System- EMOTION (hypothalamus, amygdala, pituitary) http://ahsmail.uwaterloo.ca/kin356/ltm/images/amygdala_hippocam pus_lateral_large.jpg
  • 21. Plasticity of Hippocampus• ↑ Volume relative to brain and body size when small animals engage in behavior requiring spatial memory (food storage)• ↑ Volume during SEASONAL CHANGES when spatial ability is at a maximum (Lee et al., 1998)• ↑ Volume has been noted in studies with musicians vs. nonmusicians (Schlaug et al., 1995)
  • 22. Cells of the Nervous System Five Types of Glial Cells• Ependymal Cells – Small, ovoid; found in the walls of the ventricles – Make and secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)• Hydrocephalus – Build-up of pressure in the brain and swelling of the head caused if the flow of CSF is blocked – Can result in retardationKolb & Whishaw, AnIntroduction to Brain andBehavior, Third Edition -
  • 23. Alcohol as a Teratogen• Teratogen- a drug or other substance capable of interfering with the development of a fetus, causing birth defects Nlm.nih.gov
  • 24. Statistics on FAS• Overall incidence (annual) of Fetal alcohol syndrome: 0.9 per 10,000 births• Caucasians .9• Asians 0.3• Hispanics 0.8• African Americans 6.0• Native Americans 29.9 (NWHIC)
  • 25. Brain Imaging of FASBRAIN OF BABY BRAIN OF BABY WITWITH NO HEAVY PRENATALEXPOSURE TO EXPOSURE TOALCOHOL ALCOHOL Photo courtesy of Sterling Clarren, MD Areas that might be affected by alcohol exposure depend on WHICH AREAS ARE DEVELOPING AT THE TIME the alcohol is consumed. Since the brain and the central nervous system are developing throughout the entire pregnancy, the babys brain is always vulnerable to damage from alcohol exposure.
  • 26. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome• Specific pattern of FACIAL FEATURES• CNS Dysfunction• Pre/post natal growth deficiency Photo by T Kellerman
  • 27. Distinctive FAS Facial Features: Human/Mouse
  • 28. Areas of Brain That Can Be Damaged in Utero By Maternal Alcohol Consumption
  • 29. Agenesis of Corpus CallosumCONTROL BRAIN FAS in 9-year old girl Mattson, et al., 1994; Mattson & Riley, 1995; Riley et al., 1995
  • 30. Kolb & Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 3
  • 31. Cells of the Nervous System Five Types of Glial Cells• Astrocyte – Star shaped, symmetrical – Structural support for neurons – Transports substances between neurons and capillaries (blood-brain barrier) – Scar tissue formation – Enhance brain activity by providing fuel to active brain regionsKolb & Whishaw, AnIntroduction to Brain andBehavior, Third Edition -
  • 32. Kolb & Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 3
  • 33. Cells of the Nervous System Five Types of Glial Cells• Microglia – Originate in the blood as offshoot of immune system – Phagocytosis: scavenge debris (e.g., dead cells)• Oligodendroglia Cell – Glial cell in the central nervous system that myelinates axons – Myelin • Glial coating that surrounds axonsKolb & Whishaw, AnIntroduction to Brain andBehavior, Third Edition -
  • 34. Cells of the Nervous System Five Types of Glial Cells• Schwann Cell – Glial cell in the peripheral nervous system that myelinates axons• Multiple Sclerosis (MS) – Nervous system disorder that results from the loss of myelin around axons
  • 35. Cells of the Nervous System Five Types of Glial Cells• Paralysis – Loss of sensation and movement due to nervous system injury• Peripheral Nervous System – Microglia and Schwann cells help repair neurons• Central Nervous System – Repair does not take place, regrowth may even be inhibitedKolb & Whishaw, AnIntroduction to Brain andBehavior, Third Edition -
  • 36. Kolb & Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition - Chapter 3
  • 37. Electrical Activity of a Membrane Resting Potential• Resting Potential – Electrical charge across the cell membrane in the absence of stimulation – A store of negative energy on the intracellular side relative to the extracellular side – Approximately -70 mVKolb & Whishaw, AnIntroduction to Brain andBehavior, Third Edition -
  • 38. Electrical Activity of a Membrane Resting Potential• Four charged particles take part in producing the resting potential – Sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) • Higher concentration outside cell – Potassium (K+) and large proteins (A-) • Higher concentration inside cellKolb & Whishaw, AnIntroduction to Brain andBehavior, Third Edition -
  • 39. Kolb & Whishaw, AnIntroduction to Brain andBehavior, Third Edition -
  • 40. Kolb & Whishaw, AnIntroduction to Brain andBehavior, Third Edition -
  • 41. Electrical Activity of a Membrane Resting Potential• Maintaining the Resting Potential – Large A- molecules cannot leave cell: make inside negative – Ungated channels allow K+ and Cl- to move into and out of cell more freely, but gated sodium channels keep out Na+ ions – Na+-K+ pumps extrude Na+ from intracellular fluid and inject K+ Kolb & Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition -
  • 42. Kolb & Whishaw, AnIntroduction to Brain andBehavior, Third Edition -
  • 43. Electrical Activity of a Membrane Graded Potentials• Hyperpolarization – Increase in electrical charge across a membrane (more negative) – Usually due to the inward flow of chloride ions or outward flow of potassium ions – Tetraethylammonium (TEA)• Depolarization – Decrease in electrical charge across a membrane (more positive) – Usually due to the inward flow of sodium – TetrodotoxinKolb & Whishaw, AnIntroduction to Brain andBehavior, Third Edition -
  • 44. • Neurotransmitters - chemical substance released from the end of a neuron during the propagation of a nerve impulse; it relays information from one neuron to another.• Neuromodulators – secreted in larger amounts and diffuse further (composed of peptides)• Hormones – produced in endocrine glands – released into extracellular fluid to be taken up by specific target cells
  • 45. • only specific neurotransmitters will bind with specific receptor sites – like a key in a lock• chemical that attaches to a binding site is a ligand• neurotransmitters are naturally produced ligands• neurotoxins are also ligands and various drugs have their effect in the same manner – artificially produced ligands (e.g., LSD)
  • 46. Neurons – from electrical to chemical Only specific neurotransmitters will bind with the post-synaptic membrane.
  • 47. Axodendritic – synapse on the dendrite of the neuronAxosomatic – synapse on the somaAxoaxonic – synapse on the axon Axodendritic Axosomatic Axoaxonic
  • 48. • neurotransmitter specific postsynaptic receptors• open to allow ions to flow into the postsynaptic neuron• two main types • ionotropic • metabotropic
  • 49. • receptor site has its own ion channel• contain sodium channels• fast acting and short lasting
  • 50. • indirect method• located nearby G-proteins• G-proteins in turn activate an ion channel• slower to begin and longer lasting
  • 51. • G-proteins can also activate second messengers – enzymes that in turn activate an ion channel
  • 52.  Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)  Magnetic resonance imaging in which changes in elements such as iron or oxygen are measured during the performance of a specific behavior  Used to measure cerebral blood flow during behavior or resting  Patients must lie motionlessKolb & Whishaw, AnIntroduction to Brain andBehavior, Third Edition -Chapter 6
  • 53. Kolb & Whishaw, AnIntroduction to Brain andBehavior, Third Edition -Chapter 6
  • 54.  Positron Emission Tomography (PET)  Imaging technique that detects changes in blood flow by measuring changes in the uptake of compounds such as oxygen or glucose  Used to analyze the metabolic activity of neurons  Radioactive molecules are injected into the bloodsteam  Very expensiveKolb & Whishaw, AnIntroduction to Brain andBehavior, Third Edition -Chapter 6
  • 55.  Advantages  Can detect the decay of hundreds of radiochemicals, allows the mapping of a wide range of brain changes and conditions  Can detect relative amounts of a given neurotransmitter, the density of receptors, and metabolic activities associated with learning, brain poisoning, and degenerative processes  Widely used to study cognitive functionKolb & Whishaw, AnIntroduction to Brain andBehavior, Third Edition -Chapter 6