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Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
Quotations And Attributions
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Quotations And Attributions

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This lecture focuses on the criteria used by journalists in determining when to use quotations and attributions.

This lecture focuses on the criteria used by journalists in determining when to use quotations and attributions.

Published in: Education, Spiritual
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  • 1. Quotations and Attributions Presented by Brett Atwood
  • 2. Types of Quotations • Complete direct quotations • Partial quotations • Indirect/paraphrased quotations
  • 3. Using Direct Quotes • Use quote if it is particularly articulate or powerful in the wording • Most people do not speak in a way that translates well into a quote
  • 4. Using Direct Quotes • Only use a quote if it conveys something that can’t be communicated better in your own words • If it isn’t articulate, then a better strategy is paraphrasing what the subject has told you
  • 5. Direct Quotes • If the subject is well known, then a direct quote may be appropriate – The more significant the interviewee is, the more likely a reader will be interested • Make sure that the quote is used to add a unique angle or credibility to the story
  • 6. Direct Quotes • If the quote is quirky or captures the source’s personality • If it is emotional or highly opinionated
  • 7. Quote Problems • Avoid rambling quotes • Avoid quotes with too much technical lingo
  • 8. Quoting Accurately • If the grammar is poor, then some reporters will “clean up” the quote • This practice varies by publication • HOWEVER, if the interview was witnessed by multiple media outlets (example: press conference) then you should leave the quotes alone
  • 9. (sic) • If you want to be cautious, then you can use the “(sic)” notation in your printed quote to notate a grammatical error made by your subject
  • 10. Editing Quotes • Never make up a quote • Don’t add words to a quote • Exception: You may “clean up” the grammar if it is minimal and does not change the context – [Be sure to put the changed words in brackets]
  • 11. Holy S---! • Most publications shy away from obscenities, unless: – It is part of a quote – It is relevant for the story or point • In many cases, the obscenity is altered with dashes – S---! – F---!
  • 12. Attribution • In most cases, the simple verb “said” is appropriate since it is neutral – Example: “This is a quote,” the teacher said. • There are other verbs you can use, but be conservative
  • 13. Verbs to Avoid • Minimize use of attribution verbs that are not neutral • “ ,” he cried. • “ ,” she emphasized. • “ ,” she contended.
  • 14. Identification in Attribution • Attribute with the name and job title. – AFTER Example: “This year’s textbooks are going to be more expensive,” said The Bookie sales manager Mary Smith. – BEFORE Example: Mary Smith, a sales manager at The Bookie, said “This year’s textbooks are going to be more expensive.”
  • 15. Middle Initials • AP Stylebook recommends that you use them. – Particularly in hard news stories where they help identify a specific individual, such as casualty lists and stories naming the accused in a crime. This helps to minimize confusion. • A middle initial may be dropped if a person does not use one or is publicly known without it: Mickey Mantle (not Mickey C.), the Rev. Billy Graham (not Billy F.).
  • 16. Talking to Sources • Many of the best stories will not originate from a news release • By nurturing your sources, you will be more likely to get closer to the truth • The longer you work with a source, the more likely you are to determine the relevance of the information that comes from that source
  • 17. Sources • Some sources will want to remain anonymous • If you agree to keep their identity private, it is unethical to reveal their names to anyone
  • 18. Exceptions: • Government subpoena – If it is determined to jeopardize the national security or is essential is solving a crime • Publication policy – Due to some problems with reporter integrity, some publications are now requiring reporters to share the identity of the anonymous reporter with their supervising editor
  • 19. Example • Josh Wolf was in jail for 226 days for refusing to turn over raw news video footage to authorities • This was the longest time a journalist has been imprisoned in the U.S. for protecting source materials
  • 20. Use Caution • Be aware of sources that have an axe to grind • Do they have an agenda? • Are they telling the truth? • Are they reliable? – Substance abuse = suspicion • Do they really have a direct connection to the news event? – Be careful of “hearsay”
  • 21. Gossip Alert • A newspaper is not supposed to be a tabloid • Verify information provided by your sources • Is the information relevant to the news value of the story? – Juicy “gossip” may not equate to news
  • 22. Anonymous Sources • On the record – Everything can be quoted with attribution • Background – Everything can be quoted but no attribution • Deep background – No quotes can be used, no attribution – but information can be used • Off the record – No quotes, no attribution
  • 23. Policies • Some publications do not allow anonymous sources • Some require you to disclose the info to your superior
  • 24. “Off the Record” • Hotly debated topic • Is it ethical to gather info “off the record”? • Should everything be fair game? • Can you use information gained “off the record” without directly quoting the information or source?

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