PR 313 - Public Relations & the World Wide Web


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This lecture presents an overview of public relations techniques on the Web. Topics include: Writing for the Web, "chunk" design patterns, "user-generated content," crowdsourcing and social networking opportunities.

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PR 313 - Public Relations & the World Wide Web

  1. 1. PR & the World Wide Web Chapter 13 PR 313
  2. 2. Public Relations & the Web <ul><li>Instant information updates </li></ul><ul><li>Interactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Community-feedback </li></ul><ul><li>No limitations on space </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-effective </li></ul>
  3. 3. Public Relations Sites <ul><li>PR organizations use the Web to directly showcase and sell services </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edelman PR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of blogging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Porter Novelli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fleishman- Hillard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weber Shandwick </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Supplementary Research Source <ul><li>Journalists still pick up the phone first to call their sources </li></ul><ul><li>The second research resource is the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even if it is only to find the phone number to the source that they intend to call </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Limited Human Contact? <ul><li>The rise of the Internet has a downside </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer face-to-face and even phone interactions are occurring </li></ul><ul><li>This makes it harder to nurture good working relationships with journalists </li></ul>
  6. 6. Preparing Content for the Web <ul><li>There are consumption pattern differences among readers of print and Web media </li></ul><ul><li>Print readers tend to read in a linear fashion </li></ul><ul><li>Web surfers may interact with an article and read elements out of order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-linear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Branching” </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Design Issues <ul><li>Some content specialists argue that vital information should remain “above the scroll” on all pages </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, some suggest that you write in “chunks” delivered one page at a time </li></ul>
  8. 8. “Chunks” Strategy <ul><li>Repurpose print materials into “chunks” that each have a unique page </li></ul><ul><li>Add graphics and interactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Each “chunk” is usually fewer than 150 words </li></ul><ul><li>Text can be viewed on the screen without having to scroll </li></ul><ul><li>This is only one strategy – many sites do not use it! </li></ul>
  9. 9. Examples of “Chunk” Style <ul><li>McDonalds </li></ul><ul><li>Nike </li></ul><ul><li>Keebler </li></ul>
  10. 10. Web Writing Tips <ul><li>More casual than print </li></ul><ul><li>Use bullet-point lists </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize use of hypertext links </li></ul><ul><li>All links should be relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Provide feedback option for readers </li></ul>
  11. 11. Building the Site <ul><li>Ideally, the Web site team consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copywriter/editor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic artist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web programmer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A public relations professional who can do all three increases their odds of getting hired </li></ul>
  12. 12. Usability Tests <ul><li>Before publicly launching your site, it is not uncommon to conduct “usability tests” with a test audience to determine if the site is easy to navigate </li></ul>
  13. 13. Overview of Web Strategies <ul><li>Success Story at </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution of a Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalization and Automation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failure at RealNetworks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication is Content Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rolling Stone Radio project </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Success Story <ul><li> is the world’s largest e-commerce site </li></ul><ul><li>During the dot-com “boom,” they hired aggressively as investor cash came in </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bloated” and inefficient site infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>The site needed to streamline its content development strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This included a shift from an editor-created to a user-generated content model </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Has over 35 e-commerce main product categories and hundreds of sub-categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each category has at least one full-time editor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some have several editors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each editor is responsible for maintaining front page of each “store” and sub-pages, including product detail pages </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Content Management <ul><li>With millions of products, needs help from the public to keep the pages up-to-date and filled with useful information </li></ul><ul><li>“ User-generated Content” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Content Features <ul><li>Reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Listmania </li></ul><ul><li>“ How-to” and Buying Guides </li></ul><ul><li>Product manuals </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Images </li></ul><ul><li>Ref-tags </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion Forums </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul>
  18. 18. Listmania! Examples <ul><li>Customers create their own lists to share with others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each item in the list is linkable to a product </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top 15 Movies of 2005 by fattyjoe37 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Best Albums of 2006 by volantsolo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Awesome Books” by fantasyrules </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Guide Examples <ul><li>Customers create their own guides to share their expertise with others </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to set up a wireless home network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking a better picture with your digital camera </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Visitor Experience <ul><li>Customers indicate that they enjoy the “community” aspect of shopping </li></ul><ul><li>They trust the collective opinions of other shoppers more than the manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>The “Amazon Review” has become a very powerful force in the industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buying decisions are made for purchases both off- and on-line </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Customer Reviews <ul><li> has thousands of unpaid writers voluntarily submit their reviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top reviewer Harriet Klausner has written over 12,000 reviews without pay for the site </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Personalization at <ul><li> developed an infrastructure where each visitor page is personalized </li></ul><ul><li>The homepage displays items that thinks you are likely to buy </li></ul><ul><li>Visitors indicate that they like the personalization </li></ul>
  23. 23. Personalization <ul><li>Personalization technologies are also easy to manage and popular with visitors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous purchase data collected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-referenced with other sales data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A “personalized” store homepage suggests products based on like-minded customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes “recommendations” embedded into page </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Automation at <ul><li>Data is king at Amazon </li></ul><ul><li>Many examples of data driven automation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web site real estate management system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automated e-mail measurement and optimization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchandising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customers who bought X also bought… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New releases, top sellers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase Circles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic ad generation and bidding </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Example: The Homepage <ul><li>Amazon’s home page is prime real-estate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The past: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every category VP wanted top-center </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Friday meetings about placements for next week were getting too long, too loud, and lacked performance data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Today: automation replaces intuitions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Home page is made up of slots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone can submit content for a slot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content is chosen based on real-time experimentation </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. E-Commerce Staff Structure <ul><li>Organized for execution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How it used to be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This works rather better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small, cross-functional teams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Able to execute end-to-end </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self directed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Established group goals and measure progress </li></ul></ul></ul>Technology People Business People “Dumb idea!” “Do this!”
  27. 27. Electronic Media and E-Commerce <ul><li>What makes the site attractive to consumers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong reputation for good customer service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure from “hackers” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large selection of products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clean Web design that maximizes click-throughs and/or sales </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Design Evolution <ul><li>Started with a few “tabs” representing each store </li></ul><ul><li>But was expanding… </li></ul><ul><li>More products = More “tabs” </li></ul><ul><li>Should the “tabs” go? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Design Evolution <ul><li>A new design was needed </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of action could mean a mountain of “tabs” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT A GOOD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DESIGN </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Design Evolution <ul><li>Initial redesigns focused on an index directory in the style of Yahoo! </li></ul><ul><li>This resulted in reduced sales </li></ul>
  31. 31. Design Evolution <ul><li>More redesigns in the index style </li></ul><ul><li>Sales still declined </li></ul><ul><li>Customers wanted the “tabs” back </li></ul>
  32. 32. Return of the “Tabs” <ul><li>Now only three tabs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ See all 35 Product Categories” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roll-over with mouse brings up the index of all stores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Your Store” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personalized store with recommendations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logo tab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Default to front page </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Lessons Learned <ul><li>Use focus groups and user surveys to test out a design before it launches widely </li></ul><ul><li>Design can play a key role in how a site is perceived by its public </li></ul><ul><li>“Above the scroll” real estate is valuable so don’t waste it! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A user should be able to navigate successfully through the site without having the scroll the screen </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Lessons Learned <ul><li>Be aware of the bandwidth of your average user </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. has shifted from a dial-up to broadband environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia-intensive designs and sites are only now gaining traction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your design strategy will depend on who your typical visitor is </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider how minimal is </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare this to </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Cost Efficiency <ul><li>Advertise your site using viral and cheap techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li> has stopped buying ads on mainstream TV, radio and print in favor on online referral programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media advertising did not bring in enough revenue to justify the cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The site uses promotions with other sites and “street” advertising to get word on in the influential communities </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Communication is Critical <ul><li>If there is a dependency on technology developers, then the content experts must communicate early…and often </li></ul><ul><li>A good project can fail due to poor communication </li></ul>
  37. 37. Anatomy of a Failed Project <ul><li>Example: RealNetworks’ Rolling Stone Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Goal was to promote new “G2” technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A new version of RealPlayer with optimized streaming media playback </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. RealNetworks <ul><li>RealNetworks asked me to create a G2-exclusive Internet radio service </li></ul><ul><li>A business deal with Rolling Stone magazine was created </li></ul><ul><li>Rolling Stone Radio was born </li></ul>
  39. 39. Content Development <ul><li>My background is in editorial development and the music industry </li></ul><ul><li>I led the creative team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design of the player </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnerships with music industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Another team was responsible for the technical infrastructure and development of the software code </li></ul>
  40. 40. Rolling Stone Radio <ul><li>Rolling Stone Radio was the first “mainstream” Internet music service </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced in 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Co-owned by RealNetworks and Rolling Stone </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple channels of music </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive voting </li></ul>
  41. 41. Rolling Stone Radio <ul><li>Featured celebrity deejays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>David Bowie had his own 24-hour channel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lots of “hype” from the media </li></ul>
  42. 42. So Why Failure? <ul><li>Rolling Stone Radio had all the ingredients for success…yet it failed. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
  43. 43. Communication Crunch <ul><li>The project suffered from too large a production team </li></ul><ul><li>The decision-making process was too decentralized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal disagreements and chaos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology team and content team clashed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New technology changes were implemented without informing the content team </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media blitz preceded the actual launch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several delays in the launch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Release was late, product was ‘buggy’ </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Business Model, Anyone? <ul><li>“Too much, too soon” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband wasn’t widely available yet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth was expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customers enjoyed the site, but the cost of hosting the streaming media increased as more people “tuned in” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The project did not make money </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Streaming media is bandwidth-intensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is paying for the media servers? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advertising revenue was not large enough to support the costs </li></ul>
  45. 45. Lessons Learned <ul><li>Solid business model is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>“Cutting edge” = “Bleeding edge” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being first may not translate to success </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key stakeholders in the content development teams must meet and agree to “milestones” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each “milestone” is a mutually-agreed “deliverable” in the product development cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deviation from the agreed-upon development is discouraged </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. In-Class Writing Assignment <ul><li>Visit the Web sites of three large corporations. Assign a grade to each of them, using your own observations (including the guidelines mentioned in class). Try to find at least one example that used the “chunk” style discussed in class. </li></ul><ul><li>Some criteria that can be used are: (1) What seems to be the primary purpose of the site? (2) What audience is being reached? (3) Is the site easy to navigate? (4) How current is the information? (5) Is there good use of graphics, animation, sound? (6) Can text items be read and downloaded easily? (7) Are appropriate hyperlinks used? </li></ul>
  47. 47. PR & the World Wide Web (Lecture 2) Chapter 13 PR 313
  48. 48. Overview <ul><li>Broadband Trends </li></ul><ul><li>User-Generated Content </li></ul><ul><li>The “Social Web” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogging (“Citizen Journalism”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio/Video/Photo sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social networking sites </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Broadband Developments <ul><li>In the U.S., broadband Internet access has surpassed dial-up </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia applications and sites are soaring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are legal, some are not </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Digital Downloading <ul><li>Illegal “pirated” downloads </li></ul><ul><li>Legal paid downloads </li></ul>
  51. 51. Media Sharing <ul><li>U.S. media companies are still grappling with piracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Millions of pirated files traded freely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimated that over $4.6 billion lost globally due to piracy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pirated digital goods are more prevalent than legitimate goods in over 30 countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia is second biggest market after China </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SOURCE: RIAA 2005 REPORT </li></ul>
  52. 52. BitTorrent Popularity <ul><li>BitTorrent has emerged as the most popular downloading technology used for piracy </li></ul><ul><li>35% of all traffic activity on the Internet is due to BitTorrent </li></ul><ul><li> SOURCE: CACHELOGIC </li></ul>
  53. 53. Peer-to-Peer Popularity <ul><li>Peer-to-peer programs programs are still popular, but have lost market share to BitTorrent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kazaa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LimeWire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BearShare </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Legitimate Download Services <ul><li>Legitimate digital download offerings slowly being introduced </li></ul><ul><li>Apple’s ITunes recently celebrated its billionth paid download </li></ul>
  55. 55. Movie and Television Downloading <ul><li>While music and software have been downloaded widely for quite awhile, there is now prevalent downloading of movies and TV shows </li></ul>
  56. 56. “ Broadcatching” <ul><li>Torrent users are “subscribing” to trusted feeds for automatic delivery of content </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A user has a favorite TV program that is uploaded weekly via a torrent site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcatching software will automatically detect the availability of the program and download it </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Example of “Broadcatching” <ul><li>Democracy player </li></ul><ul><li>Downloadable program with several video “channels” that you can subscribe to </li></ul>
  58. 58. Sweden’s “Pirate Party” <ul><li>A new political party, known as the Pirate Party was founded in Sweden this year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is to reform intellectual property rights so that they are less restrictive </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. User-created Videos <ul><li> is now one of the 40 most popular sites in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Popularity from word-of-mouth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No budget for advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User-uploaded content </li></ul><ul><li>Some copyrighted content </li></ul><ul><li>“ Viral” videos </li></ul>
  60. 60. TVU Player <ul><li>TVU Player just launched </li></ul><ul><li>The TV industry may never be the same </li></ul><ul><li>China-based company is using torrent technology to stream live TV from around the world for free </li></ul>
  61. 61. User-Generated Content <ul><li>These sites build content from the submission of users, rather than staff editors or writers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Blogs”/Personal Journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Podcasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video sharing (“Vlogs”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviews/Advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forums </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Biggest Growth <ul><li>Five of the top 10 U.S. sites with largest traffic growth from 2005 to 2006 are “user-generated content” sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MySpace grew 183% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia grew 181% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flickr grew 201% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> grew 213% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> grew 233% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOURCE: 9/10/2006 NIELSEN/NETRATINGS REPORT </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Visitor Growth in Millions
  64. 64. New Blogging Report <ul><li>A major survey on “blogging” was released July 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Full report free at Pew/Internet site: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  65. 65. Statistics <ul><li>147 million American adults use the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>57 million American adults (39%) read blogs </li></ul><ul><li>12 million American adults (8%) keep a blog </li></ul>SOURCE: PEW INSTITUTE 2006 SURVEY
  66. 66. Largest U.S. based “blog” sites <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Owned by NewsCorp </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Owned by Google </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other big sites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Who is Blogging? <ul><li>54% of bloggers are first-time writers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They have not published anywhere else </li></ul></ul><ul><li>44% have previously published </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCE: PEW INSTITUTE 2006 SURVEY </li></ul>
  68. 68. Who is Blogging? <ul><li>Bloggers are young </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than half (54%) of bloggers are under the age of 30. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>55% of bloggers blog under a pseudonym, and 46% blog under their own name. </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCE: PEW INSTITUTE 2006 SURVEY </li></ul>
  69. 69. Older Bloggers <ul><li>Older bloggers (age 50-64) are the most likely group to say that they use the Web to share what they know with others. </li></ul>SOURCE: PEW INSTITUTE 2006 SURVEY
  70. 70. Is it Journalism? <ul><li>Most bloggers do not think of what they do as journalism. </li></ul><ul><li>34% of bloggers consider their blog a form of journalism, and 65% of bloggers do not. </li></ul>SOURCE: PEW INSTITUTE 2006 SURVEY
  71. 71. Is It Journalism? <ul><li>Most have not “trained” to be journalists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>57% of bloggers include links to original sources either “sometimes” or “often.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>56% of bloggers spend extra time trying to verify facts they want to include in a post either “sometimes” or “often.” </li></ul></ul>SOURCE: PEW INSTITUTE 2006 SURVEY
  72. 72. Blogging Topics <ul><li>Blogs are viewed as “personal journals” by many </li></ul><ul><ul><li>37% of bloggers cite “my life and experiences” as the primary topic of their blog </li></ul></ul>SOURCE: PEW INSTITUTE 2006 SURVEY
  73. 73. Blogging Topics <ul><li>There is a misconception about blogs in mainstream media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 11% of bloggers say they focus mainly on government or politics. </li></ul></ul>SOURCE: PEW INSTITUTE 2006 SURVEY
  74. 74. Other Hot Topics <ul><li>7% Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>6% Sports </li></ul><ul><li>5% General news and current events </li></ul><ul><li>5% Business </li></ul><ul><li>4% Technology </li></ul><ul><li>2% Religion, spirituality or faith </li></ul>SOURCE: PEW INSTITUTE 2006 SURVEY
  75. 75. Why Blog? <ul><li>84% of bloggers describe their blog as a “hobby” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>59% of bloggers spend just one or two hours per week tending their blog. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One in ten bloggers spend ten or more hours per week on their blog. </li></ul></ul>SOURCE: PEW INSTITUTE 2006 SURVEY
  76. 76. Why Blog? <ul><li>The majority of bloggers cite an interest in sharing stories and expressing creativity. </li></ul><ul><li>Just half say they are trying to influence the way other people think. </li></ul>SOURCE: PEW INSTITUTE 2006 SURVEY
  77. 77. The Political Factor <ul><li>Bloggers are more political than non-bloggers </li></ul><ul><li>72% of bloggers look online for news or information about politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 58% of all Internet users seek news and info on politics in the U.S. </li></ul></ul>SOURCE: PEW INSTITUTE 2006 SURVEY
  78. 78. The Political Factor <ul><li>24% of bloggers prefer political news from sources that challenge their viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>18% choose to use sources that share their political viewpoint </li></ul>SOURCE: PEW INSTITUTE 2006 SURVEY
  79. 79. The Aggregators <ul><li>News site aggregators have proven to be very popular…and influential </li></ul><ul><li>They do not write news, but they do create headlines and selectively choose which stories get coverage </li></ul>
  80. 80. The Aggregators <ul><li>Drudge Report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservative in nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monica Lewinsky/Bill Clinton Scandal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Huffington Post </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberal response to Drudge Report </li></ul></ul>
  81. 81. The Aggregators <ul><li>Beyond news, there are several popular aggregate blog sites for specific areas of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. Making Money <ul><li>Blogging is not profitable for most people </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to make money: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sell merchandise on the site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online “tip jars” (Paypal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscription-based content </li></ul></ul>
  83. 83. Beyond Text <ul><li>Bloggers are using more than simple words to tell their stories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>72% Photos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% Audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15% Video </li></ul></ul>SOURCE: PEW INSTITUTE 2006 SURVEY
  84. 84. “ Moblogging” <ul><li>Mobile phone blogging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant “on location” blogging via one’s mobile phone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo share publishing “on the go” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses camera phones to see what the publisher sees instantly </li></ul></ul>
  85. 85. “ Moblogging” <ul><li>Mobile phone blogging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant “on location” blogging via one’s mobile phone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo share publishing “on the go” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses camera phones to see what the publisher sees instantly </li></ul></ul>
  86. 86. Moblogs and Breaking News <ul><li>U.S. east coast blackout </li></ul><ul><li>London subway terrorist bombing </li></ul>
  87. 87. Popular Moblogs <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Owned by Yahoo! </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  88. 88. Newest Technology <ul><li>ComVu Pocketcaster mobile device enables a “Do-it-Yourself Video Network” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes “Automatic Geotagging” </li></ul></ul>
  89. 89. User-controlled News <ul><li>Internet users like to have some control over the media they consume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalized news </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-recommended news </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Open-source” news </li></ul></ul>
  90. 90. Personalized News <ul><li>Google News </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No editors are employed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses traffic analysis and readership patterns to determine what is most newsworthy </li></ul></ul>
  91. 91. Peer-recommended News <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Readers “vote” on what they like </li></ul><ul><li>Highest votes = highest news placement on site </li></ul>
  92. 92. “Open-Source” News <ul><li>OhMyNews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge in South Korea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded to international audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>41,000 “citizen reporters” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% of content created in-house by only 55 staff reporters </li></ul></ul>
  93. 93. “Open-Source” News <ul><li>WikiNews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User-created news reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative editing by peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Russian-language version is now available </li></ul></ul>
  94. 94. Mainstream News Dominates <ul><li>Independent news is thriving, but mainstream news still dominates online </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top U.S. news sites: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Yahoo! News </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. MSNBC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. AOL News </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. CNN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. The New York Times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SOURCE: 9/7/2006 COMSCORE REPORT </li></ul></ul></ul>
  95. 95. Mainstream News Blogs <ul><li>Mainstream news outlets are adapting their own blogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The New York Times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Washington Post </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CBS News </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSNBC </li></ul></ul>
  96. 96. Podcasts/Audio Blogs <ul><li>Online-distributed programming for download </li></ul><ul><li>Users can “subscribe” to a feed and have it automatically download to their media player </li></ul><ul><li>Often associated with talk/news formats </li></ul>
  97. 97. Podcast/Audio Blogs <ul><li>6.6 % of the U.S. adult online population (9.2 million Web users) have downloaded an audio podcast in the last month </li></ul><ul><li>Web users between the ages 18 and 24 are nearly twice as likely as the average Web user to download audio podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCE: 7/12/2006 REPORT - NEILSEN/NETRATINGS </li></ul>
  98. 98. Mainstream Media Podcasts <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CNN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSNBC </li></ul></ul>
  99. 99. Video Blogs -“Vlogs” <ul><li>4.0 % (5.6 million U.S. Web users) have recently downloaded a video podcast </li></ul><ul><li>25-34 year olds are the most likely to download video blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Users are more likely to stray from “mainstream” technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefer Apple computers over PCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use alternative browsers, such as Firefox </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SOURCE: 7/12/2006 REPORT - NEILSEN/NETRATINGS </li></ul>
  100. 100. User-created Videos <ul><li> is now one of the 40 most popular sites in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Popularity from word-of-mouth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No budget for advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User-uploaded content </li></ul><ul><li>Some copyrighted content </li></ul><ul><li>“ Viral” videos </li></ul>
  101. 101. Top Video Sites <ul><li>1. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>August: 16 million visitors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Yahoo! Video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>August: 21 million </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>August: 20 million </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SOURCE: 9/15 COMSCORE REPORT </li></ul>
  102. 102. 15 Seconds of Fame <ul><li>Average citizens are gaining fame </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Numa Numa ” Kid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teenager lip-synched to Ozone song &quot;Dragostea din Tei“) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Bus Uncle” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cranky man on bus in China scolds a passenger </li></ul></ul></ul>
  103. 103. “The Dark Side” <ul><li>There is controversy over the type of user-created content that is being uploaded </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Happy slapping” videos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bullies videotape harassment and upload to the Web </li></ul></ul></ul>
  104. 104. Political Videos <ul><li>Video sites are being used as a means to distribute political information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Politicians campaigning directly to citizens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Citizen journalist” reports that offer alternative perspectives to mainstream news coverage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  105. 105. Wikis <ul><li>The “wiki” concept of user-created content extends beyond news </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These are among the fastest </li></ul><ul><li>growing sites in the U.S. </li></ul>
  106. 106. “Open-Source” Directory <ul><li>Open Directory Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Largest Internet-user edited directory on the Web </li></ul>
  107. 107. Social Networking Sites <ul><li>“ Circle of friends” concept </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 70 million users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 20 million users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 9 million users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SOURCE: 9/8/2006 “Social Networking in Focus,” CBS NEWS </li></ul></ul></ul>
  108. 108. Trends in Social Networking <ul><li>“Viral” trends and marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People are more influenced by their peers than by direct messages from authority or marketers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These sites are used to communicate ideas, products and styles among like minds </li></ul></ul>