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PR 313 - Media Regulation & PR/Preparing your Resume
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PR 313 - Media Regulation & PR/Preparing your Resume

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This is a two-part PR lecture. Part 1 deals with various media regulations and rules to consider when conducting a media campaign. Part 2 is a basic overview of resume crafting for PR professionals.

This is a two-part PR lecture. Part 1 deals with various media regulations and rules to consider when conducting a media campaign. Part 2 is a basic overview of resume crafting for PR professionals.

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  • 1. Ethics and Self-Regulation in PR and other Media PR 313
  • 2. What is Self-Regulation?
    • A decision based on personal standards and ethics, rather than the law
    • “ The right thing to do”
  • 3. Example
    • There is no law that says you can not make up a quote – but is it the right thing to do?
    • “Hype” is not necessarily illegal – but is it in the best interest of your public?
  • 4. Self-Regulation in Media
    • Many media outlets decide what to cover based on self-regulation, rather than legal necessity
    • They abide by codes of conduct
      • Code statements convey their principles for how they will behave and what they will focus on
  • 5. Professional Groups
    • Several industry trade professional groups exist to help shape self-regulation policies
      • Public Relations Society of America (PRSA)
      • National Ass’n of Broadcasters (NAB)
      • National Cable Television Ass’n (NCTA)
      • Better Business Bureau’s National Advertising Division (NAD)
        • Protects against false advertising claims
  • 6. Ethics and PR
    • Some PR writers are accredited members of the PRSA
    • These PR officials will earn the APA distinction
    • If a PR writer is APA accredited, then they must adhere to certain ethical standards
  • 7. Code Overview
    • They must adhere to the highest standards of truth
    • They must give credit where it is due
    • They will not knowingly disseminate false information
  • 8. Codes of Conduct
    • As PR professionals, you should be familiar with some of the “codes of conduct” in the media you will deal with
      • Radio
      • TV
      • Journalism
      • Advertising
  • 9. Ethics and Radio
    • Broadcasters face many ethical dilemmas
      • Some issues have legal consequences, some do not
    • Examples:
      • Songs with adult themes or lyrics
      • Controversial talk show topics
  • 10. Example: The NAB Code
    • National Ass’n. of Broadcasters (NAB) established the first radio code in 1929
    • First TV code established in 1952
    • Many TV/radio stations agreed to follow the code of conduct – but there was little punishment for violation
      • Loss of “seal of good practice”
  • 11. TV Codes
    • Most codes cover programming and advertising
    • How much time for kids programs?
    • How many commercials per hour?
  • 12. Programming Principles
    • Voluntary programming principles established by NAB in 1990
    • Covers: children’s TV, violence, indecency and obscenity, and drug abuse
    • No legal ramifications for those that do not follow
  • 13. Other Codes and Policies
    • Radio and TV News Directors (RTNDA) has an 11-article Code of Broadcast News and Ethics
      • Courtroom coverage
      • Privacy
    • Society of Professional Journalists
      • Accuracy in reporting
      • Accountability
  • 14. Checkbook Journalism
    • Paying for a source or interview is considered unethical unless it is clearly identified
  • 15. Other Codes and Policies
    • Codes in Advertising:
      • American Advertising Federation
      • Assn. of Better Business Bureaus Int’l
        • All ads should be truthful
  • 16. Number One Conflict
    • The top ethical problem in media is:
    • The conflict between making money and serving the public
      • Example:
        • Should a TV station run sensational stories on a newscast to get higher ratings?
  • 17. “Standards and Practices”
    • Stations have a standards and practices department that oversees what content is allowed on the air
    • Serves as a moral guardian for the station
    • What is/is not acceptable on the air?
      • This varies by community standards
      • What was censored 20 years ago may not be censored due to changing standards
  • 18. Standards and Practices
    • Content is usually regulated based on:
      • Size of the market
      • Time period
      • Demographic/psychographic of audience
      • Type of content involved
  • 19. Examples:
    • A song played at 1 A.M. may not be appropriate at 3 P.M.
    • An announcer’s comment in a “big city” such as New York City may not play well in a more conservative city, such as Stockton
  • 20. Payola and Plugola
    • The accepting of money or gifts in return for playing songs on the air is known as Payola
    • Plugola is the free promotion of a product/service in which the announcer has a personal connection or financial interest
  • 21. Some Regulations Still Linger
    • Cigarette advertising banned
      • Controversy over ads appealing to kids
  • 22. The Law & Broadcasting
    • There are some broadcast laws that media practitioners need to know about
  • 23. Obscenity, Indecency, and Profanity
    • Section 1464 of the U.S. Criminal Code states that anybody who utters profane, indecent, or obscene language over radio or TV is liable to fine or imprisonment
    • If guilty, you may face fine up to $10,000, loss of license, or jail
    • However, defining violations is very tricky in this day and age
  • 24. Obscenity, Indecency, and Profanity
    • The challenges of prosecution:
      • FCC is prohibited from censoring content
      • How do you define the above?
  • 25. Obscenity, Indecency, and Profanity
    • Profanity = the irreverent or blasphemous use of the name of God
      • Rarely enforced
    • Obscenity has been defined by a 1973 Supreme Court case Miller v. California
      • To be obscene, a program must:
        • Contain material that depicts or describes a patently offensive way certain sexual acts defined in state law
        • Appeal to the prurient interest of the average person applying contemporary local community standards
        • Lack serious artistic, literary, political, or scientific value.
  • 26. Obscenity, Indecency, and Profanity
    • Indecency Defined
      • Something broadcast is indecent if it depicts or describes sexual or excretory activities or organs in a fashion that’s patently offensive according to contemporary community standards for the broadcast media at a time of day when there is a reasonable risk that children may be in the audience
  • 27. Recent Controversies
    • Janet Jackson bares breast during Super Bowl half-time show
    • U2’s Bono says the “F” word during an awards show
    • Nudity during a TV show segment on “Puppetry of the Penis”
    • “Schindler’s List” TV airing censorship debated
  • 28. Recent PR Controversies
    • A Sacramento, Calif. radio station promotion promises to give a free Wii to the person who can drink the most wate
      • One of the contestant’s dies from water poisoning
    • A viral PR stunt for Adult Swim is confused for a bomb scare
      • The city of Boston bills Turner over $1 million for wasted resources
  • 29. The V-Chip
    • Section 551 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 requires all TV sets manufactured after Jan. 1, 2000 to have a V-Chip
      • Technology works in tandem with TV ratings system that identifies sexual, violent, or indecent content
  • 30. The Ratings System
    • TV-Y – Programs suitable for all children
    • TV-Y7 – Programs directed to older children, ages 7 and above
    • TV-G – General Audience
    • TV-PG – Parental Guidance Suggested
    • TV-14 – Parents strongly cautioned for children under 14
    • TV-MA – Mature Audiences only
  • 31. The Ratings System
    • Specific content is also identified
    • S – Sexual Content
    • L – Profanity/Strong Language
    • D – Sexually Suggestive Dialogue
    • V - Violence
  • 32. Citizens’ Groups
    • Citizen groups are often vocal about what is/is not allowable in the media
    • Three hot topics:
      • Portrayal of minorities
      • Sex and violence
      • Anything aimed at children
  • 33. Portrayal of Minorities
    • Minority and Special Interest groups want to ensure that stereotypical and/or racist representations are not shown
    • Two controversial examples:
      • Frito Bandito
      • Amos n’ Andy
  • 34. Examples of Racist/Stereotypical Imagery Under Attack
  • 35. Sex and Violence
    • National Coalition on Television Violence publishes a list of “most violent programs on TV”
    • American Family Association campaigns against anything it considers obscene on TV
  • 36. Children’s Programming
    • Children’s Television Act of 1990 requires minimum of 3 hours of educational programming a week
  • 37. Children and Privacy
    • Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998
  • 38. Preparing your Resumé
  • 39. What to Send
    • Cover Letter
    • Resumé
    • Portfolio
  • 40. Applying for the Job
    • Craft a professional-looking resumé, or have one professionally done for you. Remember, this is often the first impression a potential employer receives about you!
  • 41. Cover Letter
    • No “standard” for cover letter
    • Keep it short (approx. 3 paragraphs)
    • Should complement (not duplicate) your resume
    • Should be personalized, if possible
      • Avoid “Dear Sir” (sexist)
    • Where did you hear about the job?
    • Show enthusiasm for job
    • Highlight qualifications
    • Why are you perfect for this job?
    • INCLUDE CONTACT INFO
  • 42. Resumé
    • Highlights qualifications/experience in industry
    • Single page resume is fine for entry level position
    • No mistakes or typos
    • Do not exaggerate!
  • 43. Resumé
    • May Include:
      • Job Objective (optional)
      • Educational Background
        • Highlight scholarships or school broadcast experience
      • Work Experience
        • Employer
        • Job Title
        • Date of Employment
        • Description of Job Responsibilities
      • References (Two Options)
        • “ References Available Upon Request”
        • Separate Piece of Paper
      • Contact Info!!!
  • 44. Common Resumé Flaws
    • Distortions/Lies
    • Too Long
    • Errors/Misspellings
    • Lack of Specifics
    • Irrelevant Material
    • Failure to List Job Accomplishments
    • Too Short
    • Gaudy
  • 45. Portfolio
    • This demonstrates that you have skills transferable to the “real world”
      • Writing samples
      • Layout/design skills
      • Strategic planning skills
  • 46. Interviewing
    • Be prepared to talk about your specific skills and experience
    • Be enthusiastic
    • Think: “What can I offer?”
    • “ Shadow” the interviewer
      • If they are casual or formal, follow their lead
    • Lean toward the conservative side in dress and presentation
    • Specific to broadcast jobs:
      • May ask you to do a “test” shift
      • “ Make or break” opportunity

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