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PR 313 - Media Regulation & PR/Preparing your Resume

PR 313 - Media Regulation & PR/Preparing your Resume



This is a two-part PR lecture. Part 1 deals with various media regulations and rules to consider when conducting a media campaign. Part 2 is a basic overview of resume crafting for PR professionals.

This is a two-part PR lecture. Part 1 deals with various media regulations and rules to consider when conducting a media campaign. Part 2 is a basic overview of resume crafting for PR professionals.



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    PR 313 - Media Regulation & PR/Preparing your Resume PR 313 - Media Regulation & PR/Preparing your Resume Presentation Transcript

    • Ethics and Self-Regulation in PR and other Media PR 313
    • What is Self-Regulation?
      • A decision based on personal standards and ethics, rather than the law
      • “ The right thing to do”
    • Example
      • There is no law that says you can not make up a quote – but is it the right thing to do?
      • “Hype” is not necessarily illegal – but is it in the best interest of your public?
    • Self-Regulation in Media
      • Many media outlets decide what to cover based on self-regulation, rather than legal necessity
      • They abide by codes of conduct
        • Code statements convey their principles for how they will behave and what they will focus on
    • Professional Groups
      • Several industry trade professional groups exist to help shape self-regulation policies
        • Public Relations Society of America (PRSA)
        • National Ass’n of Broadcasters (NAB)
        • National Cable Television Ass’n (NCTA)
        • Better Business Bureau’s National Advertising Division (NAD)
          • Protects against false advertising claims
    • Ethics and PR
      • Some PR writers are accredited members of the PRSA
      • These PR officials will earn the APA distinction
      • If a PR writer is APA accredited, then they must adhere to certain ethical standards
    • Code Overview
      • They must adhere to the highest standards of truth
      • They must give credit where it is due
      • They will not knowingly disseminate false information
    • Codes of Conduct
      • As PR professionals, you should be familiar with some of the “codes of conduct” in the media you will deal with
        • Radio
        • TV
        • Journalism
        • Advertising
    • Ethics and Radio
      • Broadcasters face many ethical dilemmas
        • Some issues have legal consequences, some do not
      • Examples:
        • Songs with adult themes or lyrics
        • Controversial talk show topics
    • Example: The NAB Code
      • National Ass’n. of Broadcasters (NAB) established the first radio code in 1929
      • First TV code established in 1952
      • Many TV/radio stations agreed to follow the code of conduct – but there was little punishment for violation
        • Loss of “seal of good practice”
    • TV Codes
      • Most codes cover programming and advertising
      • How much time for kids programs?
      • How many commercials per hour?
    • Programming Principles
      • Voluntary programming principles established by NAB in 1990
      • Covers: children’s TV, violence, indecency and obscenity, and drug abuse
      • No legal ramifications for those that do not follow
    • Other Codes and Policies
      • Radio and TV News Directors (RTNDA) has an 11-article Code of Broadcast News and Ethics
        • Courtroom coverage
        • Privacy
      • Society of Professional Journalists
        • Accuracy in reporting
        • Accountability
    • Checkbook Journalism
      • Paying for a source or interview is considered unethical unless it is clearly identified
    • Other Codes and Policies
      • Codes in Advertising:
        • American Advertising Federation
        • Assn. of Better Business Bureaus Int’l
          • All ads should be truthful
    • Number One Conflict
      • The top ethical problem in media is:
      • The conflict between making money and serving the public
        • Example:
          • Should a TV station run sensational stories on a newscast to get higher ratings?
    • “Standards and Practices”
      • Stations have a standards and practices department that oversees what content is allowed on the air
      • Serves as a moral guardian for the station
      • What is/is not acceptable on the air?
        • This varies by community standards
        • What was censored 20 years ago may not be censored due to changing standards
    • Standards and Practices
      • Content is usually regulated based on:
        • Size of the market
        • Time period
        • Demographic/psychographic of audience
        • Type of content involved
    • Examples:
      • A song played at 1 A.M. may not be appropriate at 3 P.M.
      • An announcer’s comment in a “big city” such as New York City may not play well in a more conservative city, such as Stockton
    • Payola and Plugola
      • The accepting of money or gifts in return for playing songs on the air is known as Payola
      • Plugola is the free promotion of a product/service in which the announcer has a personal connection or financial interest
    • Some Regulations Still Linger
      • Cigarette advertising banned
        • Controversy over ads appealing to kids
    • The Law & Broadcasting
      • There are some broadcast laws that media practitioners need to know about
    • Obscenity, Indecency, and Profanity
      • Section 1464 of the U.S. Criminal Code states that anybody who utters profane, indecent, or obscene language over radio or TV is liable to fine or imprisonment
      • If guilty, you may face fine up to $10,000, loss of license, or jail
      • However, defining violations is very tricky in this day and age
    • Obscenity, Indecency, and Profanity
      • The challenges of prosecution:
        • FCC is prohibited from censoring content
        • How do you define the above?
    • Obscenity, Indecency, and Profanity
      • Profanity = the irreverent or blasphemous use of the name of God
        • Rarely enforced
      • Obscenity has been defined by a 1973 Supreme Court case Miller v. California
        • To be obscene, a program must:
          • Contain material that depicts or describes a patently offensive way certain sexual acts defined in state law
          • Appeal to the prurient interest of the average person applying contemporary local community standards
          • Lack serious artistic, literary, political, or scientific value.
    • Obscenity, Indecency, and Profanity
      • Indecency Defined
        • Something broadcast is indecent if it depicts or describes sexual or excretory activities or organs in a fashion that’s patently offensive according to contemporary community standards for the broadcast media at a time of day when there is a reasonable risk that children may be in the audience
    • Recent Controversies
      • Janet Jackson bares breast during Super Bowl half-time show
      • U2’s Bono says the “F” word during an awards show
      • Nudity during a TV show segment on “Puppetry of the Penis”
      • “Schindler’s List” TV airing censorship debated
    • Recent PR Controversies
      • A Sacramento, Calif. radio station promotion promises to give a free Wii to the person who can drink the most wate
        • One of the contestant’s dies from water poisoning
      • A viral PR stunt for Adult Swim is confused for a bomb scare
        • The city of Boston bills Turner over $1 million for wasted resources
    • The V-Chip
      • Section 551 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 requires all TV sets manufactured after Jan. 1, 2000 to have a V-Chip
        • Technology works in tandem with TV ratings system that identifies sexual, violent, or indecent content
    • The Ratings System
      • TV-Y – Programs suitable for all children
      • TV-Y7 – Programs directed to older children, ages 7 and above
      • TV-G – General Audience
      • TV-PG – Parental Guidance Suggested
      • TV-14 – Parents strongly cautioned for children under 14
      • TV-MA – Mature Audiences only
    • The Ratings System
      • Specific content is also identified
      • S – Sexual Content
      • L – Profanity/Strong Language
      • D – Sexually Suggestive Dialogue
      • V - Violence
    • Citizens’ Groups
      • Citizen groups are often vocal about what is/is not allowable in the media
      • Three hot topics:
        • Portrayal of minorities
        • Sex and violence
        • Anything aimed at children
    • Portrayal of Minorities
      • Minority and Special Interest groups want to ensure that stereotypical and/or racist representations are not shown
      • Two controversial examples:
        • Frito Bandito
        • Amos n’ Andy
    • Examples of Racist/Stereotypical Imagery Under Attack
    • Sex and Violence
      • National Coalition on Television Violence publishes a list of “most violent programs on TV”
      • American Family Association campaigns against anything it considers obscene on TV
    • Children’s Programming
      • Children’s Television Act of 1990 requires minimum of 3 hours of educational programming a week
    • Children and Privacy
      • Children's Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998
    • Preparing your Resumé
    • What to Send
      • Cover Letter
      • Resumé
      • Portfolio
    • Applying for the Job
      • Craft a professional-looking resumé, or have one professionally done for you. Remember, this is often the first impression a potential employer receives about you!
    • Cover Letter
      • No “standard” for cover letter
      • Keep it short (approx. 3 paragraphs)
      • Should complement (not duplicate) your resume
      • Should be personalized, if possible
        • Avoid “Dear Sir” (sexist)
      • Where did you hear about the job?
      • Show enthusiasm for job
      • Highlight qualifications
      • Why are you perfect for this job?
    • Resumé
      • Highlights qualifications/experience in industry
      • Single page resume is fine for entry level position
      • No mistakes or typos
      • Do not exaggerate!
    • Resumé
      • May Include:
        • Job Objective (optional)
        • Educational Background
          • Highlight scholarships or school broadcast experience
        • Work Experience
          • Employer
          • Job Title
          • Date of Employment
          • Description of Job Responsibilities
        • References (Two Options)
          • “ References Available Upon Request”
          • Separate Piece of Paper
        • Contact Info!!!
    • Common Resumé Flaws
      • Distortions/Lies
      • Too Long
      • Errors/Misspellings
      • Lack of Specifics
      • Irrelevant Material
      • Failure to List Job Accomplishments
      • Too Short
      • Gaudy
    • Portfolio
      • This demonstrates that you have skills transferable to the “real world”
        • Writing samples
        • Layout/design skills
        • Strategic planning skills
    • Interviewing
      • Be prepared to talk about your specific skills and experience
      • Be enthusiastic
      • Think: “What can I offer?”
      • “ Shadow” the interviewer
        • If they are casual or formal, follow their lead
      • Lean toward the conservative side in dress and presentation
      • Specific to broadcast jobs:
        • May ask you to do a “test” shift
        • “ Make or break” opportunity