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Wars by proxy
Wars by proxy
Wars by proxy
Wars by proxy
Wars by proxy
Wars by proxy
Wars by proxy
Wars by proxy
Wars by proxy
Wars by proxy
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Wars by proxy

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  • 1. Wars by Proxy<br />By: Brayden Carlson<br />Greek Civil War<br />Vietnam<br />Chilean Coup d’état<br />Afghanistan <br />1946<br />1989<br />Korean War<br />Bay of Pigs<br />Angolan Civil War<br />
  • 2. What Is A Proxy War?<br />A war instigated by a major power that does not itself participate<br />A war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly. While powers have sometimes used governments as proxies, violent non-state actors, mercenaries, or other third parties are more often employed. It is hoped that these groups can strike an opponent without leading to full-scale war.<br />
  • 3. Greek Civil War (1946-1949)<br />The Greek Civil War was fought between the Greek governmental army, backed by the United Kingdom and United States, and the Democratic Army of Greece(DSE), the military branch of the Greek Communist Party (KKE), backed by Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Albania.<br />The efforts of DSE and affiliated groups were successful, although financial and materiel support from the U.S. and Britain changed the course of the war. <br />The KKE made many political mistakes which created problems faced by DSE on the battlefield. <br />The U.S. supplied and strengthened Greek army managed to clear the rebel forces in the mountains of Greece.<br />The Greek Communist broadcasting station announced the end of the battle, and many of the remaining communist fighters fled the country into Albania.<br />In October 1949, following the withdrawal of remaining Democratic Army of Greece forces into Albania, a treaty was negotiated with the Royalists which signalled the end of the war.<br />It is estimated that more than 50,000 combatants died in the conflict, and more than 500,000 Greeks were temporarily displaced from their homes by the fighting.<br />The Civil War left Greece in ruins, and in even greater economic distress than it had been following the end of German occupation. Additionally, it divided the Greek people for ensuing decades, with both sides vilifying their opponents<br />The result of this war is that the National Army won which increased the sphere of influence for Democratic ideologies. It, however increased tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. <br />
  • 4. Korean War (1950-1953)<br />The Korean War was a battle between the Republic of Korea, supported by the United Nations versus the Democratic People's Republic of Korea which was supported by People's Republic of China and with air support from the Soviet Union.<br />The Communist army advanced forcing the United Nations defenders into the Pusan area in South Korea. <br />North Koreans suffered when the United Nations forces landed at Inchon, far beyond the battle line. They shattered the North Korean Army; and pursued northward. <br />China intervened in force which surprised the United Nations armies as they approached North Korea’s northern border which pushed them back to the 38th parallel. <br />The final battle was a stalemate which neither side would risk vast casualties in an attempt to gain a complete victory. <br />The war destroyed the Korean Peninsula and the area surrounding it. The casualties on both sides were enormous. <br />The result of this war was a stalemate, there was no influence due to the result of it however, the tensions of the countries involved escalated.<br />
  • 5. Vietnam (1955-1975)<br />The struggle in Vietnam was a Civil War between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies (Soviet Union and People’s Republic of China) versus the government of South Vietnam, supported by the U.S. and other anti-communist nations<br />In 1965, The United States escalated the war, commencing air strikes on North Vietnam and committing ground forces. The next president, Richard Nixon, recommended Vietnamization, withdrawing American troops and giving South Vietnam greater responsibility for fighting the war. His attempt to slow the flow of North Vietnamese soldiers and supplies into South Vietnam by sending American forces to destroy Communist supply bases in Cambodia in 1970 in violation of Cambodian neutrality provoked antiwar protests on the nation’s college campuses. <br />The Soviet Union supplied North Vietnam with medical supplies, arms, tanks, planes, helicopters, artillery, anti-aircraft missiles and other military equipment. <br />The hardware donated by the USSR included 2 000 tanks, 7 000 artillery guns, over 5 000 anti-aircraft guns, 158 surface-to-air rocket launchers. In addition, military schools and academies of the USSR began training Vietnamese soldiers – more than 10 thousand people<br />From 1968 to 1973 efforts were made to end the conflict through diplomacy. An agreement was reached and U.S. forces were withdrawn from Vietnam and U.S. prisoners of war were released.  In April 1975, South Vietnam surrendered to the North and Vietnam was reunited<br />The result of this battle was that North Vietnam won because South Vietnam surrendered. This increased the Soviet Union’s sphere of influence, and it still continues because North Vietnam is still a Communist country. The tensions remained but because South Vietnam had surrendered, tensions neither increased or decreased.<br />
  • 6. Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961)<br />The Bay of Pigs Invasion was operated by CIA-trained forces of Cuban exiles to attack southern Cuba, with support from U.S. government to overthrow the Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.<br />1300 Cuban exiles armed with U.S. weapons, landed at Bay of Pigs on the southern coast of Cuba. The United States was hoping to find support from the local population once the war began. However, they received no support from the rebels and it was clear from the first hours of fighting that the exiles were likely to lose. President Kennedy had the option of using the U.S. Air Force against the Cubans but decided against it. The invasion was stopped by Fidel Castro's army. By the time the fighting ended 90 exiles had been killed and the rest had been taken as prisoners. <br />The failure of the invasion embarrassed the Kennedy administration. Some critics blamed Kennedy for not giving it adequate support and others for allowing it to take place at all.<br />The invasion made Fidel Castro worried. He was convinced that the Americans would try to take over the island again.<br />The result of this battle was that the Cuban government was victorious. The failure of the United States led to extreme embarrassment to the Kennedy’s administration. Fidel Castro gained respect for defending Cuba against the United States. This increase Communist ideologies for Cuba and it’s allies. The tensions between the two countries increase because Fidel Castro was always cautious and wondered when the United States would strike next.<br />
  • 7. Chilean Coup d’état (1973)<br />The democratically elected President of Chile Salvador Allende and his communist allies were overthrown in a CIA-supported Chilean military coup d’état by the U.S.<br />The United States had supported and financed the candidacy of right-wing former president Jorge Alessandri<br />The U.S. Government’s had shown hostility to the election of President Salvador Allende government and the CIA ha operatives inserted in Chile, in order to prevent a Marxist government from arising. <br />The United States feared "an irreversible Marxist regime in Chile" and applied diplomatic, economic, and covert pressure upon Chile's elected socialist government.<br />Propagandist operations were designed to push Chilean president Eduardo Frei to support a military coup which would prevent Allende from taking office. <br />The U.S. president Richard Nixon stated his fear that Chile could become "another Cuba", and the U.S. cut off most of its foreign aid to Chile and supported Allende's opponents in Chile during his presidency.<br />They tried to encourage Allende's resignation and to overthrow or defeat him in the election of 1976. <br />There is no clear evidence or proof that the U.S. was involved in the coup.<br />Soviet Union did directly influence the outcome of the coup but Cuban arms were smuggled into Chile.<br />The military coup against President Salvador Allende began to take shape even before he came to office. The right-wing and the CIA organized several attempts to prevent his presidency and then to destabilize the country during his government.<br />The result of this coup d’état was that reports say President Allende committed suicide during the battle with a pistol that was allegedly giving to him by Castro. There was a major involvement by the United States, but limited involvement by the Soviet Union which kept the tensions between the two countries the same.<br />
  • 8. Angolan Civil War (1975-2002)<br />The Angolan Civil War started after the end of the war for independence from Portugal. The war was fought between the communist MPLA (People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola) supported by Cuba and the Soviet Union versus the anti-communist UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola) supported by the U.S. and People’s Republic of China. <br />Within a year the government had disintegrated, and with aid from the USSR and the Cuban military, the Marxist-oriented MPLA under the leadership of José dos Santos had gained control of most of Angola.  Indirectly and through proxies, governments from the United States, Brazil and South Africa funded UNITA, providing munitions, intelligence reports, and mercenaries. <br />Heavy fighting continued until 1991 when a temporary agreement known as the Bicesse Accords was reached.  It called for an immediate ceasefire and the removal of both Cuban and South African troops. The agreement wanted a new national government and army, along with Angola’s first multi-party elections.  A year later, MPLA candidate José dos Santos won 49% of the votes in the election compared to 40% for UNITA candidate Dr. Jonas Savimbi.  When Savimbi disputed the outcome, UNITA resumed guerrilla war against the MPLA. <br />UNITA continued military operations until Savimbi was killed in an ambush in February of 2002. UNITA has since been a political party in Angolan politics. <br />The result of this war was a victory for the MPLA. The sphere of influence was increased by the Soviet Union due to the victory over UNITA which was supported by the United States. The tensions decreased because UNITA not continued in Angolan politics.<br />
  • 9. Afghanistan (1979-1989)<br />The war in Afghanistan was between The Soviet Union, supporting the government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan versus the Mujahideen Resistance supported by the United States, United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Egypt and other Muslim nations.<br />The initial Soviet deployment of the 40th Army began under Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev. <br />The conflict in Afghanistan has sometimes been referred to as the Soviet Union's Vietnam War.<br />The Soviets intervened following the overthrow of a pro-communist leader. After several months of evident military preparation, they invaded Afghanistan.<br />A war fought between the forces of the Soviet Union, and Islamic tribes of Afghanistan who were against the Communist government set up by the Soviets. <br />Many people were killed or wounded in this long war. About 15,000 Soviet soldiers were killed, and about 35,000 were wounded. About 1 million Afghans were killed. <br />The anti-Communist Afghan forces had support from many countries, mainly the United States and Pakistan.<br />After the Soviet Army left Afghanistan, civil war continued in Afghanistan for about three years.<br />Afghanistan's economy suffered badly. After the break-up of the Soviet Union in many countries, Afghanistan’s traditional trade also suffered.<br />The result of this war was a military stalemate. Although the Soviet Union had a huge involvement in the war, there was no increase of influence from either countries. The tensions between the two countries neither increased or decreased due to the stalemate. As a result of the stalemate there was a withdrawal of Soviet forces and the Afghanistan Civil War continues.<br />
  • 10. Bibliography<br />http://warincontext.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/afghan-view.jpg<br />http://pitchinvasion.net/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/oil-590x393.jpg<br />http://humanrightsfilmfestival.ca/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/battle_chile_01.jpg<br />http://cpshaw.files.wordpress.com/2010/07/vietnam-war-2.jpg<br />http://images.teamsugar.com/files/upl1/6/62144/16_2008/image.jpg<br />http://www.thecomingdepression.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/china-north-korea-proxy.png<br />http://img121.imageshack.us/img121/7097/ant194710dn.jpg<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_War_in_Afghanistan<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angolan_Civil_War<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_War<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_Civil_War<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bay_of_Pigs_Invasion<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_Chilean_coup_d%27%C3%A9tat<br />http://www.marxists.org/subject/greek-civil-war/index.htm<br />http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/korea.htm<br />http://www.armytimes.com/xml/news/2008/03/army_afghanistan_deploy_031408w/031408_afghanistan_800.JPG<br />http://www.acig.org/artman/uploads/fapa-daa_sa-3.jpg<br />http://www.enotes.com/w/images/thumb/6/61/Chile_Junta001.jpg/250px-Chile_Junta001.jpg<br />http://scrapetv.com/News/News%20Pages/usa/images-3/vietnam-war-soldiers.jpg<br />http://sydwalker.info/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/bay_of_pigs.jpg<br />http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/images/korean-war-artillery.jpg<br />http://www.makedonijaese.com/images/ac7.jpg<br />http://www.foreignpolicy.com/files/images/yemen.jpg<br />

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