N* = the number of stars in the Milky Way galaxy: 100 billionfp = fraction of stars with planets around them: 50%ne = number of planets per star ecologically able to sustain life: 1fl = fraction of those planets where life actually evolves: 50%fi = the fraction of fl that evolves intelligent life: 20%fc = the fraction of fi that communicates: 20%fL = the fraction of the planets life during which the communicatingcivilizations survives: 10,000 yrsN = the number of communicating civilizations in the galaxy = 1000
Ancient Flyers• date between 500 and 800 BCE• Central America• Don’t represent any known animal• Birds don’t have rudders• Built 5X scale to be testable
Ezekiel• Bright clothes look like metal• Wheels within wheels• Told to build monument• 40 pages of measurements
Puma Punku, Bolivia• created from 500 B.C. to the ice age• very hard rocks of granite and diorite• impossible to replicate these ruins• 200 tons-450+ tons• 13,000 ft plateau• Natives had no written language
Pyramids• Technology lacking, no wheel or pulley• Positioning• Mathematically perfect• Middle of all land mass• Sides face cardinal directions• 20 years to place 2.3 million stones• Move, cut, place a 2-15 ton block every 2.5 min
The Nazca Lines• Peruvian coastal plain• 500 B.C. and A.D. 500• almost complete lack of windy weather or rain• Area is a geologic snapshot• Only fully appreciated from sky
http://www.history.com/shows/ancient- aliens/articles/evidence-of-ancient-aliens www.setileague.org/general/drake.htm Däniken, Erich von (1972). Chariots of the Gods. Berkley Publishing Group. ISBN 0-425- 16680-5.