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Properties of matter elements compounds and bonding

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Properties of matter elements compounds and bonding Properties of matter elements compounds and bonding Presentation Transcript

  • Properties ofMatter, Elements, Comp ounds, and Bonding. 9/14
  • Chemical Properties.A chemical change pemanantly changes the conpoundinto another.Basic unit of matter is an atomSubatomic particles- protons (+), neutrons, and electrons(-)
  • AtomsProtons neutrons in the nucleusElectrons travel around the nucleus in orbits or clouds orlevels of energy.Atom is neither positive or negative in charge - it isneutral.ION- An atom that has lost or gained an electron(s)
  • Identifying ElementsAtomic number- number of protonsThe number of protons (atomic number) determines theidentity of an elementAn element- only one type of atomRepresented by a chemical symbol such as O for oxygenor Na for sodiumCHNOPS- Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen,Phosphorous, Sodium  main elements of human body
  • IsotopesAtoms of the same element that have a different numberof neutronsMany (not all) are unstable and break down, emittingenergy – radioactive isotopesUsed for determining the age of fossils, treatment ofdiseases, and even to sterilize food.
  • Chemical Compounds Compounds- Chemical combination oftwo or more elements Represented by a chemical formula thatindicated the elements in the compoundand their proportions.
  • Chemical BondingIn order to become stable, an atom will either gain, lose,or share electrons. Each level can hold only a certainnumber of electrons. (2,8,8)Ionic, covalent, and polar covalent bond
  • Covalent Bonding Equal Sharing of electrons Each atom fills it’s outermost energy level Smallest particle of a compound is a molecule
  • Ionic BondingAn ionic bond forms whenone atom gains electronsand the other loseselectronsIons are held together bytheir opposite chargesInvolves atoms of verydifferent sizes
  • Chemical reactionsThe making or breaking of bonds is called a chemicalreactionReactants (chemicals that enter a reaction) & products(compounds that are produced)A chemical reaction is indicated by a chemical equation.Na (+) + Cl (-) ---> NaClO2 + 2H2  2H2O
  • Polar CovalentThe unequal sharing between two atoms (usually onemuch larger than the other)Creates slight charge on either side of the molecule.
  • Hydrogen bondBetween hydrogen and another atom such as nitrogen oroxygenWeak attractive force that forms temporary, easily brokenbonds
  • Water importance for living thingsWater has an unusual chemical structureWe are over 70% water
  • Properties of water1. less dense as a solidFound in all three states (solid, liquid and gass) on theearth
  • 2. Water is a good solvent. Many compounds dissolve inwater.3. Water is slow to heat and slow to cool.4. water is cohesive – water molecules will attract othermolecules5. water is adhesive- water adheres to other molecules
  • Why?The bonds are covalent, but the sharing is unequalThe water molecule carries a slight chargeIt is polar
  • Hydrogen BondsThe slight charge attracts other water moleculesThis forms weak temporary hydrogen bonds
  • As water changes state it adds or breaks apart hydrogenbonds. This slows changes in temperature
  • solventSome hydogen bonds will pull strongly enough to break offa hydrogen ionH2O H(+) + OH (-)This will ionize a small portion of the water creating equalnumbers of hydrogen and hydroxide ionssolution (solute and solvent)NaCl  Na+ Cl -
  • In a liter of water only More hydrogen ions are0.0000001 m/l of water has added the ph will go downionized. (That’s 1x10 ^-7) (example hcl)(PH=7) If more hydroxide ions (OH)PH stands for the percent are added then the PH wilof hydrogen ions in solution go up (example. NaOH)in relation to hydroxide ions