SFCI TIC

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SFCI TIC

  1. 1. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Rapid Intervention and the Thermal Imaging Environment
  2. 2. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Objectives • Discuss the basic principles on which thermal imaging is based. • Explain how mass and density affect the image visualized on the thermal imager. • Clarify the three different types of infrared energy emitters. • Discuss the drawbacks and limitations of thermal imaging. • Identify how thermal imaging can be utilized in searching for trapped firefighters.
  3. 3. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Objectives • Explain the effects that image inversion has on a search with the thermal imager. • Explain what is meant by a T.I.C. lead search. • Explain what is meant by a landmark search.
  4. 4. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services NFPA Standards • NFPA 1403 • NFPA 1500 • NFPA 1710 • NFPA 1720
  5. 5. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Introduction • Thermal Imaging Technology has provided a new edge and limitless possibilities on the fireground.
  6. 6. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services History of Thermal Imaging Technology •Used by Military since the 1950’s •Fire departments began using this technology in the late 1980’s •Not used to their fullest potential
  7. 7. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Modern T.I.C. Cameras • Modern TICs do not require focusing. The microbolometer does not have an iris like a camera. • The default sensitivity of the camera determines what you see. The more sensitive, the less you see.
  8. 8. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Potential Uses •Initial Size-Up •Primary and Secondary Search •Location of Fire and Extension •Monitoring of Conditions Indicative of Flashover •Overhaul •Rapid Intervention Operations •Hazardous Material Situations •Preplanning •Fire Inspections •Urban Search and Rescue •Assisting Law Enforcement
  9. 9. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services How does it work? •Based on infrared energy •All objects emit energy to different degrees •Heat is a form of IR
  10. 10. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Infrared Energy •Unaided vision is dependent on visible light available •Smoke is made up of toxic gases &carbon particles •Solid carbon particles block visible light •IR is unaffected by light since it is based on heat
  11. 11. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services What Do We See? Why does this wall look hotter then the rest of the building?
  12. 12. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services This Is What We See • The parapet wall has been heated by sun causing it to appear hotter then the rest of the building.
  13. 13. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Energy Emitters •Law of Heat Transfer - hot to cold •3 Types of IR emitters Passive - Furniture Active - A Human being Direct Source - A Fire
  14. 14. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Mass and Density T.I.C.s cannot see through some objects, they can only pick up heat differentials that may pass through.
  15. 15. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Mass and Density • Some objects allow IR energy to pass through others don’t
  16. 16. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Mass and Density Masking – a passive emitter (Turn-out gear) may mask an active emitter (A firefighter).
  17. 17. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services FF Down
  18. 18. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services FF Down • Note the signature of the FF • Note the shapes of some objects like boots and gloves • Must be able to interpret shapes (heat signatures) as well as color variations. Boots Gloved Hand
  19. 19. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Drawbacks • Expensive • Intricate technology and components are subjected to: Impact Heat Water Exposure Easily damaged
  20. 20. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Limitations •T.I.C.s cannot replace a solid basic foundation in search techniques •Can cause overconfidence and dependability •Battery Powered
  21. 21. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Limitations •Size of Screen •Depth Perception •Field of View •Cause the user to advance faster than the rest of the crew
  22. 22. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Limitations •Object density affects imaging capability •Cannot see through glass or water •Shiny objects reflect infrared energy •Doors and windows may not be able to be determined if made of glass •Vision is compromised while in a room where sprinklers are actively discharging
  23. 23. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services What the Human Eye can See
  24. 24. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services What T.I.C. will see • IR heat energy is reflected by glass • T.I.C. picks up the reflected IR energy from windows
  25. 25. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Using the T.I.C. •Thermal Contrast – difference in temperature between objects •Low Contrast Scene- ambient temperature is cool and all objects are close to that temperature •High Contrast Scene- high thermal energy present with differences in rates of energy absorption
  26. 26. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Using the T.I.C. • Low Contrast Scene- all objects are close to the same temperature • Commonly referred to as white out, usually a high temp room, where all objects are near the same (high) temperature
  27. 27. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Using the T.I.C • Create thermal contrast-Open the nozzle • Some objects will cool down and there will be thermal contrast • This will allow you to see objects in the room
  28. 28. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Temperature Differences • The color difference only represents a difference on temp. – Not an exact temp reading
  29. 29. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Hot Wall
  30. 30. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services What’s behind the door?
  31. 31. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Heat
  32. 32. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Using the T.I.C. The more clear that the picture becomes onscreen signifies that you are getting closer to the source of heat Direction & Velocity = Location The less heat emitted, the darker an object will appear on the screen
  33. 33. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Using the T.I.C. •Thermal Layering - Check for presence against a fixed landmark - Monitor for movement •Image Inversion- occurs when images change colors due to changes in ambient temperature. What was once light colored may become dark due to changes in surrounding temperature change.
  34. 34. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Six Point Scan Systematic approach should be utilized to scan an area. 1. Ceiling 2. Midlevel 3. Floor Overcomes a tunnel- vision approach
  35. 35. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Six Point Scan Systematic approach should be utilized to scan an area. 1. Ceiling – Looking for thermal balance, rafters etc. 2. Midlevel – Looking for thermal balance, windows, doors, furniture, victims etc. 3. Floor – Looking for holes, victims etc.
  36. 36. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Six Point Scan By starting at the top and performing this type scan before you enter every room you are ensuring you do not enter a hazardous environment. Such as a room with burnt through ceiling joists, or eminent flashover etc.
  37. 37. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services TIC Lead Search TIC operator leads the search team through the area to be searched while relaying information to the team members in regards to direction of travel and obstacles. This could be used in a cluttered room.
  38. 38. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services TIC Lead Search • Even using TIC some areas must still be searched by hand
  39. 39. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Landmark Search TIC operator identifies a specific landmark and has team search as they make their way to that point. This could be used in a room that is open with very little objects in the way.
  40. 40. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160
  41. 41. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160 • Getting started • Press either button to turn on the camera • An initial screen will appear for aprox 5 sec.
  42. 42. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160 • Screen Information
  43. 43. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160 • Temperature difference modes – Monochrome -The display screen uses shades of grey, from black to white. Warmer objects appear on the screen as lighter grey to white while cooler objects appear darker grey to black • Objects < 200 deg. F cause the camera to stay in the default or lower temp mode. Objects > 200 deg. F cause the camera to switch to the enhanced image mode. The letters “EI” will appear in the upper left portion of the display screen to indicate the camera is in the enhanced image mode.
  44. 44. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160
  45. 45. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160 • Temperature difference modes – Monochrome Red – displays shades of grey the same as the Monochrome mode, but objects exceeding 1000 deg F. will appear red in the display screen
  46. 46. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160 • Monochrome Red mode
  47. 47. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160 • Temperature difference modes – Color mode – this displays a range of temperatures in the screen as color from Blue to Yellow. • BLUE represents cooler areas and YELLOW represents hotter areas • The colors do NOT correspond to specific temperatures, but give a relative picture of temperature ranges.
  48. 48. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160 • Screen while in the color mode.
  49. 49. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160 • Manually change display modes – Press and hold the LEFT control button for 3 seconds – The sequence is as follows • Color mode • Monochrome-Red mode • Monochrome mode – After the Monochrome mode press and hold the LEFT control button to return to Color mode
  50. 50. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160
  51. 51. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160 • Temperature indicator – Displays and small crosshair – This reads the approx temp of the object in the crosshairs • TEMPERATURE INDICATOR dose NOT read exact temperatures (use for relative temperature differences)
  52. 52. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160 • Over Temperature Protection – A HIGH TEMP warning will be displayed on the screen when the core temp reaches 160 deg F or higher. – The warning indicates the camera’s performance will begin to degrade and the unit may shut down
  53. 53. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160 • Video transmitting – The TIC has the ability to transmit video to an outside monitor. – Helpful for outside FF and IC to have a better idea of conditions inside the structure.
  54. 54. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160 • Video transmitter – The camera will power up in the mode it was in when last shut down – Press LEFT control button and CH-A will appear – Press again and CH-B will appear – Press again and nothing will appear
  55. 55. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160 • Battery – When the battery has approx 20% life remaining, LOW BATT will appear below the battery level symbol in the display
  56. 56. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160 • Battery Life – 3 ½ hours under normal operation – 2 hours while transmitting
  57. 57. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160 • Battery Maintenance – Battery charger and recharging • Green light indicates fully charged battery • Yellow light indicates the battery is outside its temperature for charging – Allow battery to cool • Red light indicates charging in progress • Flashing red light indicated defective battery – Battery charged for more then 4 hours and indicator light is red indicates and defective battery
  58. 58. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160 • To turn off – Press and hold the RIGHT control button – Screen will display HOLD TO TURN OFF – RELEASE FOR STANDYBY continue to hold. – Standby can be utilized to help conserve battery power
  59. 59. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160 • Battery Maintenance – Battery charger and recharging • Green light indicates fully charged battery • Yellow light indicates the battery is outside its temperature for charging – Allow battery to cool • Red light indicates charging in progress • Flashing red light indicated defective battery – Battery charged for more then 4 hours and indicator light is red indicates and defective battery
  60. 60. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Scott Eagle Imager 160 • Cleaning – Clean as necessary using a dampened cloth with solution of mild detergent and water – Rinse with cool/warm water (no hot water) – DO NOT submerge in water
  61. 61. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services Summary T.I.C.s can vastly improve a rescue effort, but they do not ensure success. An in-depth understanding of thermal imaging, how it works and practice will allow the rescuers to properly interpret the images on screen.
  62. 62. Copyright © 2006 Thomson Delmar Learning Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) Michael R. Mason and Jeffrey S. Pindelski Hall County Fire Academy – Fire Services References • Original created by Rapid Intervention Company Operations (R.I.C.O.) and published by Delmar learning. • Updated by Hall County Fire Academy.

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