I- What is interaction?• Interaction is the collaborative exchange of thoughts, feelings, or ideas between two or more people, resulting in a reciprocal effect on each other.• " Telling is not teaching: listening is not learning”• “Teaching is listening, learning is talking.”
• A.Theory of language• a) The structural view :• b).The functional view:• c) The interactional view: sees language as a vehicle for the realization of interpersonal relations and for the performance of social transactions between individuals. Language is seen as a tool for the creation and maintenance of. social relations.
II-Interactive principlesAutomaticity: true human interaction is best accomplished when focal attention is on meanings and messages and not on grammar and other linguistic forms.
Risk taking: interaction requires the risk of failing to produce intended meaning, of failing to interpret intended meaning… Communicative competence: all of the elements of communicative competence (grammatical, discourse, sociolinguistic, pragmatic, and strategic) are involved in human interaction.
III- Roles of the interactive teacher: • 1.the teacher as Controller • 2.the teacher as Director • 3.the teacher as Manager • 4.the teacher as Facilitator • 5.the teacher as Resource
3) Application questions: demonstrate how, use the data to solve, illustrate how, show how apply. What is (…) used for? What would result? What would happen?4) Inference questions: common question words: how? Why? What did(…) mean by? What does (…) believe? What conclusions can you draw from..?
5) Analysis questions: distinguish, diagram, chart, plan, deduce…what is the relationship between? What is the function of? What motive?6) Synthesis questions: compose, combine, develop…what if? What would you have done in this situation? What would happen if?7) Evaluation questions: evaluate, defend, decide which, select, judge…which is best? Which is more appropriate?
Sustaining interaction through group work by: Sophia Akdim
I- Group workIt ’s a generic term covering a multiplicity of techniques in which two or more students are assigned a task that involves collaboration.
II- Advantages It encourages the development of critical thinking skills. It requires the establishment of an environment of support, trust and co-operation. learning can be nurtured.Students have the opportunity to learn from and to teach each other.
It promotes student learning and achievement. Deep rather than surface approaches to learning are encouraged. It facilitates greater transfer of knowledge and learning. The focus is on student centered approach to teaching and learning, and assessment. Students are involved in their own learning.
It enhances social skills and interactions.Learning outcomes are improved.Group work offers an embracing affective climate.Group work promotes learners responsibility and autonomy.It’s a step toward individualizing instruction.
III- Excuses for avoiding group workThe teacher is no longer in control of the class.We Can’t Tell Who’s Done What.Group Work is Unfair.Allocating Different Marks is Too Time Consuming to Track.Students are Not Responsible (Mature) Enough for Team Work.
Students Don’t Perform At “Their” Level In Group Work.Students will use their native language.We Can’t Mark Them Separately so Freeloaders get it Easy.Teachers can’t monitor all groups at once.Some learners prefer to work alone.
IV- Rules for successful group workSelecting appropriate group Techniques: Games Role-play and simulations Drama Interview Brainstorming Information Gap Jigsaw Problem solving and decision making. Opinion Exchange
Planning group work: Introduce the technique Justify the use of small groups for the techniques Model the technique Give explicit detailed instructions Divide the class into groups Check for clarification Set the task in motion
Monitoring the taskDebreifing: Reporting on task objectives. Establishing affective support
Small group work By: Mohamed AIT MADANI YOUSSEF
Taking cultural expectations andbelief systems into account. The teacher should emphasis on the group harmony. ‘the nail that sticks out is hammered down.’ proverb A belief in group work requires teacher to accept that students learn best when they work together.
Arranging the classroom space foractive student participationThe seating arrangement in the classroomshould facilitate small group learning. Students should be able to interact in a faceto face manner.
Emphasizing the importance ofgroup workpoint out to students that all members will benefit.Let students know that they will be expected towork in groups composed of culturally andlinguistically diverse members.
Teach students how to workcooperativelyStudents should be taught group work skills andterms related to it.Share ideas take turn Assign roles student teacherConflict should not be viewed negatively.
Assigning group rolesGroup task is best accomplished by assigning roles to each member.Define and model roles for students.Take into account English proficiency level of students when assigning roles.
Strategies for engaging students ingroup work•Showdown•Round tabl•Three minutes review•Talking chips•Fan and pick•Numbered heads together•Jigsaw•Think-pair-share
Reflection and self-assessment Students should reflect on: How they work together. Individual participation Difficulties Good way to work more effectively
Outline:1 Reasons for / against textbook use2 Options for textbook use3 Going beyond the textbook4 Concluding remarks
1. Reasons FOR / AGAINST textbook use FOR Textbooks provide an attractivelypresented teaching material Textbooks are well structured(consistent grammar, appropriatevocabulary exposure and practice, a rangeof skills and tasks,…
Textbooks are time saving (it takes less time to prepare a lesson from a textbook) Textbook’s teacher guide helps teacherswith methodology Textbooks are reassuring for ss (they allow toreview what has been done and prepare forwhat’s coming)
1. Reasons FOR / AGAINST textbook use AgainstTextbooks are boring (Teacher and ss are justpage turners) Textbooks are lacking variety Textbooks are not always appropriate (everycontext is unique)
Textbooks are endangering theengagement which a studentcentered classroom offers Textbooks are only proposals foraction, not instruction for action
2. Options for textbook useWHEN TEACHERS (FOR WHATEVER REASON)DECIDE TO AMEND PARTS OF A TEXTBOOK, THEYHAVE FOUR ALTERNATIVES: Omit Replace Add Adapt
2. Options for textbook use OmitWHEN THE LESSON IS NOT APPROPRIATE, THETEACHER CAN SIMPLY OMIT IT AND GET ONWITH STH ELSE.SS MAY, HOWEVER, WONDER WHY THEY’REUSING THE TEXTBOOK IF MANY PAGES AREOMITTED.
2. Options for textbook useReplaceTHE TEACHER CAN REPLACE THETEXTBOOK’S LESSON WITH ONE’S OWN.THIS WILL FIT MORE THE SPECIFICCONTEXT AND SS’ NEEDS
2. Options for textbook use AddTHE TEACHER MAY ADD TO WHAT IS IN THETEXTBOOK. WHEN THE TEXTBOOK’S LESSONDOES NOT ALLOW INTERACTION AND SS’ENGAGEMENT, THE TEACHER MAY ADDACTIVITIES, EXERCISES… TO ACHIEVE THAT.
2. Options for textbook use AdaptTHE TEACHER CAN ADAPT CREATIVELYTHE TEXTBOOK LESSON BY REPLACINGSOME (NOT ALL) OF THE SUGGESTEDACTIVITIES, REWRITING PARTS OF IT,REORDERING OR REDUCING ACTIVITIES
Using textbooks creatively is one of theteacher’s premier skills There are no perfect textbooks, usuallyadvantages outweigh drawbacks Accessing a multitude of teachingmaterials is no longer a problem, butusing effectively and how using can be.
3. GOING BEYOND THE TEXTBOOK 3.1) Reasons for G.B.T 3.2) How to G.B.Tise? 3.3) G.B.Tising constraints
3.1) REASONS FOR GBTit’s challenging, esp in EFL situation,to find a real life context in whichthe target lge can be usedmeaningfullyGBT exposes SS to a rich linguistic andconceptual context
3.1) REASONS FOR GBTGBT allows the teacher to address amultitude of Lge skills andfacilitates skills integrationGBT allows SS to processinformation differently based on •their different learning styles andintelligences •
3.1) REASONS FOR GBTGBT enhances teacher creativitySS appreciate the personal touch oftheir teacher on teaching materials•Varying sources and dealing with•them eclectically motivates SS•
3.2) HOW TO G.B.TISE?Relevance to SS needs: do my SSreally need this?Appropriateness to SS’ linguisticand cultural background Relevance to official guidelines
3.2) HOW TO G.B.TISE? Authenticity (esp. in listening materials) Lay out: good presentation to interest SS
3.2) HOW TO G.B.TISE Flexibility: continuous reflection on own materials so that these materials don’t become other textbooks Variety to touch different learning styles and intelligences
examplePlease observe the rules prohibiting thecombustion of vegetable material andthe exhalation of noxious fumes in thisauditorium No smoking
Learners don’t care how muchyou know until they know howmuch you care.
3. GBT CONSTRAINTSHow to find appropriate materialsamong the vast amount of informationavailable (esp on the net)How to find appropriate materials for myspecific context. It’s preferable for materials tofocus on local or known context which allowsSS to focus on lge use rather battling withunfamiliar contexts
3. GBT CONSTRAINTSFitting syllabus objectives: theteacher should know well thesyllabusFinancial constraint
3. GBT CONSTRAINTS Time pressure: the syllabus length doesn’t allow the teacher to go beyond the textbook Large classes
4. CONCLUSION NOTESTeaching can never be based on asingle textbook, no textbook can fitall teaching/learning situations (onesize does not fit all)
4. CONCLUSION NOTESTextbooks don’t have meaning,teachers give textbooks meaning
4. CONCLUSION NOTESVarying teaching materials is a veryimportant aspect of teacher’sprofessional development. The morevarious ways you use the more SSyou reach
4. CONCLUSION NOTESThe textbook is a dead material,it needs to be spiced up withsupplementary material
4. CONCLUSION NOTESIt’s not the question of adopting oradapting a textbook, it’s “How” whichmatters.“a poor teacher will manage to ruin theperfect textbook while the good teachercan work miracles with the world’s worsttextbook”Keith Walters
John came back home late, his mother asked him: John, where were you? I was looking for you. John replied: well mum, I was teaching my dog how to play piano. The mother said amazingly: “and now, can your dog play the piano? John said: how can I know mum? I said I was teaching the dog, I don’t know whether the dog learned that or not.The ONLY objective of teaching is LEARNING
I- authentic avtivities/tasks “Tasks with a real-world rationale require learnersto approximate, in class, the sorts of behavioursrequeired of them in the world beyond theclassroom.” An example of real world task might be : “thelearner will listen to a weather forecast and identifythe predicted maximum temperture for the day” DAVIDNUNAN
II- Authentic Materials DAVID NUNAN stated that a rule-of-thumb definition of authentic materials is any material which has not been specificully produced for the purposes of language teaching.
III-Types of authentic materials Gebhard suggested many types of authentic materials:1. Authentic Listening/Viewing Materials2. Authentic Visual Materials1. Authentic Printed Materials2. Realia (Real world"objects)
IV- Types of authentic activitiesInteractive SimulationsListening ActivitiesListening/ Viewing Activities Activities Using Cultural Objects
V- Advantages of authentic materials / tsks/ activities It provides students with the opportunity to make use of non-linguistics clues ( lay out, pictures, colours, symbols, the physical sitting in which it occurs) and so more easily to arrive at meaning from the printed word. Adults need to be able to see the immidiate relevence of what they do in classroom to what they need to do outside it, and real life reading matter treated realistically makes the connection obvious
It’s a way to bring real world experiences into the classroom by focusing on practical language skills.Motivation and renewed interest in the subject matter will be incresed in students because they deal with content and situations that are meaningful for them.authentic texts are often regarded as more interesting than textbook materials because they can be more up-to-date, and relate to everyday issues and activities
Authentic materials, particularly audio-visual ones such as films and TV shows, offer a much richer source of input for learnersmaking connections between the classroom world and the world beyond it makes the learning process more easierExposed to more authentic activities, students can increase confidence in using the language.
VI- Problemes with authentic activities / materialsSpecial preparation is necessary which can be time consumingWith listening, too many differnt accents can confuse students perception of the in putgrammatical items show up unexpectedly, and without warning, which require students to have mastered a core knowledge of grammar
VII- Classroom management and authentic tasks/materialsThey make students more likely to love the subject, which makes them attend on time so that interuptions caused by lateness can be avoided.They cupture and stumulate the learners interest which can contrebute to decreasing disruptive behaviours