PVC Cannon Project by Brandon Skidgel, Louis Hickman, Hyatt Hopkins, and Brad Ivy
How Cannons Work
Old Cast Iron Cannons
- Used gunpowder to 'explode
- Then Generates a force of pressure
- which pushes out the cannon ball
- Barrel is connected
to the tank
- A combustion substance it put
into the tank
- It is then ignited
- Making an explosion
- Which pushes the potato out
What is Black Powder - basic black powder is made of 75% potassium nitrate, 15% charcoal, and 10% sulfur. These ingredients are ground to create a uniformly textured powder.
How did Black Powder come out - By the 9th century Taoist monks or alchemists searching for an elixir of immortality accidentally stumbled upon gunpowder.
What Black Powder is used for- Black Powder is used in all kinds of things in the 19th and 20th century, such as- Cannons, Guns (muskets), and any sort of bomb. (And there were millions of guns and cannons).
A simple, commonly cited, chemical equation for the combustion of black powder is
2 KNO3 + S + 3 C -> K2S + N2 + 3 CO2.
A more accurate, but simplified, version is
10 KNO3 + 3 S + 8 C -> 2 K2CO3 + 3 K2SO4 + 6 CO2 + 5 N2.
Propellant for Potato Cannon
Hair Spray - H air spray was invented during WWII to hand out to the soldiers.
We are going to use hair spray as the propellant.
Reason - The reason behind this is that both the propellant gas [propane] and the solvent for the binder [alcohol or ether] are highly flammable. And when the aerosols combine it is very EXPLOSIVE!.
Backside to using Hair Spray as the propellant - The backside to using Hairspray as the propellant it that after shooting the potato gun alot the nonburnable sticky gunk in the hair spay will stick to the sides of the wall and make the igniter spark stop working.
More Propellants - there are also other types of propellants to like:
WD-40 (Which costs more)
Hydrogen (All of which was just listed is more expensive than Hairspray but more explosive)
Ignition - So when you ignite it after spraying it in the back end of the potato cannon it will explode inside of the firing chamber and force the potato out at extraordinary speeds.
Cannon Rifling Rifling is little grooves on a cannon tube or a gun barrel, that allow the projectile to spin as it fires out, making the projectile go faster.
Rifling was introduced in 1520 ~Invented by August Kotter
Not common until nineteenth century
Modern rifles are broached
~Broach-a toothed tool to remove material
~Introduced in early 1850s
~Originally made to cut keys
5 types of broaches
~Slab..........................Flat surfaces ~Slot...........................Various dimensions at high rates ~Contour....................concave, convex, and irregular shaped surfaces
~Pot...........................cuts the outside diameter of cylindrical piece ~Straddle..................cut parallel surfaces on opposite sides
Types of Cannons There were many types of cannons during the civil war...
---Rifling, or grooves, in the tube which make the projectiles spin as they came out, allowing them to be more accurate. ---7.5 inch Widow Blakely
--- Smooth tubes that usually fire cannon balls ranging from 12 pounds to 32 pounds.
---introduced in 1861 shot at a 46 degree or higher to come down on top of the enemy
Shot - Solid projectile that relied on kinetic energy to destroy targets --Smoothbore cannon shot= a heavy, solid cannonball --Rifled cannon shot= a solid iron or lead conical shot Shell - Explosive projectile that blew up into fragments upon ignition --Smoothbore cannon shell= spherical shell with timed fuse --Rifled cannon shell= conical shell that used percussion fuses Case -Anti-personnel projectile that sprayed down iron balls when detonated --Smoothbore cannon case= spherical case that fragmented --Rifled cannon case= conical shell that showered iron or lead balls Canister - Deadliest type of projectile, shot heavy lead balls in shotgun blast --Smoothbore cannon canister= cylindrical canister that destroyed infantry
--Rifled cannon canister= double canister was the most deadly
Discovered in 1835
1912 first industrial development of PVC starts
1920's try to make PVC copolymers
1932 PVC copolymers are put out on shelfs
1936 to 1939 over 400 residences were installed with PVC
1950 through 1960 PVC pipe had a dramatic advance
1950's American and European companies use PVC pipe
Solvent Welding Solvent Welding - Solvent welding is the process of joining articles made of thermoplastic resins by applying a solvent capable of softening the surfaces to be joined, and pressing the softened surfaces together. Adhesion is attained by means of evaporation of the solvent, absorption of the solvent into adjacent material and /or polymerization of the solvent cement.
MLA Format Citations
Beelum, Jason. "Civil War Acadamy." Civil War, American Civil War, Reconstruction . Civil War Acadamy, 21 Oct. 2008. Web. 04 May 2011. http://www.civilwaracademy.com.
Hanna, John. "National Park Service." National Park Service . National Park Service, 7 Aug. 2009. Web. 16 Apr. 2011. www.nps.gov.
Newman, David. "David Newman's Page." David Newman's Page . University of Alaska-Fairbanks, 8 Mar. 2011. Web. 04 May 2011. http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu.
Sutter, Bryan. "Shotgun's Home of the American Civil War." Civilwarhome.com . Bryan Sutter, 15 June 2008. Web. 16 Apr. 2011. www.civilwarhome.com.
W, David. "How Do Cannons Work." How Do Cannons Work . Yahoo, 8 Sept. 2009. Web. 16 Apr. 2011. <http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080306133639AA1bmhF>.