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Status of potato in dr congo

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  • 1. STATUS OF POTATO VARIETY DEVELOPMENT AND SEED PRODUCTION IN DR CONGO
  • 2. Introduction
    • Production zones:
      • highlands in eastern part of country
        • Province Orientale
        • Nord kivu
        • Sud Kivu
        • Katanga
      • Western part of country
        • Bandundu
        • Bas-Congo
  • 3. Climatic conditions 17-19 1100-1500 April October 1700-1800 Orientale 18-19 1000-1600 Nov.-Febr. 1700-2000 Katanga 19-21 1200-1800 Sept.-Oct. March-Apr. 1700-2300 Sud Kivu 14-16 1300-1800 Oct.-Nov. Febr., Apr. 2000-2500 Nord Kivu T ˚ C Rainfall (mm) Seasons (planting) Altitudes (m) Provinces
  • 4. Variety evaluation, selection and release process
    • I INTRODUCTORY PLOTS: In the research station; 1-5 tubers/clone/plot; no replication;
    • 1 season.
    • II SELECTION PLOTS : In the research station; 5-10 tubers/clone/plot; 2-3 replications;
    • local check is incorporated; 1 season.
    • III VARIETY TRIALS : in the station; 10-20 tubers/clone/plot; 3-4 replications; 2 seasons.
    • IV MULTILOCATIONAL : 4-6 locations through growing potato zones;
    • TRIALS 10-15 tubers/clone/plot; 3 replications; 2 seasons
    • V ON-FARM TRIALS : In the farmers’ fields; 10-20 tubers/clone /farmer; 4-6 farmers by
    • localities; each farmer is considered as a replication/location;
    • 2 seasons.
    • VI RELEASE
  • 5. Release requirements
    • High yield
    • Resistance/Tolerance to LB, BW, VIRUSES
    • Tuber characteristics:
      • Skin color: pink, red, white
      • Shape : oblong, ovate, round, elliptic
      • dormancy:short(2 months), medium(3 months)
    • Maturity: early(3 months), medium(3 ½ months)
    • Culinary qualities:consistency,mealy
  • 6. Data collection
    • In the steps I and II of evaluation, i.e. introductory plots and selection plots, especially for tuber families, attention is paid to :
      • plant height(score:1-5), 1=low; 5=high
      • Blooming(score:0-5), 0=absent;5=abundant
      • Vigor(score:1-9), 1=very weak; 9= very vigorous
      • Maturity(1-7), 1=late; 7=very early
      • Tuber characteristics: shape, skin color, eye deph
  • 7. Data collection (cont’d)
    • In the steps III, IV and V, the following data are collected:
      • Vigor(1-9)
      • Maturity(1-7)
      • Late blight(0-100):0=0%of leaves attacked; 100=100% of leaves destroyed
      • Yield and its components
  • 8. Variety characteristics considered by farmers and consumers for adoption
    • Farmers:
      • High yield
      • Resistance/tolerance to diseases(LB,BW)
      • Earliness
      • Short dormancy
      • Good taste
    • Consumers:
      • Size and shape
      • Skin color
      • Culinary qualities
  • 9. Seed production schemes
    • There is no formal potato seed system in DR Congo yet.
    • Nevertheless, INERA is the only national institution involved in pre-basic and basic seed production.
    • There are some development projects,NGO’s and progressive farmers who are involved in potato seed production.
  • 10. Seed production (cont’d)
    • As there is no an elaborate seed certification program, INERA uses rigorously simples techniques of positive and negative selection to keep seed stocks in a healthy and highly productive state year after year.
    • Seed growers apply the same techniques in their seed potato production plots.
  • 11. Available facilities and staff in the potato program
    • Facilities:
      • 1 computer
      • 1 vehicle
      • 2 diffused light stores
      • 2 motorcycles
    • Staff:
      • 1 M.Sc. (Agronomist/Breeder)
      • 2 Ing.Agr.(A 0 ,Post harvest/Food scientist)
      • 2 B.Sc.(A 1 )
      • 2 Technicians(Diploma)
  • 12. Potato varieties, their characteristics Good Good Good Fair Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Storability Tolerant Tolerant 90-105 Shallow to medium White Marita Susceptible Tolerant 90-105 Medium White 386022.2 Murhula Susceptible Susceptible tolerant > 120 Medium White 800954 Seseni Tolerant Moderate 90-105 Medium Red 381381.20 Kinja Susceptible Tolerant Tolerant 110-130 Shallow Yellow/pur Ple eyes 720118 Cruza 148 Tolerant Tolerant 100 Shallow White 382171.4 Nsimire Resistant Susceptible Tolerant to resistant 120-130 Medium Red 720097 Gahinga Tolerant Tolerant Resistant 120-130 Shallow to Medium Red-White R-8212-6 Mabondo Susceptible Tolerant 90-105 Medium Pink 380606.6 Enfula Susceptible Susceptible Moderate 100-115 Medium Pink 800949 Sangema Susceptible(PLRV) Susceptible Moderate 90-105 Shallow to Medium Red 720049 Montsama Resistance-Virus BW resistance LB resistance Vegetative cycle(days) Eye deph Skin color Clone Nber Variety
  • 13. Methods used for variety maintenance
    • Germoplasme multiplication in the field year after year.
    • Protection against pests by spraying.
    • Application of positive selection.
  • 14. Sources of seed planted by seed multipliers
    • Research stations.
    • Own stocks
    • NGOs
    • Other producers
  • 15. Seed storage Diffused light store at Mulungu Center
  • 16. Seed storage (cont’d) Farmer’s diffused light store
  • 17. Methods used to break seed dormancy Pit in which seed potatoes are buried to break dormancy
  • 18. Bottlenecks in seed production and dissemination
    • Political turmoil
    • Lack of tissue culture lab and screenhouse.
    • Lack of seed potato formal system

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