Status of potato in dr congo

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Status of potato in dr congo

  1. 1. STATUS OF POTATO VARIETY DEVELOPMENT AND SEED PRODUCTION IN DR CONGO
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Production zones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>highlands in eastern part of country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Province Orientale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nord kivu </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sud Kivu </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Katanga </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western part of country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bandundu </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bas-Congo </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Climatic conditions 17-19 1100-1500 April October 1700-1800 Orientale 18-19 1000-1600 Nov.-Febr. 1700-2000 Katanga 19-21 1200-1800 Sept.-Oct. March-Apr. 1700-2300 Sud Kivu 14-16 1300-1800 Oct.-Nov. Febr., Apr. 2000-2500 Nord Kivu T ˚ C Rainfall (mm) Seasons (planting) Altitudes (m) Provinces
  4. 4. Variety evaluation, selection and release process <ul><li>I INTRODUCTORY PLOTS: In the research station; 1-5 tubers/clone/plot; no replication; </li></ul><ul><li>1 season. </li></ul><ul><li>II SELECTION PLOTS : In the research station; 5-10 tubers/clone/plot; 2-3 replications; </li></ul><ul><li>local check is incorporated; 1 season. </li></ul><ul><li>III VARIETY TRIALS : in the station; 10-20 tubers/clone/plot; 3-4 replications; 2 seasons. </li></ul><ul><li>IV MULTILOCATIONAL : 4-6 locations through growing potato zones; </li></ul><ul><li>TRIALS 10-15 tubers/clone/plot; 3 replications; 2 seasons </li></ul><ul><li>V ON-FARM TRIALS : In the farmers’ fields; 10-20 tubers/clone /farmer; 4-6 farmers by </li></ul><ul><li>localities; each farmer is considered as a replication/location; </li></ul><ul><li>2 seasons. </li></ul><ul><li>VI RELEASE </li></ul>
  5. 5. Release requirements <ul><li>High yield </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance/Tolerance to LB, BW, VIRUSES </li></ul><ul><li>Tuber characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin color: pink, red, white </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape : oblong, ovate, round, elliptic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dormancy:short(2 months), medium(3 months) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maturity: early(3 months), medium(3 ½ months) </li></ul><ul><li>Culinary qualities:consistency,mealy </li></ul>
  6. 6. Data collection <ul><li>In the steps I and II of evaluation, i.e. introductory plots and selection plots, especially for tuber families, attention is paid to : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plant height(score:1-5), 1=low; 5=high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blooming(score:0-5), 0=absent;5=abundant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vigor(score:1-9), 1=very weak; 9= very vigorous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maturity(1-7), 1=late; 7=very early </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuber characteristics: shape, skin color, eye deph </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Data collection (cont’d) <ul><li>In the steps III, IV and V, the following data are collected: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vigor(1-9) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maturity(1-7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late blight(0-100):0=0%of leaves attacked; 100=100% of leaves destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yield and its components </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Variety characteristics considered by farmers and consumers for adoption <ul><li>Farmers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High yield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance/tolerance to diseases(LB,BW) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short dormancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good taste </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culinary qualities </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Seed production schemes <ul><li>There is no formal potato seed system in DR Congo yet. </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, INERA is the only national institution involved in pre-basic and basic seed production. </li></ul><ul><li>There are some development projects,NGO’s and progressive farmers who are involved in potato seed production. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Seed production (cont’d) <ul><li>As there is no an elaborate seed certification program, INERA uses rigorously simples techniques of positive and negative selection to keep seed stocks in a healthy and highly productive state year after year. </li></ul><ul><li>Seed growers apply the same techniques in their seed potato production plots. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Available facilities and staff in the potato program <ul><li>Facilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 vehicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 diffused light stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 motorcycles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Staff: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 M.Sc. (Agronomist/Breeder) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Ing.Agr.(A 0 ,Post harvest/Food scientist) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 B.Sc.(A 1 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Technicians(Diploma) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Potato varieties, their characteristics Good Good Good Fair Good Good Good Good Good Good Good Storability Tolerant Tolerant 90-105 Shallow to medium White Marita Susceptible Tolerant 90-105 Medium White 386022.2 Murhula Susceptible Susceptible tolerant > 120 Medium White 800954 Seseni Tolerant Moderate 90-105 Medium Red 381381.20 Kinja Susceptible Tolerant Tolerant 110-130 Shallow Yellow/pur Ple eyes 720118 Cruza 148 Tolerant Tolerant 100 Shallow White 382171.4 Nsimire Resistant Susceptible Tolerant to resistant 120-130 Medium Red 720097 Gahinga Tolerant Tolerant Resistant 120-130 Shallow to Medium Red-White R-8212-6 Mabondo Susceptible Tolerant 90-105 Medium Pink 380606.6 Enfula Susceptible Susceptible Moderate 100-115 Medium Pink 800949 Sangema Susceptible(PLRV) Susceptible Moderate 90-105 Shallow to Medium Red 720049 Montsama Resistance-Virus BW resistance LB resistance Vegetative cycle(days) Eye deph Skin color Clone Nber Variety
  13. 13. Methods used for variety maintenance <ul><li>Germoplasme multiplication in the field year after year. </li></ul><ul><li>Protection against pests by spraying. </li></ul><ul><li>Application of positive selection. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sources of seed planted by seed multipliers <ul><li>Research stations. </li></ul><ul><li>Own stocks </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Other producers </li></ul>
  15. 15. Seed storage Diffused light store at Mulungu Center
  16. 16. Seed storage (cont’d) Farmer’s diffused light store
  17. 17. Methods used to break seed dormancy Pit in which seed potatoes are buried to break dormancy
  18. 18. Bottlenecks in seed production and dissemination <ul><li>Political turmoil </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of tissue culture lab and screenhouse. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of seed potato formal system </li></ul>

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