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Chemical Descriptions ALDICARB Molecular Formula: C7H14N2O2SIUPAC Name: 2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde-0- (methylcarbamoyl)-oxime
Aldicarb_Physical Characteristics ALDICARB Class: N-Methyl Carbamate Appearance: white crystalline solid (in pure form) Odour: Slight sulfur smell Melting point: 100°C Solubility: water soluble , relatively soluble in most of the organic solvents
Aldicarb_DescriptionExtremely toxic systemic carbamateinsecticide, acaricide, nematicideOne of the most acutely toxic registered pecticides(EPA)Class Ia ”extremely harzadous pecticides” (WHO)“Restricted Use Pesticide" (in US)
Aldicarb ALDICARBsystemic pesticide (readily taken up by the roots and transferred around the plants acts as a contact stomach poison Used in control chewing and sucking insects(especially aphids, whitefly, leaf miners, and soil- dwelling insects), spider mites and nematode worms in agricultural and horticultural setting
Aldicarb_Mode of Action ALDICARB •It is a cholinesterase inhibitor1 • Reversibly inhibit the action of acetylcholinesterase2 • Prevents both the breakdown of Acetylcholine3 • Prevent the production of the enzyme cholinesterase in cells4 throughout the body • Results in an excess of acetylcholine and produces the5 symptoms of neurotoxicity
Aldicarb_Uses and Usage ALDICARBis currently registered for use on citrus, cotton, drybeans, peanuts, pecans, potatoes, soybeans, sugarbeets, sugarcane, sweet potatoes, onions, hops,coffee, bananas, strawberriesHighest usages of Aldicarb are on cotton (64%)
Aldicarb_Acute Toxicity ALDICARB MUSCARINIC Salivation, sweating, Nausea and vomiting, Abdominal cramps, Diarrhoea Miosis Difficulty breathing Tightness in chest
Aldicarb_Acute Toxicity The acute toxicity of Aldicarb is probably the highest of any commonly used pesticide in UK and US. (The National Academy of Science) Aldicarb is registered as: Toxic in contact with the skin, by inhalation and if swallowed”. (UK) There are almost 2000 people became ill after consumes watermelons that were contaminated with Aldicarb and following the poisoning episode there are 6 deaths and 2 stillbirths were reported in July 1985.
Aldicarb_Chronic Toxicity ALDICARBThe evidence of chronic effect of Aldicarb exposure isvery little which rat and dogs which fed with low dosesof Aldicarb for 2 years showed no significant side effects.Another 2 studies on Aldicarb-exposed chicks : changesin the chick’s gait and indicate it may have long termdelayed behavioural effects.In 1986, epidemiologists in the US found thatconsumption of low levels of Aldicarb contaminated wellwater was associated with one immune systemabnormality.
Aldicarb_Toxicology effect Teratogenic, Mutagenic and Carcinogenic Effects No teratogenic, mutagenic, or reproductive effects have been associated with the chemicals use in both animals and humans. [EPA and EXTOXNET] The exposure to Aldicarb has not been associated with the increase in cancer incidence. [National Toxicology Program] Aldicarb has possibility of carcinogenic due to the potential of in vivo transformation to the nitroso derivative. [Richer et al] “Although no one study is unacceptable, the collective data from the several studies provide sufficient evidence on the lack of an oncogenic effect.” California’s Department of Pesticide Regulation
Aldicarb_Toxicology effectReproductive effects ALDICARB Aldicarb can caused reproductive problem in laboratory rats Foetuses are more sensitive to Aldicarb’s effect The dose as low as 0.001 to 0.1 mg/kg caused the depression of AChE in fetal brains and livers In July 1985, stillbirths were reported by two women who had suffered acute symptoms after consumes Adicarb-contaminated watermelon Increasing in the cases of miscarriages associated with high Aldicarb contamination levels in drinking water wells
Aldicarb_Treatment ALDICARBBased on the guideline of WHO, all cases of Aldicarbpoisoning should be dealt as an emergency cases andshould be hospitalized as soon as possible. OBJECTIVES Minimizing the General Giving specific absorption of supportive pharmacological Aldicarb treatment treatment
Objectives ALDICARB 1. Minimizing the absorption of Aldicarb • administered ipecacuanha syrup to the conscious patient • induced vomiting in ingested cases 2. General supportive treatment • If encounter first sign of respiratory failure • Give artificial respiration via a tracheal tube • should be maintained for as long as necessary
Objectives . Giving specific pharmacological treatment • Atropine sufate should be given intravenously at 2-4mg every 10-12 minutes until the patient fully atropinized. • Maintain the atropinization condition for 12 hours in intramuscular route at lower dose • Normally recovery is within 6hours. • In some cases, physician also recommended the combination therapy of diazepam with atropine
ALDICARBAldicarb_PrognosisThe chances of complete recovery are very highif survived from the acute effects.
ALDICARB References Toxipedia. August 16, 2010. Cited on 2012,1. Dan Becker. Aldicarb. February 9th. Available from: http://toxipedia.org/display/toxipedia/Aldicarb2. Environmental Protection Agency United States. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Document for Aldicarb. Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (7508P). September, 2007. Cited on 2012, February 9 th. Available from: http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/insect-mite/abamectin- bufencarb/aldicarb/aldicarb_rer_0907.pdf3. Aldicarb. Pesticides News No. 45, September 1999, pages 18-19. Cited on 2012 February 9 th. Available from: http://www.pan- uk.org/pestnews/Actives/aldicarb.htm4. John F. Risher et al. The Toxicologic Effects of the Carbamate Insecticide Aldicarb in Mammals: A Review. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 72, pp. 267-281, 1987. Cited on 2012 February 9 th. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1474664/pdf/envhper00 431-0250.pdf
References ALDICARB5. Extension Toxicology Network (EXTOXNET). Aldicarb. Cooperative Extension offices of Cornell University, Michigan State University, Oregon State University, and University of California, Davis. 1993 September. Cited on 2012 February 9 th. Available from: http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/24d- captan/aldicarb-ext.html6. Caroline Cox. Aldicarb. Journal of Pesticide Reform. 1992. Vol 12. No.2. Cited on 2012 February 6 th. Available from: http://www.pesticide.org/get-the-facts/pesticide- factsheets/factsheets/aldicarb7. World Health Organization. Data Sheet on Pesticides No.53 Aldicarb. Food And Agriculture Organization. IPCS Inchem Home. Vbc/Ds/83.53. Cited on 2012 February 9 th. Available from: http://www.inchem.org/documents/pds/pds/pest53_e.htm8. World Health Organization. Health and Safety Guide. Aldicarb. Geneva: United Nation Environmental Programme, the International Labour Organization, and the World Health Organization. Health and Safety Guide No. 64.Cited on 2012 February 10th. Available from: http://www.inchem.org/documents/hsg/hsg/hsg064.htm