1. Conditional Tic Tac ToeIf I were you, She would have finished theexamUnless he finishes soon,If they had known He takes his umbrella, if You wouldn´t have been late ifHe wishes If you hadn´t been so rude, He would give you some helpifHow to Teach ConditionalsBy Kenneth Beare, About.com GuideSee More About:teaching techniquesconditional sentenceshow to teach tensesAdsFree IELTS Practice Testwww.testden.comTake our 21 minute practice test and get yourresults right away.Máster Dif. Aprendizajeisep.es/Dificultades-AprendizajeNo Dudes Más, Apúntate al Master.¡Últimas Plazas!English Class in Torontowww.LSBF.ca/English-CoursesBuy 4 weeks – Study for 6 weeks.Improve your vocabulary & fluency!More English as 2nd Language AdsTeach EnglishTeach ESLFun Activities to TeachESL ClassesHow to Teach ReadingAdsEnglish worksheetswww.ESL-Library.com/WorksheetsExercises, Lesson Plans, FlashcardsReady To Print Materials, Join Now!Cupones para Imprimirwww.GROUPON.com.mx/DFImprime tus propios Cupones Hasta 70%de Descuento en México DFConditional forms should be introduced to students once they are familiar with the basic past,present and future tenses. While there are four conditional forms, it is best to start off with thefirst conditional focusing on real situations. To help students understand, I find it helpful to pointout parallels in future time clauses:Ill discuss the plan if he comes to the meeting.Well discuss the issue when he arrives tomorrow.
2. This will help students with the structure of using the if clause to begin the sentence, in parallelwith the same structure for future time clauses.If we finish work early, well go out for a beer.When we visit our parents, we like to go to Bobs Burgers.Once students have understood this basic structural similarity, its easy to continue on with thezero conditional, as well as the other conditional forms. It is also helpful to use other conditionalnames such as "real conditional" for the first conditional, "unreal conditional" for the secondconditional form, and "past unreal conditional" for the third conditional. I recommend introducingall three forms if students are comfortable with tenses as the similarities in structure will helpthem digest the information. Here are suggestions to teaching each conditional form in order.Zero ConditionalI recommend teaching this form after you have taught the first conditional. Remind the studentsthat the first conditional is similar in meaning to future time clauses. The main differencebetween the zero conditional and a future time clause with when is that the zero conditional isfor situations which dont happen on a regular basis. In other words, use future time clauses forroutines, but use the zero conditional for exceptional situations. Notice how the zero conditionalis used to underline that a situation does not regularly occur in the examples below.RoutinesWe discuss sales when we meet on Fridays.When she visits her father, she always brings a cake.Exceptional SituationsIf a problem occurs, we immediately send our repairman.She informs her director if she cant deal with the situation herself.First ConditionalThe focus in the first conditional is that it is used for realistic situations that will take place in thefuture. Make sure to point out that the first conditional is also called the "real" conditional. Hereare the steps to teaching the first conditional form:Introduce the construction of the first conditional: If + present simple, (then clause) futurewith "will"Point out that the two clauses can be switched: (then clause) future with "will" + if + presentsimpleNote that a comma should be used when beginning the first conditional with the "If" clause.To help students with the form, use a first conditional grammar chant to repeat theconstruction.Use a first conditional worksheet to ask students to practice the form.Create a first conditional chain by asking each student to repeat the result of what theprevious student has said in the "if" clause. For example:If he comes, we will have lunch.If we have lunch, well go to Riccardos pizzeria.
3. If we go to Riccardos pizzeria, well see Sarah.etc.Second ConditionalStress that the second conditional form is used to imagine a different reality. In other words, thesecond conditional is an "unreal" conditional.Introduce the construction of the second conditional: If + past simple, (then clause) would +base form of verbPoint out that the two clauses can be switched: (then clause) would + base form of verb + if+ past simpleNote that a comma should be used when beginning the second conditional with the "If"clause.One problem with the second conditional is the use of "were" for all subjects. CambridgeUniversity now also accepts "was". However, many academic institutions still expect "were".For example:If I were the teacher, Id do more grammar.If I was the teacher, Id do more grammar.I recommend using your best judgement based on your students objectives. In any case,point out the difference in common usage and academic expectations.To help students with the form, use a second conditional grammar chant to repeat theconstruction.Use a second conditional worksheet to ask students to practice the form.Create a second conditional chain by asking each student to repeat the result of what theprevious student has said in the "if" clause. For example:If I had $1,000,000, Id buy a new house.If I bought a new house, Id get a swimming pool, too.If I had a swimming pool, wed have lots of parties.etc.Discuss the differences in usage between the first and second conditional. You can also usethis ready to go conditionals lesson plan to further help students with the two forms.Practice the differences between the first and second conditional forms with a comparativeforms quiz.Third ConditionalThe third conditional can be challenging for students because of the long verb string in the resultclause. Practicing the form repeatedly with the grammar chant and conditional chain exerciseare especially useful for students when learning this complicated form. I suggest also teachingthe similar form of expressing wishes with "I wish I had done ..." when teaching the thirdconditional.Introduce the construction of the first conditional: If + past perfect, (then clause) would have+ past participle
4. Point out that the two clauses can be switched: (then clause) would have + past participle+ if+ past perfectNote that a comma should be used when beginning the third conditional with the "If" clause.To help students with the form, use a third conditional grammar chant to repeat theconstruction.Use a third conditional worksheet to ask students to practice the form.Create a third conditional chain by asking each student to repeat the result of what theprevious student has said in the "if" clause. For example:If I had bought that car, I would have had an accident.If I had had an accident, I would have gone to the hospital.If I had gone to the hospital, I would have had an operation.etc.The Internet TESL Journal
5. Grammar Teaching Plan: Real ConditionalSentencesBackgroundSetting: a university ESL/EFL classStudents: university level students (Age 20 to 30) -- flexibleLevel: high beginning or low intermediateClass size: 40 studentsTime: 50 minutesDetailed Lesson Plan1. Warming upHave you traveled a lot in the United States?Have you ever visited a travel agency in America to get information on popularplaces?If you have enough money and time, which famous places would you like to visit first?How would you like to celebrate your wedding anniversary?2. Pre-teaching of Vocabulary (OHP)weddinganniversarysurprisecruisehoneymoonhula dancerelive3. Watching the Video.Students will watch a skit with the following dialogue on the video.Setting: The Travel AgencyDownload and view the QuickTime movie.video.mov (1.2Mb)The QuickTime Player is available for free.http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/A: Good afternoon.B: Good afternoon. May I help you?A: Its my wedding anniversary next month. I want to surprise my husband with a wonderful vacationplan. Would yourecommend some famous places?B: Of course. Em, if you go to Europe, youll have a wonderful time for your wedding anniversary. If you
6. go to London, you can go to Buckingham Palace and you might even see the Queens guards there. Ifyou go to France, you can go to the sidewalk cafe and drink cafe au lait or French wine with yourhusband. And...A: Well, its outside the U. S.B: Oh. You want to stay in the U. S. If you go to California, you might go to Yosemite National Park orDisneyland.A: Yosemite National Park? What will I see if I go to Yosemite Park?B: If you go to Yosemite Park, youll see giant trees, mountains, bears ....A: But, I dont like bears.B: If you go to Disneyland, you wont see any bears. Youll see Mickey Mouse. Isnt that interesting? Well,if you have children...A: Well, its interesting, but.... B: O.K. What do you like to do in your free time?A: Well, I like skiing.B: If you like skiing, you can go to Colorado.A: But my husband doesnt like skiing.B: If your husband doesnt like skiing, probably he wont like to go there. What does he like?A: He likes fishing.B: Oh, you can still enjoy fishing at many beautiful lakes if you go to Colorado.A: But I dont like fishing. And if it rains, we cant go fishing.B: Then, how about Hawaii? Hawaii is really great. If you go to Hawaii, you can go to Waikiki Beach, youcan take a romantic cruise for two, you can see beautiful sunset at the beach, you can see palm trees,beautiful flowers, and pretty girls wearing leis.A: Its gorgeous. But we went there on our honeymoon just after we got married.B: Well, this is your wedding anniversary. You can relive your romantic honeymoon if you go there again.A: Oh, that sounds good. I just love hula dances, and we can go surfing. Well go to Hawaii.4. Comprehension Check-up1. What kind of trip will it be?2. If you go to London, what place can you go to?3. If you go to California, what famous places might you go to?4. If you go to Disneyland, what will you see?5. What can you enjoy if you go to Colorado?6. If you go to Hawaii, which place can you go to?7. What can you see, if you go to Hawaii?8. Which place did the woman decide to go to for her wedding anniversary?5. Repeating the Model SentencesIf you go to Europe, youll have a wonderful time.If you go to London, you might see the Queens guards.If you go to France, you can drink coffee at a sidewalk cafe.
7. 6. Generalization: The Conditional If-clause(OHP) If I go to Europe, Ill have a wonderful time.Questions and Explanations:1. How many clauses are there?2. Which is the main clause?3. Which is the subordinate clause?4. Which is the subordinator?5. The subordinate clause gives some details to the main clause. The detailedinformation is usually time or condition in the adverbial clause. In this sentence,does this subordinate clause tell us time or condition? (Condition). Then whichword introduces a condition? (If) "If" introduces a condition that may or may or maynot happen in the future. It is called an if-conditional clause. This condition is real ina sense that the condition can actually happen.6. What does the main clause do? (It tells us the result if the condition happens. It iscalled a result clause.)7. Now, tense. Which is the verb in the subordinate clause?8. Which tense is the verb? (It takes simple present tense.)9. Which is the verb in the main clause?10. Which tense is the verb? (It takes future tense.)11. What does the comma after the if-clause do? (Pause)Substitution drillDirections:Repeat: If I go to Europe, Ill have a wonderful time.Visit London, If I go to Europe, Ill visit London.See Buckingham Palace, If I go to Europe, Ill see Buckingham Palace.If I go to Europe, Ill have a wonderful time.see Buckingham Palacestay at a hoteleat at a nice cafe.spend a lot of money.take many pictures.7. Generalization: Reversal of Two Clauses(OHP) If I go to Europe, Ill have a wonderful time.1. Which clause comes first in this sentence?2. Can I switch these clauses?(OHP) Youll have wonderful time if you go to Europe.
8. 1. Is there any difference in meaning? ( No.)2. Whats different about punctuation? What happened to the comma?3. When the main clause comes first, there is no need to put a comma.Transformation drillDirections:Ill say: "If I go to Europe, Ill have a wonderful time."Youll say: "Ill have a wonderful time if I go to Europe."T: If I go to Europe, Ill have a wonderful time.visit London.go to France.stay at a hotel.eat at a nice cafe.spend a lot of money.8. Generalization: Might(OHP) If I go to California, I will go to Yosemite Park.If I go to California, I might go to Yosemite Park.Questions and Explanations:1. Whats different between these sentences? Compare the auxiliaries.2. One tells that something is definite or decided. The other tells that something is notdefinite or not decided, but that its possible. Which indicates "definite or alreadydecided"? Which indicates "not decided yet, but possible"?Transformation Drill (will ---- might)Directions:Ill use "will", and youll change it into "might." e.g.Ill say: If I go to California, Ill go to the Yosemite Park.Youll say: If I go to California, I might go to the Yosemite Park.If I go to California, I will/might go to the Yosemite National Park.go to Disneyland.go to L. A.visit my friend.stay at my friends.need warm clothes.9. Generalization: CanIf you go to California, you might go to Disneyland.If you go to Hawaii, you can go to Waikiki Beach.
9. 1. Whats different here about auxiliary?2. How do they differ in meaning?("Can" implies possibility. "Might" also implies "possibility" "Its possible for you to go to W.Beach." Besides, "might" also offers a suggestion to someone. "I suggest you to go toWaikiki Beach.")Substitution DrillDirections:Repeat: If you go to Hawaii, you can go to Waikiki Beach.Go to Waikiki Beach, If you go to Hawaii, you can go to W. Beach.Take a romantic cruise, If you go to Hawaii, you can take a....If you go to Hawaii, you can go to Waikiki Beach.take a romantic cruise.enjoy surfing.see palm trees.see beautiful sunsets.see hula dances.relive your honeymoon.10. Generalization: NegationA. Affirmative Condition + Negative ResultIf it rains, we can wear our raincoats.If it rains, we cant go fishing.1. Whats different about the verb? (One is negated )2. Which clause has the negative verb? (main clause)3. What does "cant" mean? (contraction of "can not" ) Repeat: cant4. An affirmative condition can cause a negative result.B. Negative Condition + Affirmative ResultIf it doesnt rain, well go fishing.1. Which clause is negated? (main clause)2. Which is the main verb in the first clause? (rain)3. How do you make the verb, rain negative? (Use "doesnt" or "does not." )4. A negative condition can cause an affirmative result.C. Negative Condition + Negative ResultIf he doesnt like skiing, he wont go to Colorado.1. Which clause is negated? (Both clauses)2. A negative condition can cause a negative result.3. Repeat: wont: - o-
10. Therefore, negation can be expressed in three ways.(+) condition, (-) result(-) condition, (+) result(-) condition, (-) resultSubstitution DrillDirections:Repeat: If it rains, we cant go fishing.Go fishing: If it rains, we cant go fishing.Go hiking: If it rains, we cant go hiking.If it rains, we cant go fishing.go hiking.go swimming.go jogginggo on a picnic.work in the garden.Substitution DrillDirections:Repeat: If it doesnt rain, well go fishing.Go fishing: If it doesnt rain, well go fishing.If it doesnt rain, well go fishing.go hiking.go on a picnic.go jogging.take a cruise on the sea.look around the city.Substitution DrillDirections:Repeat: If he doesnt like spicy food, he wont cook chili.Cook chili: If he doesnt like spicy food, he wont cook chili.If he doesnt like spicy food, he wont cook chili.cook spaghetti.buy hot peppers.go to a Korean restaurant.go to a Thai restaurant.go to an Indian restaurant...
11. Sentence Completion DrillDirections:Think about the situations that might happen. Ill give you if-clauses.Youll complete my sentences adding result clauses. Answertruthfully.For example:Ill say: If it rains,...Youll say: If it rains, I will stay home.Ill say: If it doesnt rain,Youll say: If it doesnt rain, I can see birds.(Drills between the teacher and individual students):1. If it rains,2. If it doesnt rain,3. If I go to Chicago,4. If I have time,5. If my friends visit me,6. If I go to a Special English Party,7. If my wedding anniversary comes,8. If I go to Washington D.C.,Sentence Completion DrillDirections: Now Ill give you result clauses. Youll complete them adding if-clauses.For example:If I say: Ill go to my country,...You say: Ill go to my country if my sister gets married.Ill say: I might go to Europe...Youll say: I might go to Europe, If I have enough money.(Drills between Teacher and individual students):1. I will go to my country...2. I might go to Europe...3. I can see hula dances...4. I can drink nice coffee...5. You can eat delicious Chinese food6. You might need a lot of money...7. You can see the 1992 Olympic Games...8. Ill make delicious food9. Youll have a wonderful time..
12. Culminating Activity (Drills between students)Ask your partner these questions.What will I see if I go to your country?What might I need if I go to your country?What can I do if I go to your country?Answer your partner using conditional if-clauses. For example,If you go to my country, youll see kangaroos.If you go to Japan, you can visit Tokyo.1. Switch your roles and ask your partner the same questions.2. Take notes while you are listening. Youll need the notes to do your homework.11. Distribution of Homework12. Distribution of Summary HandoutsHomeworkI. The following sentences talk about the future. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in theparentheses.Example: If it rains, I _________ (stay) home.1. If you ________ (go) to Europe, you _______ (have) fun.2. He __________ (see) the Queens guards if he ________ (go) to BuckinghamPalace.3. We __________ (not go) on a picnic if it rains.4. If she _____ (not like) spicy food, she ________ (not cook) chili.II. Change the following sentences to negative conditions and results.Example: If Susan likes skiing, shell go to Colorado.________________________________________________1. If I go to Hawaii, Ill take a cruise on the sea.________________________________________________2. If John visits England, hell visit London.________________________________________________
13. 3. If its sunny, Ill wear my sunglasses.________________________________________________4. If Jack likes dancing, hell go to the dance party this evening.________________________________________________III. Complete the following sentences with an appropriate result or if-clause.Examples:If my friends come to my house, ____________________.I can go shopping to Market Place ____________________.1. If I have time, ____________________.2. I might miss my classmates and my teachers ____________________.3. Ill go to my country ____________________.4. Ill make delicious food ____________________.IV. Write a paragraph describing what you can do, what you will see andwhat you might need if you visit your partners country. Give your paragraph a title.Use if-clauses and result clauses in your paragraph. Example:If I go to Korea, I can eat delicious Kimbap and try spicy Kimchi. I will see many ricefield and mountains if I go to Korea. I might need a lot of money if I go to Korea.Partners name: _________________Partners country: _______________Title: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
14. CLASS OBSERVATIONTeacher´s name___Monica Tinajero_________________________________Professional profile____English__________________________________________Level_________4______ Schedule__Tuesday and Friday________Methodology used______________________________________OBSERVATION ASPECTSExcellentVeryGood Good Regular DeficientLesson planning XWarm up XIntroduction of the topic XTeaching materialUse of bookTeaching Grammar techniques XTeacher´s talking time xClassroom management XWork in teamsLanguage usage xGroup rapport xCorrection strategies xFeedback techniques xClass closure
15. COMMENTS________Most of the students were working with the teacher. Reported Speechcommands and requests. The teacher personalize the sentences The studentspractices in pairs pretending to be doctors andpatientes.________________________________________________________________________________________Manejo dee grupo no le preguntó a todos algunos alumnus noparticiparon y estan con elcelular______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________OBSERVER’S NAME:______________________________________OBSERVED___________________________________SIGNATURE______________________________________SIGNATURE___________________________________DATE: ___________________________________