Metaphor-based psychoanalysis

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Introduction to metaphor-based psychoanalytic theory

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  • It is convenient to differentiate three approaches to metaphor. These are the linguists’ notion of linguistic metaphor, the cognitive scientists’ notion of conceptual metaphor, and the psychoanalytic notion of temporal metaphor.
  • Example: Father
  • Metaphor-based psychoanalysis

    1. 1. The increasing importance of metaphor within the cognitive sciences<br />Estimated number of publications in the last three decades 40’000<br />
    2. 2. The increasing importance of metaphor within the cognitive sciences<br />Estimated number of publications in the last three decades 40’000<br />Cognitive science fields involved in research, publications, and conferences<br />Linguistics<br />Philosophy<br />Computer sciences<br />Psychology<br />Psychoanalysis<br />
    3. 3. The increasing importance of metaphor within the cognitive sciences<br />Number of publications<br />Cognitive science fields involved in metaphor research, publications, and conferences<br />Linguistics<br />Philosophy increasingly<br />Computer sciences conclude<br />Psychology<br />Psychoanalysis<br />The Brain functions metaphorically<br />
    4. 4. The increasing importance of metaphor within the cognitive sciences<br />Number of publications<br />Cognitive science fields involved in metaphor research, publications, and conferences<br />Linguistics<br />Philosophy increasingly<br />Computer sciences conclude<br />Psychology<br />Psychoanalysis<br />Reasons for increasing importance:<br />The Brain functions metaphorically<br />
    5. 5. The increasing importance of metaphor within the cognitive sciences<br />Number of publications<br />Cognitive science fields involved in metaphor research, publications, and conferences<br />Linguistics<br />Philosophy increasingly<br />Computer sciences conclude<br />Psychology<br />Psychoanalysis<br />Reasons for increasing importance:<br />Increasing interdisciplinary work regarding the understanding of the mind<br />Driven by computer sciences’ attempts to emulate the functioning of the mind : knowledge harvesting rather than data collecting<br />The Brain functions metaphorically<br />
    6. 6. Main task addressed in this presentation<br />Assuming that <br />Psychoanalysis is central to understanding the mind’s functioning<br /> The mind works metaphorically<br />
    7. 7. TASK<br />How do we revise psychoanalytic theory from a metaphoric point of view without sacrificing its essential achievements ?<br />
    8. 8. PSYCHODYNAMICS<br />current<br />central concepts<br />Transference<br />Defense<br />Interpretation<br />Suggested <br />central concepts<br />Time<br />Metaphor<br />Transference<br />Defense<br />Interpretation<br />organizing<br />
    9. 9. In view of the importance of TIME<br />1) Recast from a temporal point of view<br />Metaphor toa<br />present/past past/present <br />
    10. 10. In view of the importance of TIME<br />1) Recast from a temporal point of view<br />Metaphor toTemporal Metaphor<br />Interpretation<br />Transference<br />
    11. 11. In view of the importance of TIME<br />1) Recast from a temporal point of view<br />Metaphor toTemporal Metaphor<br />2) Recast from a Temporal Metaphor point of view<br />Interpretation<br />Transference<br />
    12. 12. In view of the importance of TIME<br />1) Recast from a temporal point of view<br />Metaphor toTemporal Metaphor<br />2) Recast from a Temporal Metaphor point of view<br />Interpretationinto<br />Transference into<br />Defenseinto<br />Interpretation<br />Transference<br />
    13. 13. In view of the importance of TIME<br />1) Recast from a temporal point of view<br />Metaphor toTemporal Metaphor<br />2) Recast from a Temporal Metaphor point of view<br />Interpretation into Temporal Metaphor = present/past<br />Transference intoTemporal Metaphor =past/present<br />Defense into Temporal Metaphor =<br />Interpretation<br />Transference<br />
    14. 14. In view of the importance of TIME<br />1) Recast from a temporal point of view<br />Metaphor toTemporal Metaphor<br />2) Recast from a Temporal Metaphor point of view<br />Interpretation into Temporal Metaphor = present/past<br />Transference intoTemporal Metaphor =past/present<br />Defense into Temporal Metaphor =<br />Interpretation<br />Transference<br />
    15. 15. Explanation of terms used in this presentation<br />Terms Used<br />‘The present’<br />‘The past’<br />to express<br />Present mentation or experience<br />Past mentationorexperience<br />
    16. 16. Explanation of terms used in this presentation <br />Terms<br />Referring to <br />= “Defense Complex”<br />Defending<br />partof defense<br />Defended against<br /> part of defense<br />
    17. 17. Explanation of terms used in this presentation <br />Terms<br />Referring to <br />= “Defense Complex”<br />Or shortened:<br />Defending<br /> part of defense<br />Defended against<br /> part of defense<br />
    18. 18. Explanation of terms used in this presentation <br />Terms<br />Referring to<br />= “Defense”<br />Defending<br /> part of defense<br />Defended against<br /> part of defense<br />
    19. 19. How the terms are used in this presentation <br /> term<br />‘Transference’<br />‘Interpretation’<br />Temporal Sense given here<br />Interpretation of the present by the past<br />Interpretation of the past by the present<br />
    20. 20. The definition of metaphor<br />Metaphor is an equation of two ordinarily<br />not equatable entities (source and target)<br />located in different domains<br />
    21. 21. The definition of metonymy<br />Metaphor is an equation of two ordinarily<br />not equated entities (source and target)<br />located in the samedomains<br />
    22. 22. The definition of metaphor<br />Metaphor is an equation of two ordinarily<br />not equatable entities (source and target)<br />located in different domains<br />“Juliet is the sun” (domains: humans+ celestial bodies)<br />
    23. 23. Metaphor = “ in terms of ”<br />Phrase indicating a metaphor :<br />“ in terms of ”<br />“Juliet is seen in terms of the sun”<br />“Life is seen in terms of a journey”<br />
    24. 24. The definition and examples of metonymy<br />Metonymy is an equation of two entities<br />located in the same domain<br />“The liver goes to operating room 3”<br />“All hands on board”<br />“He drank the bottle”<br />Phrases indicating a metonymy: <br />“stands for”, “belongs to”, “is part of” <br />
    25. 25. Phrases connecting source and target indicating metaphor or metonymy<br />METAPHOR<br />“in terms of”<br />“Juliet seen in terms of the sun”<br />“Life understood in terms of a journey”<br />Metonymy<br />“stands for”, <br />“belongs to”, <br />“is part of”<br />The liver belongs to patient going to operating room 3<br />All hands stands for sailors to go on board<br />He drank the bottle = wine as part of the bottle<br />
    26. 26. Linguistic, conceptual, and temporal concepts of metaphor<br />
    27. 27. Linguistic, conceptual, and temporal concepts of metaphor<br />Linguistics: Linguistic metaphor, <br />BASED ON LANGUAGE<br />Cognitive sciences: Conceptual metaphor, BASED ON THOUGHT<br />Psychoanalysis: Temporal metaphor, <br />BASED ON TIME<br />
    28. 28. Linguistic, conceptual, and temporal concepts of metaphor<br />Conceptual:<br />Metaphor is an equation of thought entities rather than language entities. <br />THOUGHT NOT LANGUAGE<br />Example:<br />“The New Testament relates metaphorically to the Old Testament: Christ’s death and resurrection relates metaphorically to the original sin and its forgiveness”<br />
    29. 29. Linguistic, conceptual, and temporal concepts of metaphor<br />Temporal:<br />Regardless of content and use the quality of the temporal relationship isintrinsicallymetaphorical in the optimal functioning Mind: The present is the same and not the same as the past. We understand them in terms of each othe<br /> TIMENOTTHOUGHT NOR LANGUAGE<br />Example:<br />Today is informed by yesterday: it is the same and not the same; one can be understood (in an underdetermined way) in terms of the other.<br />
    30. 30. Examples of linguistic, conceptual, and temporal concepts of metaphor<br />Linguistic:<br />LANGUAGE<br />Conceptual:<br />USE OF THOUGHT NOT LANGUAGE<br />Temporal:<br />TIME NOT LANGUAGE OR THOUGHT<br />Life is a journey<br />Christ’s death is metaphorically related to the original sin<br />Adulthood understood in terms of childhood<br />
    31. 31. Neurosis<br />Trauma leads to a loss of metaphoricity. As a consequence past and present relaterigidly (metonymically) to each other rather than informing each other.<br />Neurotic defense (the present) comes metonymically to stand for the defended against (the past). The past evokes a rigid defense, thus over-determining the present rather than just informing it<br />
    32. 32. Phrases connecting source and target indicating metaphor or metonymy<br />Metaphor = source/target interacting<br />Metonymy= source/target not interacting<br />Healthy Defense<br />Neurotic Defense<br />“stands for” <br />past and present<br />rigidly <br />standing for<br />each other <br />“in terms of”<br />past and present interact <br />in terms of<br />each other<br />
    33. 33. Are psychodynamic concepts relevant forthe treatment setting? general psychology?<br />treatment setting<br />Transference<br />Interpretation<br />Defense<br /> general psychology<br />Could these <br />psychodynamic phenomena<br /> belong to the mind’s <br /> normal<br /> functioning ?<br />
    34. 34. Are psychodynamic concepts relevant forthe treatment setting? general psychology?<br />Treatment setting<br />Transference <br />from analysand to analyst<br />as ongoing interpretation of the present by the past<br />general psychology<br />Transference<br />intrapsychic<br />as ongoing interpretation of the present by the past<br />
    35. 35. Are psychodynamic concepts relevant forthe treatment setting? general psychology?<br />treatment setting<br />Interpretation<br />by the analyst<br /> interpreting the past from and by the present<br />general psychology<br />Interpretation <br />intrapsychic<br /> interpreting the past from and by the present<br />
    36. 36. Psychodynamic concepts relevant inthe treatment setting in general psychology<br />Treatment setting<br />Defense:<br /> interpretation of intrapsychictransference<br />Defense <br />(as defending and defended against)<br />Interpretation of transference<br />general psychology<br />
    37. 37. Psychodynamic concepts relevant forthe treatment setting ? general psychology ?<br />treatment <br />Transference <br />Interpretation<br />Defense<br />general psychology<br />Intrapsychic<br /> Transference<br />Intrapsychic<br />Interpretation <br />Intrapsychic<br /> Defense<br />O n g o i n g d y n a m i c s <br />
    38. 38. Psychoanalytic Practice versus Theory<br />Practice<br />We understand the present transference in terms of the past<br />we understand the pastin terms of the present transference<br />Theory<br />This central part of psychoanalytic <br />practice<br />Is not sufficiently integrated by its <br />theory<br />
    39. 39. Moving from content to time<br />Language and Thought Content –centered domains<br />Metaphor is a an equation of two conventionally<br />not equatable entities (source and target)<br />located in different domains<br />Time-centered domains<br />In psychoanalysis the intrinsically different domains of metaphor are temporal ones: e.g., past and present<br />
    40. 40. Functions of linguistic and temporal metaphors<br />Influencing<br />Informing<br />Modeling and Searching<br />Interpreting<br />Actualizing<br />Changing<br />Familiarizing<br />Forming new category<br />Keeping at bay <br />(new category organization from old category organization)<br />
    41. 41. Psychoanalytic concepts viewed from a temporal point of view<br />Present to past<br />Defending part of defense<br />Interpreting<br />Insight (updating)<br />Curing<br />Repression<br />Remembering<br />Regressing<br />Past to present<br />Defended part of defense<br />Transference<br />Insight (actualizing)<br />Childhood neurosis<br />Return of the repressed<br />Memories<br />Fixation<br />
    42. 42. Aspects of all temporal metaphors suggesting their synonymity<br />Influencing<br />Informing<br />Modeling and Searching<br />Interpreting<br />Actualizing<br />Changing<br />Familiarizing<br />Forming new category<br />Keeping at bay <br />(new category organization from old category organization)<br />
    43. 43. Psychoanalytic terms viewed as potential synonyms regarding their temporal function<br />Potential synonyms (Present to past)<br />Defending part of defense<br />Interpreting<br />Insight (updating)<br />Curing<br />Repression<br />Remembering<br />Regressing<br />Potential synonyms<br />(past to present)<br />Defended part of defense<br />Transference<br />Insight (actualizing)<br />Childhood neurosis<br />Return of the repressed<br />Memories<br />Fixation<br />
    44. 44. Corresponding aspects between linguistic and temporal metaphors <br />Linguistic<br />Interpretingof one domain by another domain.( Life is a journey)<br />Transferringaspects of the source to the target <br />Maintaining tension, holding source at bay from the target while still relating to it<br />Temporal<br />Interpretingof one temporal domain by another temporal domain. <br />Transferring: aspects of the past (source) transferred to the present (target)<br />Maintaining tension, holding past as source at bay from the present as target while remembering the former<br />
    45. 45. Aspects of temporal metaphors as used by psychoanalytic terms<br />Temporal Metaphors<br />Psychoanalytic TERM<br />Interpretingof one temporal domain by another temporal domain. <br />Transferring: aspects of the past (source) transferred to the present (target)<br />Maintaining tension, holding past at bay from the present while remembering it<br />‘INTERPRETATION’.<br />Interpretationof past by present.<br />‘TRANSFERENCE’<br />Interpretation of present by past .<br />‘DEFENSE’ (as the defending part of defense)<br />The holding at bay of previous organizations of issues while remembering them.<br />
    46. 46. Synonymous functions of psychodynamic concepts regarding their functioning in time<br />Highlight synonymous functions of our psychodynamic concepts even though differing in temporal direction of influence<br />InterpretationTemporal Metaphor =present/past<br />Transference Temporal Metaphor = past/present<br />DefenseTemporal Metaphor = present/past + past/present<br />
    47. 47. Aspects of temporal metaphors<br />Therefore<br />Interpreting <br />Transferring<br />Defending<br />Are all functions of all temporal metaphors.<br />This establishes the basic synonymity between the psychodynamic concepts transference, interpretation, and defense<br />
    48. 48. Healthy and neurotic forms of temporal metaphors<br />HALTHY = METAPHOR<br />Neurotic = metonymy<br />Past and Present<br />INFORM <br />each other like source and target of a<br />metaphor<br />Past and present DETERMINE<br /> each other like source and target of a <br />metonymy<br />
    49. 49. Healthy and neurotic forms of temporal metaphors<br />Metaphor informs<br />Metonymy stands for = determines<br />INTERPRETATION<br /> informs past<br />TRANSFERENCE<br /> informs present<br />DEFENSE<br /> Defending and defended against inform each other<br />INTERPRETATION<br /> Does not inform past thus determines it as immutable<br />TRANSFERENCE<br /> Does not inform but determines present as repetition<br />DEFENSE<br /> Defending and defended against can not inform but determine each other by standing for each other<br />
    50. 50. Is psychoanalysis generalizable to become the basis for a psychodynamic psychology ?<br />Symptom – centered view<br />Transference<br />Defense<br />Interpretation<br />No generalization to dynamic psychology of the mind outside treatment setting<br />Psychoanalysis has little standing in academia<br />Temporal Metaphor-centered view<br />Transference<br />Defense<br />Interpretation<br />Generalization from treatment to general psychology becomes possible<br />Chance to improve academic standing<br />
    51. 51. Is psychoanalysis generalizable to become the basis for a psychodynamic psychology ?<br />symptom - centered<br />Psychodynamic terms centered on treatment setting<br />Transference and interpretation are phenomena, in the main, reserved for the treatment setting<br />Centered – on General psychological functioning <br />Psychodynamic terms centered on general psychological functioning<br />Transference and interpretation seen as part of general psychological functioning, including in the treatment setting<br />
    52. 52. Is psychoanalysis generalizable to become the basis for a psychodynamic psychology ?<br />Conventional view<br />Transference<br />Defense<br />Interpretation<br />Time implicitly and not centrally integrated in theory<br />Temporal Metaphor-centered view<br />Transference<br />Defense<br />Interpretation<br />Time explicitly and centrally integrated in theory<br />
    53. 53. Is psychoanalysis generalizable to become the basis for a psychodynamic psychology ?<br />Conventional view<br />Transference<br />Defense<br />Interpretation<br />Not primarily defined in terms of relations between the present and the past<br />Temporal Metaphor-centered view<br />Transference<br />Defense<br />Interpretation<br />Primarily defined in terms of relations between the present and the past<br />
    54. 54. The three main psychodynamic concepts transference, defense, interpretation<br />Conventional view<br />Transference<br />Interpretation<br />Not extended beyond treatment setting<br />Temporal Metaphor-centered view<br />Transference<br />Interpretation<br />Extended beyond treatment setting as<br />Intrapsychic transference<br />Intrapsychic interpretation<br />
    55. 55. The three main psychodynamic concepts transference, defense, interpretation<br />Conventional view<br />Transference<br />Neurotic enactment of past unconscious conflicts transferred to the analyst and experienced in terms of a now relevant relationship<br />Temporal Metaphor-centered view<br />Intrapsychic transference<br />Ongoing interpretation of the present by the past, in and outside the treatment setting – neurotic or healthy, conscious or unconscious<br />
    56. 56. Psychodynamic concepts relevant for<br />general psychology<br />treatment setting<br />Transference <br />(from analysand to analyst)<br />Intrapsychic - Transference <br />as ongoing interpretation of present by the past<br />
    57. 57. Summary<br />Transference<br />Observed in the treatment setting <br />Interpretation<br />Carried out by the analyst<br />Defense<br />Healthy: “Sublimation” Neurotic: Mentation used to bar unconscious conflicts from becoming conscious<br />general psychology <br />treatment setting<br />Transference<br />Ubiquitous phenomenon in and outside the treatment setting<br />Interpretation<br />Carried out by the mind in an ongoing way as a reinterpretation of the past <br />Defense<br />Healthy: Present and past interpret each other<br />Neurotic: When the present can not interpret the past the analysts interpretation is needed<br />
    58. 58. Is psychoanalysis generalizable to become the basis for a psychodynamic psychology ?<br />Conventional view<br />Temporal Metaphor-<br />centered view<br />Transference<br />Defense<br />Interpretation<br />These concepts are<br />related not only functionally but more closely as aspects of each other<br />Transference<br />Defense<br />Interpretation<br />These concepts are <br />only functionally related to each other<br />
    59. 59. The quality of the temporal relationship<br />Healthy past present relationships are of metaphorical quality<br />Neurotic past present relationships are of metonymical quality<br />Transference<br />Determining present<br />Defense<br /> The defending part <br /> stands for<br /> the defended-against part. <br /> No mutual informing possible.<br />Interpretation<br /> intrapsychic interpretation can not reach the unknown (repressed) past. The analyst’s interpretation is needed<br />Transference<br /> Informing present<br />Defense<br /> The defending part and the defended against part <br />inform each other in an ongoing way<br />Interpretation<br /> The present updates and thus changes the narrative influence the past has on the present<br />
    60. 60. Is psychoanalysis generalizable to become the basis for a psychodynamic psychology ?<br />Temporal Metaphor-centered treatment<br />Analyst’s interpretation<br />Interpretation is metaphorizing lost metaphoricity<br />Temporal Metaphor-centered general functioning<br />Intrapsychic interpretation<br />Interpretation is metaphorizing lost metaphoricity<br />
    61. 61. Structure of healthy defense<br />We are using the interpreting aspect of metaphor<br />which is already used in psychoanalytic practice. <br />The present transference is understood in terms ofpast experience; <br />the past is understood in terms of present transference experience.<br />SUMMARY:<br />Present interpretsmetaphorically the past<br /> = Interpretation<br /> The past interprets metaphorically the present<br />=Transference<br />
    62. 62. Structure of healthy defense<br />We are using the interpreting aspect of metaphor<br />which is already used in psychoanalytic practice. <br />The present transference is understood in terms ofpast experience; <br />the past is understood in terms of present transference experience.<br />SUMMARY:<br />= Interpretation<br />=Transference<br />
    63. 63. Structure of healthy defense<br />We are using the interpreting aspect of metaphor<br />which is already used in psychoanalytic practice. <br />The present transference is understood in terms ofpast experience; <br />the past is understood in terms of present transference experience.<br />SUMMARY:<br />= Interpretation<br />of<br />=Transference<br />
    64. 64. Structure of healthy defense<br />SUMMARY:<br />= Interpretation<br /> of<br />Transference<br />
    65. 65. Structure of healthy defense<br />We are using the interpreting aspect of metaphor<br />which is already used in psychoanalytic practice. <br />The present transference is understood in terms ofpast experience; <br />the past is understood in terms of present transference experience.<br />SUMMARY:<br />Present interpretation of thepast<br />The past interprets metaphorically the present<br />
    66. 66. Structure of healthy defense<br />We are using the interpreting aspect of metaphor<br />which is already used in psychoanalytic practice. <br />The present transference is understood in terms ofpast experience; <br />the past is understood in terms of present transference experience.<br />SUMMARY:<br />Present interpretation of thepast<br />The past interprets metaphorically the present<br />
    67. 67. Structure of healthy defense<br />We are using the interpreting aspect of metaphor<br />which is already used in psychoanalytic practice. <br />The present transference is understood in terms ofpast experience; <br />the past is understood in terms of present transference experience.<br />SUMMARY:<br />Present interpretsmetaphorically the past<br /> = Interpretation<br /> The past interprets metaphorically the present<br />=Transference<br />
    68. 68. Structure of healthy defense<br />The past informs metaphorically the present<br />The present interprets metaphorically the past <br />
    69. 69. Defense is Interpretation of Transference<br />Metaphor and Metonymy<br />Defense, Interpretation, and Transference are all Temporal Metaphors (when functioning optimally) or Temporal Metonymies (when functioning sub-optimally)<br />Suggested Theoretical Integration<br />Summary and Outlook<br />
    70. 70. First and second order temporal metaphors<br />First order<br />First order<br />Second order<br />
    71. 71. Scaling of fractal hierarchy of temporal metaphors<br />
    72. 72.
    73. 73. Defending part<br />Defended against part<br />PRESENT<br />AGENCIES AT WAR<br />PAST<br />

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