Metaphor-based psychoanalysis
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Introduction to metaphor-based psychoanalytic theory

Introduction to metaphor-based psychoanalytic theory

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  • It is convenient to differentiate three approaches to metaphor. These are the linguists’ notion of linguistic metaphor, the cognitive scientists’ notion of conceptual metaphor, and the psychoanalytic notion of temporal metaphor.
  • Example: Father

Metaphor-based psychoanalysis Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The increasing importance of metaphor within the cognitive sciences
    Estimated number of publications in the last three decades 40’000
  • 2. The increasing importance of metaphor within the cognitive sciences
    Estimated number of publications in the last three decades 40’000
    Cognitive science fields involved in research, publications, and conferences
    Linguistics
    Philosophy
    Computer sciences
    Psychology
    Psychoanalysis
  • 3. The increasing importance of metaphor within the cognitive sciences
    Number of publications
    Cognitive science fields involved in metaphor research, publications, and conferences
    Linguistics
    Philosophy increasingly
    Computer sciences conclude
    Psychology
    Psychoanalysis
    The Brain functions metaphorically
  • 4. The increasing importance of metaphor within the cognitive sciences
    Number of publications
    Cognitive science fields involved in metaphor research, publications, and conferences
    Linguistics
    Philosophy increasingly
    Computer sciences conclude
    Psychology
    Psychoanalysis
    Reasons for increasing importance:
    The Brain functions metaphorically
  • 5. The increasing importance of metaphor within the cognitive sciences
    Number of publications
    Cognitive science fields involved in metaphor research, publications, and conferences
    Linguistics
    Philosophy increasingly
    Computer sciences conclude
    Psychology
    Psychoanalysis
    Reasons for increasing importance:
    Increasing interdisciplinary work regarding the understanding of the mind
    Driven by computer sciences’ attempts to emulate the functioning of the mind : knowledge harvesting rather than data collecting
    The Brain functions metaphorically
  • 6. Main task addressed in this presentation
    Assuming that
    Psychoanalysis is central to understanding the mind’s functioning
    The mind works metaphorically
  • 7. TASK
    How do we revise psychoanalytic theory from a metaphoric point of view without sacrificing its essential achievements ?
  • 8. PSYCHODYNAMICS
    current
    central concepts
    Transference
    Defense
    Interpretation
    Suggested
    central concepts
    Time
    Metaphor
    Transference
    Defense
    Interpretation
    organizing
  • 9. In view of the importance of TIME
    1) Recast from a temporal point of view
    Metaphor toa
    present/past past/present
  • 10. In view of the importance of TIME
    1) Recast from a temporal point of view
    Metaphor toTemporal Metaphor
    Interpretation
    Transference
  • 11. In view of the importance of TIME
    1) Recast from a temporal point of view
    Metaphor toTemporal Metaphor
    2) Recast from a Temporal Metaphor point of view
    Interpretation
    Transference
  • 12. In view of the importance of TIME
    1) Recast from a temporal point of view
    Metaphor toTemporal Metaphor
    2) Recast from a Temporal Metaphor point of view
    Interpretationinto
    Transference into
    Defenseinto
    Interpretation
    Transference
  • 13. In view of the importance of TIME
    1) Recast from a temporal point of view
    Metaphor toTemporal Metaphor
    2) Recast from a Temporal Metaphor point of view
    Interpretation into Temporal Metaphor = present/past
    Transference intoTemporal Metaphor =past/present
    Defense into Temporal Metaphor =
    Interpretation
    Transference
  • 14. In view of the importance of TIME
    1) Recast from a temporal point of view
    Metaphor toTemporal Metaphor
    2) Recast from a Temporal Metaphor point of view
    Interpretation into Temporal Metaphor = present/past
    Transference intoTemporal Metaphor =past/present
    Defense into Temporal Metaphor =
    Interpretation
    Transference
  • 15. Explanation of terms used in this presentation
    Terms Used
    ‘The present’
    ‘The past’
    to express
    Present mentation or experience
    Past mentationorexperience
  • 16. Explanation of terms used in this presentation
    Terms
    Referring to
    = “Defense Complex”
    Defending
    partof defense
    Defended against
    part of defense
  • 17. Explanation of terms used in this presentation
    Terms
    Referring to
    = “Defense Complex”
    Or shortened:
    Defending
    part of defense
    Defended against
    part of defense
  • 18. Explanation of terms used in this presentation
    Terms
    Referring to
    = “Defense”
    Defending
    part of defense
    Defended against
    part of defense
  • 19. How the terms are used in this presentation
    term
    ‘Transference’
    ‘Interpretation’
    Temporal Sense given here
    Interpretation of the present by the past
    Interpretation of the past by the present
  • 20. The definition of metaphor
    Metaphor is an equation of two ordinarily
    not equatable entities (source and target)
    located in different domains
  • 21. The definition of metonymy
    Metaphor is an equation of two ordinarily
    not equated entities (source and target)
    located in the samedomains
  • 22. The definition of metaphor
    Metaphor is an equation of two ordinarily
    not equatable entities (source and target)
    located in different domains
    “Juliet is the sun” (domains: humans+ celestial bodies)
  • 23. Metaphor = “ in terms of ”
    Phrase indicating a metaphor :
    “ in terms of ”
    “Juliet is seen in terms of the sun”
    “Life is seen in terms of a journey”
  • 24. The definition and examples of metonymy
    Metonymy is an equation of two entities
    located in the same domain
    “The liver goes to operating room 3”
    “All hands on board”
    “He drank the bottle”
    Phrases indicating a metonymy:
    “stands for”, “belongs to”, “is part of”
  • 25. Phrases connecting source and target indicating metaphor or metonymy
    METAPHOR
    “in terms of”
    “Juliet seen in terms of the sun”
    “Life understood in terms of a journey”
    Metonymy
    “stands for”,
    “belongs to”,
    “is part of”
    The liver belongs to patient going to operating room 3
    All hands stands for sailors to go on board
    He drank the bottle = wine as part of the bottle
  • 26. Linguistic, conceptual, and temporal concepts of metaphor
  • 27. Linguistic, conceptual, and temporal concepts of metaphor
    Linguistics: Linguistic metaphor,
    BASED ON LANGUAGE
    Cognitive sciences: Conceptual metaphor, BASED ON THOUGHT
    Psychoanalysis: Temporal metaphor,
    BASED ON TIME
  • 28. Linguistic, conceptual, and temporal concepts of metaphor
    Conceptual:
    Metaphor is an equation of thought entities rather than language entities.
    THOUGHT NOT LANGUAGE
    Example:
    “The New Testament relates metaphorically to the Old Testament: Christ’s death and resurrection relates metaphorically to the original sin and its forgiveness”
  • 29. Linguistic, conceptual, and temporal concepts of metaphor
    Temporal:
    Regardless of content and use the quality of the temporal relationship isintrinsicallymetaphorical in the optimal functioning Mind: The present is the same and not the same as the past. We understand them in terms of each othe
    TIMENOTTHOUGHT NOR LANGUAGE
    Example:
    Today is informed by yesterday: it is the same and not the same; one can be understood (in an underdetermined way) in terms of the other.
  • 30. Examples of linguistic, conceptual, and temporal concepts of metaphor
    Linguistic:
    LANGUAGE
    Conceptual:
    USE OF THOUGHT NOT LANGUAGE
    Temporal:
    TIME NOT LANGUAGE OR THOUGHT
    Life is a journey
    Christ’s death is metaphorically related to the original sin
    Adulthood understood in terms of childhood
  • 31. Neurosis
    Trauma leads to a loss of metaphoricity. As a consequence past and present relaterigidly (metonymically) to each other rather than informing each other.
    Neurotic defense (the present) comes metonymically to stand for the defended against (the past). The past evokes a rigid defense, thus over-determining the present rather than just informing it
  • 32. Phrases connecting source and target indicating metaphor or metonymy
    Metaphor = source/target interacting
    Metonymy= source/target not interacting
    Healthy Defense
    Neurotic Defense
    “stands for”
    past and present
    rigidly
    standing for
    each other
    “in terms of”
    past and present interact
    in terms of
    each other
  • 33. Are psychodynamic concepts relevant forthe treatment setting? general psychology?
    treatment setting
    Transference
    Interpretation
    Defense
    general psychology
    Could these
    psychodynamic phenomena
    belong to the mind’s
    normal
    functioning ?
  • 34. Are psychodynamic concepts relevant forthe treatment setting? general psychology?
    Treatment setting
    Transference
    from analysand to analyst
    as ongoing interpretation of the present by the past
    general psychology
    Transference
    intrapsychic
    as ongoing interpretation of the present by the past
  • 35. Are psychodynamic concepts relevant forthe treatment setting? general psychology?
    treatment setting
    Interpretation
    by the analyst
    interpreting the past from and by the present
    general psychology
    Interpretation
    intrapsychic
    interpreting the past from and by the present
  • 36. Psychodynamic concepts relevant inthe treatment setting in general psychology
    Treatment setting
    Defense:
    interpretation of intrapsychictransference
    Defense
    (as defending and defended against)
    Interpretation of transference
    general psychology
  • 37. Psychodynamic concepts relevant forthe treatment setting ? general psychology ?
    treatment
    Transference
    Interpretation
    Defense
    general psychology
    Intrapsychic
    Transference
    Intrapsychic
    Interpretation
    Intrapsychic
    Defense
    O n g o i n g d y n a m i c s
  • 38. Psychoanalytic Practice versus Theory
    Practice
    We understand the present transference in terms of the past
    we understand the pastin terms of the present transference
    Theory
    This central part of psychoanalytic
    practice
    Is not sufficiently integrated by its
    theory
  • 39. Moving from content to time
    Language and Thought Content –centered domains
    Metaphor is a an equation of two conventionally
    not equatable entities (source and target)
    located in different domains
    Time-centered domains
    In psychoanalysis the intrinsically different domains of metaphor are temporal ones: e.g., past and present
  • 40. Functions of linguistic and temporal metaphors
    Influencing
    Informing
    Modeling and Searching
    Interpreting
    Actualizing
    Changing
    Familiarizing
    Forming new category
    Keeping at bay
    (new category organization from old category organization)
  • 41. Psychoanalytic concepts viewed from a temporal point of view
    Present to past
    Defending part of defense
    Interpreting
    Insight (updating)
    Curing
    Repression
    Remembering
    Regressing
    Past to present
    Defended part of defense
    Transference
    Insight (actualizing)
    Childhood neurosis
    Return of the repressed
    Memories
    Fixation
  • 42. Aspects of all temporal metaphors suggesting their synonymity
    Influencing
    Informing
    Modeling and Searching
    Interpreting
    Actualizing
    Changing
    Familiarizing
    Forming new category
    Keeping at bay
    (new category organization from old category organization)
  • 43. Psychoanalytic terms viewed as potential synonyms regarding their temporal function
    Potential synonyms (Present to past)
    Defending part of defense
    Interpreting
    Insight (updating)
    Curing
    Repression
    Remembering
    Regressing
    Potential synonyms
    (past to present)
    Defended part of defense
    Transference
    Insight (actualizing)
    Childhood neurosis
    Return of the repressed
    Memories
    Fixation
  • 44. Corresponding aspects between linguistic and temporal metaphors
    Linguistic
    Interpretingof one domain by another domain.( Life is a journey)
    Transferringaspects of the source to the target
    Maintaining tension, holding source at bay from the target while still relating to it
    Temporal
    Interpretingof one temporal domain by another temporal domain.
    Transferring: aspects of the past (source) transferred to the present (target)
    Maintaining tension, holding past as source at bay from the present as target while remembering the former
  • 45. Aspects of temporal metaphors as used by psychoanalytic terms
    Temporal Metaphors
    Psychoanalytic TERM
    Interpretingof one temporal domain by another temporal domain.
    Transferring: aspects of the past (source) transferred to the present (target)
    Maintaining tension, holding past at bay from the present while remembering it
    ‘INTERPRETATION’.
    Interpretationof past by present.
    ‘TRANSFERENCE’
    Interpretation of present by past .
    ‘DEFENSE’ (as the defending part of defense)
    The holding at bay of previous organizations of issues while remembering them.
  • 46. Synonymous functions of psychodynamic concepts regarding their functioning in time
    Highlight synonymous functions of our psychodynamic concepts even though differing in temporal direction of influence
    InterpretationTemporal Metaphor =present/past
    Transference Temporal Metaphor = past/present
    DefenseTemporal Metaphor = present/past + past/present
  • 47. Aspects of temporal metaphors
    Therefore
    Interpreting
    Transferring
    Defending
    Are all functions of all temporal metaphors.
    This establishes the basic synonymity between the psychodynamic concepts transference, interpretation, and defense
  • 48. Healthy and neurotic forms of temporal metaphors
    HALTHY = METAPHOR
    Neurotic = metonymy
    Past and Present
    INFORM
    each other like source and target of a
    metaphor
    Past and present DETERMINE
    each other like source and target of a
    metonymy
  • 49. Healthy and neurotic forms of temporal metaphors
    Metaphor informs
    Metonymy stands for = determines
    INTERPRETATION
    informs past
    TRANSFERENCE
    informs present
    DEFENSE
    Defending and defended against inform each other
    INTERPRETATION
    Does not inform past thus determines it as immutable
    TRANSFERENCE
    Does not inform but determines present as repetition
    DEFENSE
    Defending and defended against can not inform but determine each other by standing for each other
  • 50. Is psychoanalysis generalizable to become the basis for a psychodynamic psychology ?
    Symptom – centered view
    Transference
    Defense
    Interpretation
    No generalization to dynamic psychology of the mind outside treatment setting
    Psychoanalysis has little standing in academia
    Temporal Metaphor-centered view
    Transference
    Defense
    Interpretation
    Generalization from treatment to general psychology becomes possible
    Chance to improve academic standing
  • 51. Is psychoanalysis generalizable to become the basis for a psychodynamic psychology ?
    symptom - centered
    Psychodynamic terms centered on treatment setting
    Transference and interpretation are phenomena, in the main, reserved for the treatment setting
    Centered – on General psychological functioning
    Psychodynamic terms centered on general psychological functioning
    Transference and interpretation seen as part of general psychological functioning, including in the treatment setting
  • 52. Is psychoanalysis generalizable to become the basis for a psychodynamic psychology ?
    Conventional view
    Transference
    Defense
    Interpretation
    Time implicitly and not centrally integrated in theory
    Temporal Metaphor-centered view
    Transference
    Defense
    Interpretation
    Time explicitly and centrally integrated in theory
  • 53. Is psychoanalysis generalizable to become the basis for a psychodynamic psychology ?
    Conventional view
    Transference
    Defense
    Interpretation
    Not primarily defined in terms of relations between the present and the past
    Temporal Metaphor-centered view
    Transference
    Defense
    Interpretation
    Primarily defined in terms of relations between the present and the past
  • 54. The three main psychodynamic concepts transference, defense, interpretation
    Conventional view
    Transference
    Interpretation
    Not extended beyond treatment setting
    Temporal Metaphor-centered view
    Transference
    Interpretation
    Extended beyond treatment setting as
    Intrapsychic transference
    Intrapsychic interpretation
  • 55. The three main psychodynamic concepts transference, defense, interpretation
    Conventional view
    Transference
    Neurotic enactment of past unconscious conflicts transferred to the analyst and experienced in terms of a now relevant relationship
    Temporal Metaphor-centered view
    Intrapsychic transference
    Ongoing interpretation of the present by the past, in and outside the treatment setting – neurotic or healthy, conscious or unconscious
  • 56. Psychodynamic concepts relevant for
    general psychology
    treatment setting
    Transference
    (from analysand to analyst)
    Intrapsychic - Transference
    as ongoing interpretation of present by the past
  • 57. Summary
    Transference
    Observed in the treatment setting
    Interpretation
    Carried out by the analyst
    Defense
    Healthy: “Sublimation” Neurotic: Mentation used to bar unconscious conflicts from becoming conscious
    general psychology
    treatment setting
    Transference
    Ubiquitous phenomenon in and outside the treatment setting
    Interpretation
    Carried out by the mind in an ongoing way as a reinterpretation of the past
    Defense
    Healthy: Present and past interpret each other
    Neurotic: When the present can not interpret the past the analysts interpretation is needed
  • 58. Is psychoanalysis generalizable to become the basis for a psychodynamic psychology ?
    Conventional view
    Temporal Metaphor-
    centered view
    Transference
    Defense
    Interpretation
    These concepts are
    related not only functionally but more closely as aspects of each other
    Transference
    Defense
    Interpretation
    These concepts are
    only functionally related to each other
  • 59. The quality of the temporal relationship
    Healthy past present relationships are of metaphorical quality
    Neurotic past present relationships are of metonymical quality
    Transference
    Determining present
    Defense
    The defending part
    stands for
    the defended-against part.
    No mutual informing possible.
    Interpretation
    intrapsychic interpretation can not reach the unknown (repressed) past. The analyst’s interpretation is needed
    Transference
    Informing present
    Defense
    The defending part and the defended against part
    inform each other in an ongoing way
    Interpretation
    The present updates and thus changes the narrative influence the past has on the present
  • 60. Is psychoanalysis generalizable to become the basis for a psychodynamic psychology ?
    Temporal Metaphor-centered treatment
    Analyst’s interpretation
    Interpretation is metaphorizing lost metaphoricity
    Temporal Metaphor-centered general functioning
    Intrapsychic interpretation
    Interpretation is metaphorizing lost metaphoricity
  • 61. Structure of healthy defense
    We are using the interpreting aspect of metaphor
    which is already used in psychoanalytic practice.
    The present transference is understood in terms ofpast experience;
    the past is understood in terms of present transference experience.
    SUMMARY:
    Present interpretsmetaphorically the past
    = Interpretation
    The past interprets metaphorically the present
    =Transference
  • 62. Structure of healthy defense
    We are using the interpreting aspect of metaphor
    which is already used in psychoanalytic practice.
    The present transference is understood in terms ofpast experience;
    the past is understood in terms of present transference experience.
    SUMMARY:
    = Interpretation
    =Transference
  • 63. Structure of healthy defense
    We are using the interpreting aspect of metaphor
    which is already used in psychoanalytic practice.
    The present transference is understood in terms ofpast experience;
    the past is understood in terms of present transference experience.
    SUMMARY:
    = Interpretation
    of
    =Transference
  • 64. Structure of healthy defense
    SUMMARY:
    = Interpretation
    of
    Transference
  • 65. Structure of healthy defense
    We are using the interpreting aspect of metaphor
    which is already used in psychoanalytic practice.
    The present transference is understood in terms ofpast experience;
    the past is understood in terms of present transference experience.
    SUMMARY:
    Present interpretation of thepast
    The past interprets metaphorically the present
  • 66. Structure of healthy defense
    We are using the interpreting aspect of metaphor
    which is already used in psychoanalytic practice.
    The present transference is understood in terms ofpast experience;
    the past is understood in terms of present transference experience.
    SUMMARY:
    Present interpretation of thepast
    The past interprets metaphorically the present
  • 67. Structure of healthy defense
    We are using the interpreting aspect of metaphor
    which is already used in psychoanalytic practice.
    The present transference is understood in terms ofpast experience;
    the past is understood in terms of present transference experience.
    SUMMARY:
    Present interpretsmetaphorically the past
    = Interpretation
    The past interprets metaphorically the present
    =Transference
  • 68. Structure of healthy defense
    The past informs metaphorically the present
    The present interprets metaphorically the past
  • 69. Defense is Interpretation of Transference
    Metaphor and Metonymy
    Defense, Interpretation, and Transference are all Temporal Metaphors (when functioning optimally) or Temporal Metonymies (when functioning sub-optimally)
    Suggested Theoretical Integration
    Summary and Outlook
  • 70. First and second order temporal metaphors
    First order
    First order
    Second order
  • 71. Scaling of fractal hierarchy of temporal metaphors
  • 72.
  • 73. Defending part
    Defended against part
    PRESENT
    AGENCIES AT WAR
    PAST