A Brief Introduction This presentation contains ideas and images of the Battle School and Battle Rooms, some information on Space Station physics, and other supporting information for the technology hinted at in Orson Scott Card’s Ender’s Game and Ender’s Shadow books. Ethan Hurdus and I originally created this presentation for Endercon 2002. I have added a number of changes as I’ve collected and developed more ideas. I’ve also added “notes” to the slides, since I won’t be there to explain myself the first few times you view this. The line art is the work of Darian Robbins, and is used with his permission. Thank you for your consideration; please feel free to contact me: – Stephen Sywak – Sywaks@asme.org – (845) 534-5733 (Home) – (845) 353-6400 x350 (Work)
Welcome to the Battle School Development General Layout Physics Analogues Location Battle Rooms
Designing a Space Station As an engineer, I typically start a design with “Design Constraints” given to me by my client. For this presentation, Ethan and I assumed Orson Scott Card to be our client, and used both Ender’s Game (EG) and Ender’s Shadow (ES) as our initial design constraints. Like any design project, adhering to the design constraints is an important goal, but one that’s not always possible to meet. Certain design requirements inevitably conflict, and one must use engineering judgement to fill in the gaps.
Design Constraints (EG)• The school was of course wheel-based, rotating such that "centrifugal force" provides a sense of gravity.• There are nine battlerooms• The battlerooms "all have the same entrance. The whole center of the battle school, the hub of the wheel, is battlerooms. They dont rotate with the rest of the station. Thats how they do the nullo, the no-gravity - it just holds still. No spin, no down." (p.79, paperback Special Complete Edition)• "But they can set it up so that any one of the rooms is at the battleroom entrance corridor that we all use. Once youre inside, they move it along and another battlerooms in position." (p.80, paperback Special Complete Edition)• There is "gravity" in the corridor immediately outside the battleroom.• "Hooks" demonstrate some measure of gravity control.• Stationary stars also imply gravity control• The game room "way above the decks where the boys lived and worked." (p.45, paperback Special Complete Edition) has lower gravity. => Implies rigid, rotating wheel structure (as opposed to, say, differential deck rotation speeds for constant "gravity")
Design Constraints (ES)•A "parallel system of corridors on either side of the student area" exists.•Stationis not one but three parallel wheels cross-linked at many points. (Other wheeluses: teacher and staff quarters, life support, communications with the Fleet.) (p.126hardback First Edition).•One wheel is "the student wheel."•"The students had access to four decks, plus the gym below A-Deck and thebattleroom above D-Deck. There were actually nine decks, however, two below A-Deckand three above D." (p.126 hardback First Edition)•"pictures of the station show only the one wheel" (p.135 hardback First Edition)•"Judging from the amount of time it took Dimak to get to their barracks the rare timesthat a quarrel demanded his attention, Bean assumed that his quarters were onanother deck. And because Dimak always arrived breathing a little heavily, Bean alsoassumed it was a deck below their own level, not above." (p.150 hardback FirstEdition)•Battlerooms have separate air systems.•There is a "battleroom control center"•No Coriolis Effect or "centrifugal" forces at the edges of the battlerooms. => Meansmanipulated gravity if battlerooms rigidly attached but along the hub. Could also meanfree-floating battlerooms.•A 100 meter dead-line just reaches from one wall of the battleroom to the other.
Initial In-Line ConceptsOne has to start somewhere. I started here.
SketchesAfter discussions with various people, including Ethan, the “final design” started to take shape.
Current Battle SchoolThis is what it became.Even though Ender’s Shadow strongly implies three rotating rings, Ihave found that the design works better with two, and the amount ofreal estate available with two multi-floored habitat modules is morethan sufficient for the support of the Battle School (both as aneducational institution and as an orbiting military outpost)
Battle School – Plan ViewDocking ports are a little large, and un-defined.Doors over 300m long are not practical, certainlynot if they’re trying to maintain a pressuredifferential across them!I added fighter bays because this is, after all, amilitary asset. My assumption was that sooner orlater it might need some defending. DarianRobbins took it even further after our discussions,and added larger gun emplacements on the fourcorners, top & bottom.
Battle School – Side ElevationThe Battle Room Groups do not rotate, neither does the horizontal core.The “actual” Battle School would need to be covered with heavyradiation shielding—probably some sort of “concrete” mixture madefrom crushed asteroids or lunar regolith.
Battle School – Front ElevationNote the Battle Rooms’ corners in the central stationary core; it allows the viewer to visually “place” the battle rooms in the station
Battle SchoolDarian Robbins’ artwork.Note the gun emplacements on both sides of the stationary central platform.One of the issues we discussed was “just how far-seeing would the fictional designersbe—would they understand the non-directionality of space (like Ender), or do weassume that they are also limited to planar thinking (like everyone else)?” And, if thelatter, how do we represent that as a failure of the fictional designers’, and not ashortcoming of the film’s production design crew?
Barracks DoorDarian Robbins’ drawing of Bean.Dragon Army T-Shirts and jackets are available at the concession stand.
Barracks Darian Robbins Others have pictured it as more old-style military barracks (with the bunk beds jutting out from the center of the room), and less like the berths on a sleeper car.
Battle School Physics Rotation provides simulated Gravity Just what are Coriolis Forces? Moving from Rotating to Non-Rotating Sections Jumping across the Battle RoomThis section discusses the various physical laws that come into playwith a Space Station that uses a rotating ring to provide artificialgravity.
Crew’s Quarters RotationThis is the one video that’s causing me problems in thispresentation. In a full-up copy of PowerPoint, you willsee the two crew’s quarters rings revolving in sync.
Centrifugal, Centripetal, whatever… Centripetal Force Calculations: Note that "1G" equals 32.174 ft/sec^2, or 9.81 m/sec^2 ACENT Centripetal Acceleration r radius A number of parameters are involved in developing appropriate speeds and w Angular (rotational) velocity distances for a centrifugal habitat. The “radius” discussed here was initially selected based on the geometry of the Battle School as I started placing the 2*pi() radians = 360° Battle Rooms, corridors, and access-ways. As it turned out, the numbers fall within a “comfort zone” for centrifugal habitats, developed over many years of ACENT = r*w^2 research based on earth-based centrifugal experiments. You can read a little w = sqrt(A/r) more about this in the PDF file of my presentation paper, located on this disk. TO DEVELOP 1-G Value Units Value Units Value Units Value Units ACENT 9.81 m/s^2 r 162.50 m w 0.25 radians/s 14.08 degrees/s 2.35 rpm 25.57 sec/rev Ive modeled the Battle School with crews quarters at nominally 162.75m out from the center of the ship.I’ve included the spreadsheets in the “Bonus Features section. If you really want, you can change the numbers(Acent and r) and play around with them.
Other Locations, Other ForcesR1 5.00 m <-----Very close to the center of rotation of the Rings (actually, this radius is within the stationary core)V1 1.23 m/s 4.03 ft/s 2.75 mphACENT1 0.30 m/s^2 0.03 GR2 10.00 mV2 2.46 m/s 8.05 ft/s 5.49 mphACENT2 0.60 m/s^2 0.06 GR3 76.25 m <-----Roughly at the "Battle Gate" height of a Battle RoomV3 18.72 m/s 61.42 ft/s 41.88 mphACENT3 4.60 m/s^2 0.47 GR4 112.50 m <-----Roughly at the "Practice Gate" and "Teachers Gate" height of a Battle RoomV4 27.62 m/s 90.62 ft/s 61.79 mphACENT4 6.78 m/s^2 0.69 GR5 162.75 m <-----Crews Quarters nominal radius from centerV5 39.96 m/s 131.09 ft/s 89.38 mphACENT5 9.81 m/s^2 1.00 G At various distances from the center of the Battle School,R6 166.00 m <----Gymnasium level people will experience different strengths of artificial gravity.V6 40.76 m/s 133.71 ft/s 91.17 mph OSC recognized this, and placed the gymnasium levelACENT6 10.01 m/s^2 1.02 G outboard of the main habitation area, so that people would experience stronger gravity (they would weigh more) in the gym. Towards the center of the habitation rings, gravity would be lower. The rotational speed is not shown on this sheet because everything is rotating together at the same speed of 2.35 rpm, as shown on the previous page.
Coriolis Forces ACORR Coriolis Acceleration (acts perpendicularly to the radius, parallel to the direction of the angular velocity vector) VR Radial Velocity (towards or away from the hub) ACORR=2*VR*w Note: this value does not rely on your radius, or distance for the hub; it is the same everywhere on board ship. The forces youd feel from the Coriolis Effect: Value Units Value Units VR1 1.00 m/s 3.28 ft/s <---------Climbing an inter-deck ladder, for instance ACORR1 0.49 m/s^2 0.05 G <---------If you weighed 100 lbs, you would see a side load of: 5.01 pounds VR2 4.00 m/s 13.12 ft/s <---------Taking an elevator ACORR2 1.96 m/s^2 0.20 G <---------If you weighed 100 lbs, you would see a side load of: 20.02 poundsTake a ball on a string, and swing it around over your head. If you pull on the string, shortening the length between yourhand and the ball (the radius of the swing), the ball will swing faster due to the “Law of Conservation of Momentum.”This is the same effect that causes a spinning ice skater to spin faster as he/she draws their arms in.But what happens if you somehow prevent the speed from changing as you reduce the radius? This happens as you moveup a ladder-way or elevator shaft in a rotating space station. Since the only thing that can change the velocity of an objectis an applied force, (Newton’s first law), there must be a force to oppose the otherwise required change in velocity. Thisis the Coriolis Force.Since first making this presentation, I have designed and had built a 22 ft diameter turntable which can run at 6 rpm. Itcreates 0.14 G at its perimeter, and that is sufficient to throw off well-trained acrobatic performers. It is installed at theNY NY Casino Hotel in Las Vegas, for the Cirque du Soleil show “Zumanity.” After they threw a few peope, theyreduced the speed to about 1-2 rpm.
Why Rotate? Assumption: Certain technologies are horribly expensive to create & maintain Assumption: Failure of a high-technology cannot lead to catastrophic failure of the Battle School These technologies would be: – Bugger Gravity – Force Fields Therefore: Artificial gravity must be created through “traditional” means—rotating the living quarters
Jumping the Gap (Part I) The rings rotate to provide artificial gravity The core remains stationary to provide zero-G for the Battle Rooms, and to permit safe docking for other ships. Here’s the question, then: How do you get from a habitation ring rotating at over 2 rpm to a non-rotating central core? – Even as you move towards the center of the Station, let’s say at the level of the battle-gate entrances, the relative speed is still over 40 mph! Do you use a series of moving sidewalks? – Because of limitations in how fast people can walk, you’d need about 21 different sidewalks, all running in parallel. At 1m width each, that’s a lot of floor space! Plus, as you start to slow down, you lose gravity, and it starts to get silly. What about a central drum that brings you in sync with one or the other elements? – The module has to go in the center of the ship to join the moving and non-moving elements – As such, it becomes a dangerous bottleneck in the event of a failure Hence…the “Subway System” – There’s an added bonus, from the story’s point of view: One of the major themes from Ender’s Game is how the ability to change one’s perceptions is critical to growth and to success—the movement from the rotating rings to the stationary core via the subway system is all about “changing perceptions.”
…the “Subway System” ? As Ethan and I developed the design of the Battle School, I realized that we needed something to move people and supplies across a gap that had a relative speed of about 40 mph between the opposing sides. The answer was: a subway car! Each side of the gap is a “station,” and the car moves people between stations. The thing is, you see the other station pass you by every 25 seconds or so. The following pictures explain it better...
Jumping the Gap (Development)Early development work; drawing byEthan Hurdus
And More Detail Yet…Stacking the subway tunnels(Drawing from ASCE presentation)
NarrativeFor the purpose of this discussion, a station occupant would start out in the 1GHabitation Ring; the rotating part of the space station. Upon arriving at the “SubwayStation” area, he or she would press the call button for the car. Through the windows inthe platform door, and through windows to the left and right of the door along a commonwall, the far side of the space station can be seen moving past at about 31m/s (70mph).Every 20 seconds, the subway car—stationed at the far wall—swings by. In 20-secondvignettes, the subway car is seen to slow down from its 31m/s speed, until it has cometo a full stop aligned with the nearby platform door. The car hasn’t really slowed down,though: it has sped up from 0m/s to 31m/s in about 30 seconds (roughly 10% G uniformtangential acceleration), until it has synchronized with the rotating section of the station.The alignment mechanism extends the locking pins into the receiver slots in the car.These pins keep the car aligned to the entry door, with the tracks below moving by at31m/s. With the locking pins engaged, a failure in the induction drive system will notcause a danger to the passengers or equipment transferring into the car. A friction drivefailure would not be so forgiving, since it could lock the car to the rack.An airtight seal is made between the car and the platform. The entry doors open—first theplatform doors, then the matching doors on the car itself. A slight vertical movement isnoticeable in the car. The tracks are part of the stationary core, and the slightesteccentricity in the huge bearings joining the fixed core to the revolving ring, or in thetrack itself, shows up right here—as a subtle vertical oscillation.The passenger enters the car, the doors close, the seal is broken, the alignment pinsretract, and the car starts to pull away from the Habitat Ring Station. The passengerfeels acceleration as they start to move, but in reality they are decelerating. The HabitatRing Station is moving at 31m/s with respect to the stationary core; the car is slowingdown to synchronize with the core. As it slows down, the car also starts to lose thecentripetally imposed artificial gravity. In the 30 seconds it takes to go from the HabitatRing reference to the Utility Core reference, the passenger has also gone from 1G to
Moving through the Battle Rooms Do an energy balance analysis: The potential energy at the top of your jump equals the kinetic energy at the start. That will give us our initial velocity. Since the Battle-room has no gravity, and the frictional losses against the air are to be considered negligible, that velocity is pretty good for much of the distance across the room. Height * Mass * Gc = (1/2) * Mass * Velocity^2 This becomes: Velocity = sqrt(2*Height * Gc) H 1.00 m (also: 3.28 ft ) Gc 9.80 m/s^2 Velocity 4.43 m/s (also: 14.53 ft/sec ) The time to traverse a room is: Time = Distance/Velocity Distance 75.00 m 100.00 m Time 16.94 seconds 22.59 secondsEngineering analysis includes methods of comparing kinetic (dynamic)energies to potential (height-gained) energies; I used this to derive the speed ofa student across the Battle Room vs. the height they could likely jump in 1G.People can run, on average, about 8-9 ft/sec (2.5 m/sec)
Size Selection: 75m vs. 100m Moments after I first called it as 100m on a side, I have always felt that 75m on a side was far more manageable. All the drawings in this presentation assume the Battle Rooms are 75m on a side. The physical amount of air of a 75m cube is less than half that of a 100m cube. The air pressure forces are also about half (just a little more, actually). The stresses in the walls (which directly relates to the amount and cost of structure you’ll need to “make it work”) are also substantially reduced with a 75m cube.
Entering a 75m Battle RoomThese guys are just “banging around”—there are no “intelligent agents” at work here. The“pawns” are about 4.5 feet (1.4m) tall.
Cutaway ViewThis is what you’d get if you extracted the Battle Rooms, as a group, from their home in thenon-rotating portion of the Battle School. The connected “hoops” are actually the corridors.
The Enemy’s GateAn interesting question: I’ve placed a handhold just below the entry door. Outside, in theadjoining hallway, that’s where the floor is located. Would the “real” designers of theBattle School (and Battle Rooms) have omitted that handhold as unnecessary, based on theassumption that they “didn’t quite get” the whole Zero-Gee orientation perception thatmade Ender so different? I believe the novels omit this handhold.
OrientationNeed I say it? The Enemy’s Gate is, of course, “down.” Your gate would be “up.”Note the lower “Practice Gate” for orientation.
HandholdsIf for no other reason, the handholds are needed to give the viewer a sense of scale andorientation; otherwise you have a huge, plain “field” behind the players.
Recessed Handhold (detail)After having first read “Ender’s Game,” I searched out Frescopictures.com on the Internet, and startedposting my ideas about the Battle Rooms and the Battle School technologies. One of the first thingsto go was the raised hand-holds, which I considered as “too dangerous.” In addition, raisedhandholds would interfere with some of the more interesting maneuvers, such as “sliding the wall.”
Analogues The Givens: • >1000 Crewmembers • Months between contact/re-stocking • Exists as its own small “city” The Analogues: • Aircraft Carriers • Submarines • International Space Station (well, not quite the same size crew…)
Location, Location, Location Page 19, Author’s Definitive Edition: – “I’m director of primary training at the Battle School in the belt” (Colonel Hyram Graff) However…. – Trips to the Battle School are relatively quick – No IPL Satellite transfer required – Therefore: Battle School is in (low) Earth Orbit Author now claims to have been referring to a “Belt of space stations in Earth Orbit…”This is an inside joke. Not many actually get it.
Other Technologies Ansible Shuttles Bugger Gravity Deep Space Ships Null-G Simulator Force Fields Desks Ecstatic Fields Zero-Point Energy Dr. Device Inertialess drives This is some of the other research and development I did to flesh out the possible physical reality behind “Ender’s Game.” Click on the underlined item to go directly to that page
Ansible Technology For those of you who need a quick refresher, the Ansible is the piece of communications equipment that the International Fleet (I.F.) uses to communicate with its invasion force en route to the Bugger homeworlds. It is, in essence, a specialized radio that bypasses the Einsteinian limit of the speed of light. It would miss the point to say that the transmissions travel “faster than light,” as that implies that there could still be some delay between transmitter and receiver. There is no delay; communication is instantaneous. If you’re heavy into “Star Trek,” it’s pretty much the equivalent of “Subspace Radio.” The word “Ansible” was actually invented by Ursula K. Le Guin in 1966 in her novel Rocannons World. Since the “Philotic Web” site is the Lake Woebegone of the Internet (all of us here are above average), I almost don’t need to tell you that we should not limit ourselves to thinking of “radio” transmissions as being purely in the audio spectrum. Low bandwidth radio is, if you want to look at it this way, basically Morse code. Improve the bandwidth by increasing the radio frequency, and you get low-grade audio. Increase the frequency even more, and you get high grade audio (think of the shift from AM to FM-from kilohertz to megahertz; yes, they encode the information differently, but the increased bandwidth of FM allows this). Increase the frequency even more than that and you get the capability to transmit Video signals, then digital video, then…who knows what! Somewhere along that continuum is the bandwidth of the Ansible. The Ansible can carry multi-band audio, plus an active database of hundreds of thousands of ships. It can’t carry video, but is probably in the mid-FM range of data carrying capability.I just happened to have this description lying around on the Philotic Web site Goodness! If I can take a whole paragraph telling you things I think you already know, what’s going to happen when I think I’m breaking new ground!? In a few moments, you’ll wish you never asked. Hold on tight. I have found two references to Faster-Than Light communications that bear on the
Bugger (Formic) GravityWhat is Bugger Gravity? I am proposing the “standard”sci-fi artificial gravity for this one: planar gravity. Planar,in that it has a uniform effect across a planar (or, if youwanted, wrapped) area. If you think about all the sci-fimovies with artificial gravity, this is what they have.Think of the backlighting panel behind your laptopscreen. Now, have it emit "Gravitons" instead of"Photons." It all boils down to proposing a science thathas control over gravitons (a legitimately proposed sub-atomic particle) in the same way we currently havecontrol over photons (flashlights, LASERS, backlightingpanels, etc.)
Electrical Artificial Gravity Apparently, a University of Alabama scientist is looking to use High-Temperature Superconductors, and the Bose-Einstein condensate form of matter to manipulate gravity. The article is from a 1999 Popular Mechanics article (but, then again, so are articles about carbon nanotube space elevators). It would be, as I described before, Planar Gravity manipulation! Unfortunately, I can find no further articles to indicate if they have been successful. TAMING GRAVITY BY JIM WILSON Ever since electricity was tamed in the 19th century, the idea of manipulating gravity by altering an electromagnetic field has been the subject of intriguing experiments and occasional bursts of irrational exuberance. Physicists insist that because gravity is a basic force of nature, constructing an antigravity machine is theoretically impossible. But recently, and not without some reluctance, they have begun to consider another possibility. Several highly respected physicists say it might be possible to construct a force-field machine that acts on all matter in a way that is similar to gravity. Strictly speaking, it wouldnt be an antigravity machine. But by exerting an attractive or repulsive force on all matter, it would be the functional equivalent of the impossible machine. While an operational device is at least five years in the future, developers of what can be loosely termed a force-field machine say it has cleared major theoretical hurdles. To demonstrate their claim, they invited POPULAR MECHANICS to visit their Huntsville, Ala., laboratory to see the most important component of their proof-of-concept demonstrator. It is a 12-in.-dia. high-temperature superconducting disc (HTSD). When the force-field machine is complete, a bowling ball placed anywhere above this disc, which resembles a clutch plate, will stay exactly where you left it.Click the title for another article on the internet, and on my blurb for the referenced article itself.I have included the Popular Mechanics gravity is PDF file on thatdisk. Everyone knows that article as a the glue this keeps our feet on the ground and the planets on their orbits. It operates on every single molecule and atom in our bodies. Physicists define gravity as the attractive force between two masses. They also say it is
Moving in Zero-GThese movies are included for reference as to how people really move around in Zero_G.IMAX, of course, also has some excellent footage on the same topic.Click on the image to run it, if it doesn’t start automatically.
Dr. Device (image)I’ve always imagined the effect of the Molecular Disruption Device (the “Little Doctor”) tolook similar to early thermonuclear fusion detonations.
Low Earth Orbit ShuttlesThe upper-left-hand image is that of the “National AeroSpace Plane” (NASP). It’s alwaysbeen my favorite—not to mention that it also looks a lot like the “Pan Am Clipper” from2001.
SimulatorDarian Robbins’ concept of the Simulators on Eros. Personally, I’ve always envisioned them as the studentslying in hang-glider type sling supports (or something more mechanically oriented), in a darkened chamber,with images projected all around them—since this would “justify” all the time spent in the Battle Rooms.
Desqs They’re already here; Bill Gates calls them “Tablet PC’s” Sharp Electronics has an autostereoscopic (no special glasses needed) 3D display for laptops The hybrid can’t be too far behind…
Filming CG vs. Real Vomit Comet Laser Pistols
Computer GraphicsA lot of discussion has gone on regarding what will beCG, and what will be live action. In the past, I havemade a long-winded presentation about how CG is now“ready for its close up,” but recent films like “TheMatrix”, and the “Lord of the Rings” trilogies prettymuch make the case for me.Plus, considering my unique audience for this “specialedition” presentation, I don’t think I need to teachanyone here how best to use CG today.Of course, if I’m wrong, and you want to call and talkabout it…
Vomit CometAs you can tell from the attached graph, there is only about 25 seconds of filming timeavailable per loop. You’re also dealing with some serious G-forces before and after yourZero-G phase. There may be some benefit to doing initial pre-visualization & motioncapture in Zero-G, but something tells me you don’t want a bunch of kids up there…
Laser PistolsIn the real world, you cant really see laser beams. Well, maybe when the air is all full of dust, orfog, or other suspended particulate matter; but not in clear air. And the Battle Room will be filledwith clean air. So, therefore; you will not be able to see the beams coming from the pistols. Infact, OSC talks about this when Ender and Alai first use the pistols in the Battle Room. Hedescribes the point of light appearing, but not the beam of light.So, how do we get our audience to see the beams? You know they want to. And probably needto.The answer is "special filters" in the viewing windows, and perhaps in the helmet faceplates aswell. Lets say that these filters (and faceplates) are made of a special polycarbonate (Lexan, forinstance) that indicates the trace of the laser beam through empty air.There IS a Lexan somewhat like this. Look at those special clear yellow and green LEGO piecesyou have, the ones where the edges appear to illuminate from light impinging on the adjacent flatsurface (I think the manufacturer of this plastic is MOBAY--not the pop musician, though).But, does this magic faceplate plastic really exist? No. Will our valiant young soldiers appreciatethis great technological advance, allowing them to see the battle in progress? Yes! Can thisspecial, nonexistent plastic be cut into filters to be placed in front of the camera lens so that ouraudience will also be able to see what the heck is going on? Will they buy into this premise? YES!So, the face masks of the suits could be of a material which "magically" reveals the beams of lightin transit. And, if not the face masks, then at least the viewglass for the teachers & observers. Ifthe students viewglass is so treated, then the laser beams may be infrared or visible (but, to behonest, once we have all decided that the spots and beams are to be visible to the students, theteachers and the audience, the type of light is immaterial--no pun intended). If the students arenot to be allowed to see the beams, and the teachers are, is the audience to be subjected to a
Music inspired by Ender’s Game Ender’s Game, by Ashcan Painters – You’ll recognize the story. The group (unfortunately now defunct) has apologized in advance for the phrase “games of buggery.” Ender Will Save Us All, by Dashboard Confessional – Listen closely—you’ll hear nothing whatsoever about the story. Apparently, it’s a song of lost friendship between the lead singer (Chris Ender Carrabba) and a close friend. At times, all they had in common was a love for Ender’s Game.Please click on the title to listen to the music. I’ve alsoincluded the songs in the “Bonus Features” subdirectory.