Busbar configuarations

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Busbar

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  • 1. PREPARED BY GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)
  • 2. BUSBAR ARRANGEMENTS SINGLE BUSBAR SYSTEM. SINGLE BUS WITH SECTIONALISER SYSTEM. SINGLE BUS & TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM. DOUBLE BUSBAR SYSTEM. DOUBLE BUS WITH SECTIONALISER SYSTEM. DOUBLE BUS & TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM. DOUBLE BUS & TRANSFER BUS WITH SECTIONALISER SYSTEM. ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM 1. 3CTs METHOD 2. 4CTs METHOD 3. 5CTs METHOD 4. 6CTs METHOD ONE & HALF BREAKER WITH SECTIONALISER SYSTEM
  • 3. SINGLE BUS SYSTEM FEEDER1 MAIN BUSBAR FEEDER2 T/F-1 T/F-2 FEEDER3 FEEDER4 BAY1 BAY2 BAY3 BAY4 BAY5 BAY6
  • 4. SINGLE BUS SYSTEM MAIN BUSBAR 3 1-89 1-52 CB 1-CT 1-89 L LINE-1 3 2-89 2-52 CB 2-CT 2-89 T T/F-1 3 4-89 4-52 CB 4-CT 4-89 T T/F-2 3 3-89 3-52 CB 3-CT 3-89 L LINE-2
  • 5. SINGLE BUS SYSTEM 1. In case of bus fault or bus bar isolator fault or maintenance Total Substation is out of service. 2. In case of maintenance of transformer circuit breaker the associated transformer has also to be shut-down. Similarly for Line also. 1. Simple in Design 2. Easy Maintenance 3. Less Expenditure 4. Good Appearance DISADVANTAGESADVANTAGES
  • 6. SINGLE BUS WITH CB SECTIONALISER SYSTEM FEEDER1 MAIN BUSBAR FEEDER2 T/F-1 T/F-2 FEEDER3 FEEDER4 BAY1 BAY2 BAY3 BAY4 BAY5 BAY6 CB SECTIONALISER
  • 7. SINGLE BUS WITH CB SECTIONALISER SYSTEM BUS-1 3 1-89 1-52 CB 1-CT 1-89 L LINE-1 3 2-89 2-52 CB 2-CT 2-89 T T/F-1 3 5-89 5-52 CB 5-CT 5-89 T T/F-2 3 4-89 4-52 CB 4-CT 4-89 L LINE-2 BUS-2 3 3 3-89 A 3-52 CB 3A-CT 3-89 B 3B-CT BUS SECTIONALISER
  • 8. In this, Main Bus is divided into two sections with a Circuit Breaker and isolators in between the adjoining sections. One complete section can be taken out for Maintenance without disturbing the continuity of other section. Even if a fault occurs on one section of the Bus, that faulty section along will be isolated while the other section continues to be in service. SINGLE BUS WITH CB SECTIONALISER SYSTEM
  • 9. SINGLE BUS & TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM FEEDER1 BUS-1 TRANSFER BUS FEEDER2 TRANSFERBUSCOUPLER T/F-1 T/F-2 FEEDER3 FEEDER4 BAY1 BAY2 BAY3 BAY4 BAY5 BAY6 BAY7
  • 10. SINGLE BUS & TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM 1-89A 1-52 CB 1-CT 1-89 L LINE-1 3 3 3 3 3 1-89 B 2-89A 2-52 CB 2-CT 2-89 T 2-89 B T/F-1 3-89A 3-52 CB 3-CT 3-89 B 4-89A 4-52 CB 4-CT 4-89 L 4-89 B LINE-2 5-89A 5-52 CB 5-CT 5-89 T 5-89 B T/F-2 MAIN BUSBAR AUX BUS TRANSFERBUSCOUPLER
  • 11. SINGLE BUS & TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM With this arrangement, all the feeders are normally on the Main Bus Bar. If at any time, a Line Circuit Breaker Maintenance is required, that particular feeder, can be transferred on to the Transfer Bus. The feeder protection thus gets transferred to trip Transfer Bus Coupler Breaker. On fault occurrence or maintenance, entire bus becomes de-energised. Salient features:- Only one Circuit at a time can be transferred on the Transfer Bus. For Maintenance or on fault occurrence, total Bus becomes dead.
  • 12. DOUBLE MAIN BUS SYSTEM FEEDER1 BUS-2 BUS-1 FEEDER2 T/F-1 T/F-2 BUSCOUPLER FEEDER3 FEEDER4 BAY1 BAY2 BAY3 BAY4 BAY5 BAY7 BAY8
  • 13. DOUBLE MAIN BUS SYSTEM 1-89 A 1-89 B 3 1-52 CB 1-CT 1-89 L LINE-1 2-89 A 2-89 B 3 2-52 CB 2-89 T T/F-1 3 T/F-2 3 LINE-2 3 32-CT 5-89 A 5-89 B 5-52 CB 5-89 T 5-CT 4-89 A 4-89 B 4-52 CB 4-89 L 4-CT 3-89 A 3-89 B 3A-CT 3B-CT 3-52 CB BUS -1 BUS -2 BUSCOUPLER
  • 14. DOUBLE BUS SYSTEM Salient features:- This has got flexibility of transferring any Circuit to any of the Bus. For Maintenance or on fault occurrence on one Bus, then only that Bus becomes dead, while the other Bus remains in service. For Maintenance of a Circuit Breaker, that particular Circuit has to be taken out of service. To overcome this, an additional bypass isolator is provided as indicated in figure below.
  • 15. DOUBLE MAIN BUS & CB BYPASS ISO SYSTEM FEEDER1 BUS-2 BUS-1 T/F-1 BUSCOUPLER FEEDER2 T/F-2 FEEDER3 FEEDER4 BAY1 BAY2 BAY3 BAY4 BAY5 BAY6 BAY7 WHEN ANY CB PROBLEM OR FOR PREVENTIVE MAINTANENCE THEN ALL OTHER FEEDERS SHIFTED TO ANOTHER BUS OF FAULTED CB BUS AND CLOSE THE BYPASS ISOLATOR, THEN PROTECTION IS SHIFTED TO BUS COUPLER AND OPEN THE FAULTY CB.
  • 16. DOUBLE MAIN BUS & TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM FEEDER1 BUS-2 BUS-1 FEEDER2 TRANSFERBUS COUPLER T/F-1 T/F-2 BUSCOUPLER TRANSFER BUS FEEDER3 FEEDER4 BAY1 BAY2 BAY3 BAY4 BAY5 BAY6 BAY7 BAY8
  • 17. DOUBLE MAIN BUS & TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM 1-89 A 1-89 B 1-52 CB 1-CT 1-89 L LINE-1 5-89 C1-89 C 2-89 C T/F-1 3 3 3-89 A 3-89 B 3A-CT 3B-CT 3-52 CB BUS -1 BUS -2 BUSCOUPLER 3 2-89 A 2-89 B 2-52 CB 2-CT 2-89 T 3 4-89 A 4-89 B 4-52 CB 4-CT 4-89 C 3 5-89 A 5-89 B 5-52 CB 5-CT 5-89 L LINE-2 3 6-89 A 6-89 B 6-52 CB 1-CT 6-89 T T/F-2 3 6-89 C AUX BUS TRANSFER BUS COUPLER
  • 18. This is combination of Main and Transfer Bus and Double Bus Arrangement. Salient features:- This has got flexibility of transferring any Circuit to any of the Main Buses. For Maintenance or any fault occurrence on a Bus, Particular Bus only becomes dead, while the other Bus continues to be in service. Any Circuit Breaker can be taken out for Maintenance by transferring that circuit to Transfer Bus, and transferring its Protection to Transfer Bus Coupler Circuit Breaker. DOUBLE MAIN BUS & TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM
  • 19. DOUBLE BUS WITH SECTIONALISER SYSTEM FEEDER1 BUS-2 BUS-1 T/F-1 T/F-2 FEEDER2 BAY1 BAY3 BAY6 BAY8 BUSCOUPLER BAY2 BUSCOUPLER BAY7 BAY4 BAY5 BUS SECTIONALISER This is an improvement over the double bus bar arrangement. For maintenance or an occurrence of a fault, only one section of the faulty bus only becomes dead while the rest continues to be in service.
  • 20. DOUBLE BUS WITH SECTIONALISER SYSTEM 1-89 A 1-89 B 3 1-52 CB 1-CT 1-89 L LINE-1 3-89 A 3-89 B 3 3-52 CB 3-89 T T/F-1 2-89 A 2-89 B 2-52 CB 2A-CT 3 32B-CT 5-89 A 5-89 B 3 5-52 CB 5-CT 5-89 L LINE-2 7-89 A 7-89 B 3 7-52 CB 7-89 T T/F-2 6-89 A 6-89 B 6-52 CB 6A-CT 3 36B-CT 3 3 4-89 B 4B-52 CB 4B-CT 4-89 D 4D-CT BUS SECTIONALISER 3 3 4-89 A 4A-52 CB 4A-CT 4-89 C 4C-CT 3-CT 7-CT BUS -1 BUS -2 BUS -3 BUS -4
  • 21. ONE AND HALF CIRCUIT BREAKER SYSTEM (I-CONFIGUARATION) FEEDER2 FEEDER4 FEEDER6 FEEDER8 FEEDER10 FEEDER12 FEEDER1 FEEDER3 FEEDER5 FEEDER7 FEEDER9 FEEDER11 BUS-2 BUS-1 BAY1BAY2BAY3 BAY4BAY5BAY6 BAY7BAY8BAY9 BAY10BAY11BAY12 BAY13BAY14BAY15 BAY16BAY17BAY18 DIA1 DIA2 DIA3 DIA4 DIA5 DIA6
  • 22. BUS-2 BUS-1 FEEDER3 FEEDER4 FEEDER7 FEEDER8 FEEDER11 FEEDER12 FEEDER1 FEEDER2 FEEDER5 FEEDER6 FEEDER9 FEEDER10 BAY1 BAY2 BAY3 BAY4 BAY5 BAY6 BAY7 BAY8 BAY9 BAY10 BAY11 BAY12 BAY13 BAY14 BAY15 BAY16 BAY17 BAY18 DIA1 DIA2 DIA3 DIA4 DIA5 DIA6 ONE AND HALF CIRCUIT BREAKER SYSTEM (D-CONFIGUARATION)
  • 23. DIFFERENT CT METHODS OF ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM 3 CTs METHOD 4 CTs METHOD 6 CTs METHOD 6 CTs METHOD LINE LINE LINE LINE CB CB CB CB CB CB CB CB CB CB CB CB AT/F AT/F AT/F AT/F 5 CTs METHOD LINE CB CB CB AT/F 6 CTs METHOD LINE CB CB CB AT/F
  • 24. Salient features:- • It has 3 Circuit Breakers for Two Circuits.( One is Line another is Transformer or Bus Reactor or both are Lines) • No changeover of Line from one Bus to the other is required. • For Circuit Breaker Maintenance of any Line, the load gets transferred Automatically to the other bus. • For Maintenance or an occurrence of a Bus fault, all the interconnections will be on healthy bus and no disturbance to the Circuits. • Even if both Buses become dead, Circuits can still be in service through the Tie Circuit Breaker. • This has got many such advantages to maintain the system stability. ONE AND HALF CIRCUIT BREAKER SYSTEM
  • 25. DOUBLE BUS & DOUBLE BREAKER SYSTEM FEEDER1 BAY1 BAY2 BAY3 BAY4FEEDER2 FEEDER3 BAY5 BAY6 BAY7 BAY8 FEEDER4 FEEDER1 BUS-2 BUS-1 BAY1BAY2 BUS-2 BUS-1 FEEDER2 BAY3BAY4 FEEDER3 BAY5BAY6 BAY7BAY8 FEEDER4 FOR ECONOMICAL& RELIABULITY PURPOSE THIS SYSTEM ADOPTED IN 800KV SYSTEM
  • 26. MESH / RING LAYOUT FEEDER 1 FEEDER 2 FEEDER 3 FEEDER 4FEEDER 5FEEDER 6 FEEDER 7 FEEDER 8 1-52 CB 2-52 CB 3-52 CB 4-52 CB 5-52 CB6-52 CB 8-52 CB 7-52 CB
  • 27. BUSBAR SYSTEMS ADOPTED IN APTRANSCO 400KV BUS1. 400KV KALAPAKADOUBLE BUS WITH AUX BUS & SECTIONALISER 400KV BUS (4 CTs) 400KV BUS (5 CTs) 1. 400KV MAMIDIPALLY & VEMAGIRI 2. 400KV KHAMMAM & NUNNA (APTRANSCO BAYS IN PGCIL) ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM 400KV BUS1. 400KV NELLOREONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM WITH SECTIONALISER 220KV BUS 220KV BUS 1. 400KV MAMIDIPALLY 2. 400KV KALAPAKA DOUBLE BUS & AUX BUS SYTEM 220KV BUS 220KV BUS 1. 220KV MALKARAM 2. 220KV TALLAPALLY DOUBLE BUS WITH SECTIONALISER 220KV BUS 220KV BUS 1. 220KV GACHIBOWLI 2. 220KV GHANAPUR DOUBLE BUS SYTEM 132 KV BUS 132 KV BUS 1. 220KV YEDDUMAILARAM 2. 220KV GHANAPUR SINGLE BUS & AUX BUS SYSTEM 220KV BUS 220KV BUS 1. 220KV SHAPURNAGAR 2. 220KV CHANDRAYANA GUTTA SINGLE BUS WITH SECTIONALISER 220KV BUS 220KV BUS 1. 220KV SIVARAMPALLY 2. 220KV NARKETPALLY SINGLE BUS SYSTEM BAY VOLTAGE LEVELNAME OF THE SUBSTATIONBUSBAR CONFIGUARATION
  • 28. What does a substation contains.. Substation Main Equipment Engineered items Auxiliary Equipment Civil Auxiliary System Structure Main Equipment TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS
  • 29. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS Main Equipment Circuit Breaker (CB) Instrument Transformer (CT/CVT/EMVT/PT) Surge Arrester (LA) Isolator (ISO) Transformer & Reactor Bus Support Insulator (BPI) Line Traps (WT/LT) Control & Protection system (C&R) Power Line Carrier Communication system (PLCC)
  • 30. BUS BUSISOLATOR CIRCUITBREAKER 3CURRENTTRANSFORMER 89 52 CT 89 LINEISOLATOR UUU WAVE/LINETRAP WT UUU 3 CAPACITORVOLTAGETRANSFORMER LIGHTENING/SURGEARRESTOR CVT LA TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS Main Equipment
  • 31. What does a substation contains.. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS Substation Main Equipment Engineered items Auxiliary Equipment Civil Auxiliary System Structure
  • 32. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS Engineered items 1. Busbar Materials A. Strung Bus Conductor (ACSR). B. Rigid Bus Conductor (AL Tube). C. Clamps & Connectors. D. String Insulator & Hardware. 2. Earthing Materials A. Main Earthing Materials (Rod or Flat). B. Earth Pits. 3. Cables & accessories A. LT Power & Control Cable B. HT Power Cable C. Cable terminations, gland, lugs, ties, marker etc. D. Cable Supporting Materials.
  • 33. What does a substation contains.. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS Substation Main Equipment Engineered items Auxiliary Equipment Civil Auxiliary System Structure
  • 34. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS Auxiliary Equipment LTAC Switchgear Panel AC Distribution Board Battery & Battery Charger DC Distribution Board Auxiliary LT Transformer Lighting Transformer Main Lighting Distribution Board Emergency Lighting Distribution Board Diesel Generator UPS
  • 35. What does a substation contains.. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS Substation Main Equipment Engineered items Auxiliary Equipment Civil Auxiliary System Structure
  • 36. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS Auxiliary System 1. Illumination system A. Indoor I. Control Room Building II. Diesel Generator Building III.Fire Fighting Pump House Building. IV.Store Room Building V. Repair Bay B. Outdoor Switchyard 2. Fire Fighting and Fire Detection System 3. Air Conditioning and Ventilation System
  • 37. What does a substation contains.. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS Substation Main Equipment Engineered items Auxiliary Equipment Civil Auxiliary System Structure
  • 38. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS Substation Structures Main Column and Beam structures Equipment supporting structures Substation Civil Foundation for gantry column & Equipment Foundation for Transformer / Reactor Control Room Building / DG, FFPH Building Outdoor Switchyard Cable Trench Surface Drainage Roads Fencing and Gate
  • 39. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATIONS A Typical Sub-Station content wise cost structure. A > Transformer / Reactor----------------------------------------- 27% B > EHV Circuit Breaker, CT, CVT, LA, Isolator, BPI------- 22% C > Control, Protection & PLCC----------------------------------- 7% D > Medium Voltage Switchgear---------------------------------- 5% E > Cables, AC/DC Aux., Lighting, Busbar etc.--------------- 16% F > Structures---------------------------------------------------------- 6% G > Civil------------------------------------------------------------------ 13% H > Erection------------------------------------------------------------- 4% 27 22% 7% 5% 16% 6% 13% 4% A B C D E F G HA B C D E F G H 27% 22% 7% 5% 16% 6% 13% 4%
  • 40. NORMS OF PROTECTION FOLLOWED BY UTILITIES FOR TRANSMISIION LINES & DISTRIBUTION LINES ( FEEDER / LINE PROTECTION ) NUMERICAL DISTANCE SCHEME (21) OR LINE DIFFERENTIAL SCHEME (87L) WITH 67N NUMERICAL DISTANCE SCHEME (21P + 21N) + in BUILT DEF RELAY(67N)765 KV LINES7. NUMERICAL DISTANCE SCHEME (21) OR LINE DIFFERENTIAL SCHEME (87L) WITH 67N NUMERICAL DISTANCE SCHEME (21P + 21N) + in BUILT DEF RELAY(67N)400 KV LINES6. SWITCHED DISTANCE SCHEME OR NUMERICAL DISTANCE SCHEME (21P+ 21N) NON SWITCHED DISTANCE SCHEME OR NUMERICAL DISTANCE SCHEME (21P + 21N)220 KV LINES5. IF MAIN-1 & MAIN-2 ARE NUMERICAL RELAYS, BOTH SHOULD BE SEPARATE MEASURING PRINCIPLES (CHARECTERESTICS), MODELS AND ALGORITHAMS (SHOULD NOT BE DUPLICATED) AND ALL FEATURES SHOULD BE AVAILABLE IN BOTH SCHEMES AND BOTH RELAYS SHOULD BE 100% REDENDENCY IN ALL ASPECTS ( COMPLEMENTARY TO EACH OTHER ) . DISSIMILAR CARRIER SCHEMES ARE TO BE SELECTED ( POTT & PUTT or BLOCK & UNBLOCK). OTHER WISE MAIN-2 MAY BE DIFFERENT MAKE OR PHASE COMPARISION PROTECTION/LINE DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION WITH BACKUP DISTANCE PROTECTION IS TO BE ADOPTED. BOTH M1 & M2 SHOULD CONTAIN DIRECTIONAL EARTH FAULT PROTECTION (67N) WITH DIRECTIONAL COMPARISION PICKUP SCHEME AS INBUILT FUNCTION. ZONE-1: 80% OF MAIN LINE ZONE-2: 100% OF MAIN LINE + 50% OF SHORTEST LINE AT OTHER END ZONE-3: 100% OF MAIN LINE + 100% OF SHORTEST LINE AT OTHER END ZONE-4: 100% OF MAIN LINE + (100% OF SHORTEST LINE + 20% OF LONGEST LINE) AT OTHER END. DIRECTIONAL O/L & E/F RELAYS WITH HIGH SET ( 67 + 67N ) SWITCHED DISTANCE SCHEME OR NUMERICAL DISTANCE SCHEME (21P+ 21N)132 KV LINES4. 66 KV LINES3. -3 O/L + E/F ( 51 + 51N )33 KV LINES2. -2 O/L + E/F ( 51 + 51N )11 KV LINES1. MAIN-2 PROTECTION/ BACKUP PROTECTIONMAIN- 1 PROTECTIONVOLTAGESr.No
  • 41. NORMS OF PROTECTION FOLLOWED BY UTILITIES FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS & AUTO TRANSFORMERS 3 OL + 1 DIR EL (51P + 67N) 400 / 132 100, 200 & 2507 HV & LV REF 64 220 / 66 31.5, 50 & 1006 66 / 33 7.5 , 16 & 252 BUCHHOLZ OVER FLUX OLTC OSR PRV/PRD OIL TEMP WDNG TEMP 132 / 33 16 , 31.5 50 & 804 765 / 400630, 750, 1000 & 150010 3 DIR OL (HIGHSET) + 1 DIR EL (HIGHSET) 3 DIR OL (HIGHSET) + 1 DIR EL (HIGHSET) 400 / 220 315, 500 & 6309 OVER LOAD ALARM RELAY + NEUTRAL CURRENT E/F RELAY 87TH/64REF ICT/AUTOTFR 220 / 132100 & 1608 2WINDINGTRANSFORMER(STAR/STAR) T Y P E 220 / 3331.5, 505 3OVERLOAD+1DIRECTIONAL EARTHFAULTRELAY(51P+67N) HVREF(64) 132 / 11 7.5 , 16 , 25 & 31.53 64REFIS1-PHHIGHIMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIALRELAY 87THIS3-PHHIGHIMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIALRELAY (PRINCPLE:CIRCULATINGCURRENT) BUCHHOLZ, OLTC OSR OIL TEMP WDNG TEMP 3OVERLOAD+1EARTHFAULT RELAY(51) 3OL+1 EL (51) NIL 87TLDIFFERENTIALRELAY (LOWIMPEDANCEPERCENTAGEBIASEDPHASESEGREGATED DIFFERENTIALRELAYPRINCIPLE:MERZPRICE) 66 / 117.5 & 161 LVHVPROTECTION SPECIAL PROTECTION ADDITIONAL PROTECTION BACK UP PROTECTION MAIN-2MAIN-1VOLTAGE RATIO IN KV CAPACITY IN MVA S.No